Comprehension Passages

Answer the following questions according to the given passages

Tennis can be played by two players in singles or by four in doubles. There is a marked-out area, the court, with a long net drawn across the centre. The object of the game is to hit the ball over the net and keep it in play until the opponent loses the point by failing to make a good return. The opposing players hit a ball to each other with rackets. They concede points to the opponent each time they hit the ball into the net, or place it outside the limits of the court. The game is played on grass, called lawn tennis, or on a hard court. Its origins go back to the sixteenth century, and the modern form of the game dates from 1873. Two of today’s most important international tennis championships are Wimbledon and the Davis Cup.


1-It is clear from the passage that tennis ……… .

  1. A) is better when played on grass than on a hard court
  2. B) requires rather expensive equipment
  3. C) is played by either two individual players or two pairs
  4. D) is generally a sport of the wealthy
  5. E) has changed little since it originated


2- The passage tells us that tennis……….. .

  1. A) was first played sometime in the 1500s
  2. B) was perfected by someone called Davis
  3. C) was a somewhat informal game until 1873
  4. D) was played without rules for centuries
  5. E) is played on extremely hard ground


3-We understand from the passage that, in tennis……… .

  1. A) the rules are not as strict as in other sports
  2. B) there are no more than two international tournaments
  3. C) people can be seriously hurt when they are hit with rackets
  4. D) one player, or pair, wins by the other’s mistakes
  5. E) players have to make a large number of strikes


A submarine is an underwater vessel. A very early type of submarine was built by the American Robert Fulton, but the submarine was not used extensively until World War I, when the Germans built a fleet of U-boats, as they called them, to attack British merchant ships. In World War II, the Germans built an even more formidable fleet of U-boats. A type of one-man or midget submarine was also developed. Today’s submarines are powered by nuclear energy, are much faster and can stay underwater for an indefinite period of time. Many are equipped with ballistic missiles which can fire at targets from beneath the waves.







4-We are informed by the author that modern submarines …….. .

  1. A) are commonly known as U-boats, as Germans call them
  2. B) are not as dangerous as the ones run on nuclear energy
  3. C) are even faster than the fastest ships on the surface
  4. D) don’t need very large crews because of advanced technology
  5. E) are capable of remaining underwater for extended periods


5- According to the passage, until World War I,……..  .

A)the principles of building a submarine was unknown outside of the USA

  1. B) the use of submarines was limited
  2. C) there were no submarines operating efficiently
  3. D) merchant ships were at risk during war times
  4. E) Germans had failed to have any victories at sea


6-We learn from the passage that today’s submarines ……….. .

  1. A) may have advanced weapon systems included in their designs
  2. B) are most effective in seas where there are huge waves
  3. C) have been designed to be used by a single person
  4. D) have one weakness, which involves the difficulty they have firing missiles through waves
  5. E) must come to the surface before firing their missiles


The solar system is the name for the Sun, and the planets with their own satellite moons, which revolve around it. It also includes the asteroids, which constitute belt of several thousand minor planets or planetoids, and various comets and meteorites, Nicolas Copernicus was the first to suggest the basic arrangement of the solar system, in contradiction to the previously held belief that the Earth was the

centre of the universe. Most astronomers now believe that if our sun can support a system of planets, then it is mathematically probable that many other suns or stars also have planets.


7-As the passage suggests, our solar system …….. .

  1. A) is unique in the universe in terms of the celestial objects it includes
  2. B) consists of much more than a star and a few planets
  3. C) is in great danger because of the large number of meteorites
  4. D) does not include a planet other than the Earth which harbours life
  5. E) is not nearly as orderly as it was previously thought









8- According to the passage, before Copernicus, ………. .

  1. A) many other scientists claimed the Earth and planets circled the Sun
  2. B) nobody had ever really considered the nature of our solar system
  3. C) much of what is known today about the universe was common knowledge
  4. D) people used to believe that the Earth was in the middle of the universe
  5. E) astronomy was simply the hobby of many uneducated amateurs


9- The belief held by many astronomers today is that our sun and its planets…….. .

  1. A) are definitely unique in the entirety of all creation
  2. B) are probably not the only such system in the universe
  3. C) could support many more planets if they had to do so
  4. D) are in relation to each other according to mathematical principles
  5. E) cause doubts as to the validity of Copernicus’ theory


As soon as early men learnt how to write, they developed a way of putting down numbers. The ancient Egyptians used a hieroglyphic  (pictorial) method of representing numbers for counting, weighing and measuring. The Greeks used an alphabetical system: alpha for 1, beta for 2 and so on. The Romans used simple stroke marks for the first three numbers, but for 5, they used a ‘V’ sign, which may originally have been represented as a hand; 10 was two Vs, linked together as a cross, forming the symbol X. Primitive tribes today still count by fives because there are five fingers on each hand: Eskimos still count in twenties. In the Middle Ages, twenty, known as a score, was a much used number; in fact, we still keep the word ‘score’ in such games as football, tennis and cricket.


10- The best title for this passage would be …. .

  1. A) The Development of Numerical Systems
  2. B) Numeracy and Literacy in the Ancient World
  3. C) How Primitive People Learnt to Write
  4. D) Ancient Methods of Counting Surviving Today
  5. E) Parallelism in the Numerical Systems of Ancient Civilisations


11- It is clearly stated in the passage that …….. .

  1. A) men learnt to put down numbers before they learnt to write
  2. B) all ancient peoples used to count in groups of fives
  3. C) only the Egyptians used numbers for weighing and measuring
  4. D) all the ancient systems of numbering were almost the same
  5. E) numbers were developed shortly after writing systems


12- The author states that, in the Middle Ages, ……… .

  1. A) Roman numerals had lost their influence
  2. B) football, tennis and cricket were popular pastimes
  3. C) people used to count In twenties
  4. D) numbering systems developed close to their present forms
  5. E) there were still primitive tribes counting by finger


Military rockets filled with gunpowder were first used in 1312 by the Chinese against the Tatars. The idea caught on in the West, too, and rockets lit up the sky in 1380 in battle between Venice and Genoa. Th Indians used them against the British at the end of the 18th century. The British were impressed and Colonel William Congreve set to work on the Congreve rocket, with a rang of 1,800 metres. In 1806, during the Napoleonic wars, some 200 Congreve rockets set fire to Boulogne. This had no been part of the plan: they had actually beer aimed at shipping in the harbour. Rockets have since been also used to fire lifelines from ship to shore, to fire harpoons into the backs of whales, and of course, to launch humans into space.


13-It is clear from the passage that, originally, rockets were ……. .

  1. A) created by western inventors
  2. B) invented before gunpowder
  3. C) used exclusively in warfare
  4. D) developed by the Tatars
  5. E) unsuccessfully used in battle

14- The author informs us that Sir William Congreve …………  .

A)set fire to the French town, Boulogne

  1. B) was the inventor of the first effective rockets
  2. C) played a major role during the Napoleonic wars
  3. D) commanded and lost the war against the Indians
  4. E) was inspired by the Indians to develop his own rockets



15- We learn from the passage that rockets …….. .

  1. A) have only been used in war and in space
  2. B) have a maximum range of 1.800 metres
  3. C) always have a destructive purpose
  4. D) are also used by ships to call for help
  5. E) are no longer used in war in any way
















Aspirin, the most common pain relieves known  today, was first  produced commercially in 1899. The Bayer AG, now of Leverskin. Germany, manufactured Aspirin in powder form. Aspirin, a trade name, or acetylsalicylic acid, however. had first been synthesised In 1853 by Karl Gerhardt, an Alsatian chemist. Unfortunately, its value as a pain reliever  was not recognised until 1899, when Heinrich Dresser published a paper about its effectiveness. Thereafter, Dr. Felix Hoffman, who worked for Bayer, succeeded in manufacturing it in a form pure enough to be used as a medical remedy. First available only on a limited scale as a prescription medicine in Germany. Aspirin gained wide usage when Bayer began retailing it in tablet form in



16-According to the passage, acetylsalicylic acid, or Aspirin ……  .

  1. A) was first sold in powder form
  2. B) was invented in Germany in 1899
  3. C) was sold to the public in 1853
  4. D) was perfected in 1915
  5. E) was originally produced in pill form


17- It’s clear from the passage that Aspirin’s medical value

  1. A) was made known by Heinrich Dresser
  2. B) was available to the public from 1853
  3. C) was publicised by Karl Gerhardt
  4. D) led to the creation of a newspaper
  5. E) as a painkiller was widely recognised in 1853


18- The author states that Aspirin……… .

  1. A) has been available in tablet form since 1899

B)became popular worldwide In 1899

  1. C) was first sold by Bayer in 1915

D)was Initially only available after seeing a doctor

  1. E) was commonly used in Germany prior to 1915


The Sahara desert in north Africa stretches eastwards from the Atlantic to the Red Sea and southwards from the Mediterranean to the grasslands and tropical forests of equatorial Africa. It has an area of about 8 million square kilometres and is the world’s largest desert region. The world’s highest temperatures have been recorded in the Western Sahara. The traditional inhabitants have been the nomadic Berbers and Arabs moving from oasis to oasis: but vast areas remain totally uninhabited. There is the evidence of recent severe draughts in parts of Nigeria and neighbouring countries to suggest that the Sahara is expanding southwards. On the other hand, there are plans to irrigate some areas; also, the desert has valuable deposits of oil, iron ore phosphates and uranium.








19- The passage tells us that the Sahara desert …… .

  1. A) contains grasslands and tropical forests
  2. B) is between two oceans to the east and west
  3. C) lies to the south of equatorial Africa
  4. D) covers one eighth of Africa
  5. E) has the Red Sea on its eastern boundary


20- The Berbers and the Arabs of the Sahara …….. .

  1. A) have established major settlements there
  2. B) moved to the area in fairly recent times
  3. C) fight over the right to settle in oasis areas
  4. D) inhabit most areas of the Sahara desert
  5. E) have not settled In the desert but moved around


21- We can assume from the passage that the Sahara may prove useful in the future because……  .

  1. A) It is growing and expanding towards the south
  2. B) there are large amounts of necessary minerals there
  3. C) it may be uniting with Nigeria and other countries
  4. D) it may be used to irrigate neighbouring countries
  5. E) it will probably continue to remain uninhabited


Relativity is the name for two theories of physics presented by Albert Einstein in 1905 and 1915 respectively, as the Special and General Theories of Relativity. Through them he showed that speed and position are relative things and that there are no absolute measurements for time and space. He also stated that matter and energy are interchangeable, a concept that has had considerable bearing on the development of nuclear physics. In this century, Einstein’s Theories of Relativity have revolutionised ideas about the nature of matter and the universe, as Sir Isaac Newton’s laws of gravity had done to scientific thinking two centuries earlier.


22- According to the passage, Einstein’s theories state that…………. .


  1. A) there are no definite ways to determine time or location
  2. B) things can be measured by either special or general means
  3. C) how fast something goes, and where it is, are fixed values
  4. D) before 1905, scientists looked at the universe in the wrong way
  5. E) there’s simply no point in worrying about either time or space











23- As stated in the passage, Einstein claimed that…………. .


  1. A) matter and energy are really exactly the same thing
  2. B) nobody really knows the true nature of matter
  3. C) nuclear energy is definitely the best form of energy
  4. D) the true nature of energy doesn’t really matter
  5. E) matter and energy can be changed into each other


24- The passage suggest that Newton and Einstein ………… .


  1. A) greatly influenced each other and their respective theories
  2. B) have each had profound influence on modern scientific thought
  3. C) were respectful to each other’s theories
  4. D) suffered a great deal due to their revolutionary ideas
  5. E) offer distinct theories in direct contradiction to each other


Native Americans are often called “Indians”. This is one result of Columbus’s mistaken belief that he had landed in India. His successors passed down many other inaccurate descriptions of the Native Americans. They  were described as savages, though it was whites who slaughtered hundreds of thousands of them. They were called lazy, although it was whites who forced them to give up their traditional occupations. These false ideas about Native Americans were strengthened by the ways whites described themselves. White settlers were known as .’pioneers’ though they were really invaders and thieves; when they stole the Native Americans’ land, it was called “home steading”. not robbery.


25- According to the author, the words used to describe whites.

  1. A) do not reflect reality
  2. B) actually describe the Arneric8n Indians
  3. C) are a little exaggerated
  4. D) are no longer valid in modem times
  5. E) are now being questioned by some whites


26-The conclusion that can he derived from the passage is that

  1. A) India would be a safer place for Native Americans
  2. B) it was very dangerous to be a pioneer in the New World
  3. C) white settlers, brought civilisation to the savage parts of America
  4. D) the traditional occupations of Native Americans required little effort
  5. E) Native Americans have been treated badly in many ways






27- Anyone reading the page can understand that the author  …………………… .

A)is himself an American Indian

  1. B) is a historian who specialises in American History
  2. C) favours the American Indians
  3. D) is a white who resents his own race
  4. E) blames Columbous for the sufferings of the American Indians


Although there was scientific evidence linking smoking and lung cancer in the 1950s, acceptance was slow. Each decade brought more evidence and more forceful warnings. Now It is absolutely clear that tobacco is truly a “killer weed”, and is a bigger public health threat than all other drugs combined, including alcohol. For example, though lung cancer is not a common disease, almost all lung cancers occur in smokers. Smoking is also estimated to be related to about 30% of all other types of cancer, to about 30% of deaths resulting from heart disease, and 80-90% of deaths from chronic obstructive lung disease.


28- The passage states that

A)there has always been abundant evidence that smoking causes cancer

  1. B) almost all smokers develop lung cancer
  2. C) lung cancer was not very common among smokers until 1950s
  3. D) smokers tend to use all 6ther drugs, including alcohol
  4. E) it took a long time for people to believe that smoking was dangerous


29-Tohacco…………… .

  1. A) was known to cause lung cancer even before the 1950s
  2. B) has become more dangerous every decade since the 1950s
  3. C) is less dangerous to the health than alcohol
  4. D) causes more illness than all other drugs
  5. E) is related to most cases of heart disease


30- We can conclude from the page that ……..  .

  1. A) smoking was less dangerous in the 1950s
  2. B) it is very dangerous for one’s health to drink alcohol
  3. C) all the dangers of smoking have been known since the 1950s
  4. D) smoking is more dangerous than it was once thought to be
  5. E) tobacco becomes deadly when it is combined with alcohol











In Japan there is a custom called miai. It is a meeting between a man and a woman on the understanding that they may choose to marry one another. This meeting is arranged by a “go-between”. Usually an older person who knows both partners. For example, a teacher may try to match a former student with a relative. First of all, photographs and family backgrounds are exchanged. After that, if they agree, the couple meet either at the go-between’s house or at a restaurant. The go-between introduces them, then leaves them to talk by themselves. They might go to a movie or a coffee shop. Later they report to the go-between on whether they want to meet again. Ideally, they will agree to marry after several meetings.


31-According to the passage, miai is a custom which…………..  .

  1. A) often forces the young people they have never met
  2. B) is arranged for the young by total strangers
  3. C) sometimes leads the people involved to marriage
  4. D) helps keep the divorce rate in Japan quite low
  5. E) gives parents a total control over their children’s marriage


32- If, after the first meeting, the couple decide to meet again, ………. .

  1. A) this is a sure sign that they will get married
  2. B) the next thing they’ll do is to contact their go-between for a second meeting
  3. C) they will no longer need the assistance of another person
  4. D) they have to choose a luxurious place where they’ll come together again
  5. E) it is the custom to have the second meeting at the go-between’s house


33-We understand from the passage that a “go-between”……… .

  1. A) is a professional who earns his or her living by introducing people
  2. B) is a former teacher of either of the partners but who knows the other as well
  3. C) is a photographer who usually takes photographs of young people
  4. D) is someone who is hoping to find a husband or wife
  5. E) is often an older friend or acquaintance, who introduces two young people


Tourism often has negative results for local communities. Tourists go to museums, buy souvenirs, enjoy the beaches and See the sights without interacting with the local people. For this reason, local people often see visitors only as a source of money. There is no interaction at all except over money, and so there is no mutual respect. When young people see visitors with plenty of cash they may grow unhappy with their traditional way of life. There may be environmental changes as homes and villages are often destroyed to make way for hotels. Although tourism brings in money, it leaves behind problems like discontented young people and environmental damage.

34- According to the passage, …………….. .

  1. A) local people regard tourists with respect
  2. B) most tourists respect local customs and traditions
  3. C) young local people are happy to show off their traditions
  4. D) local people regard tourists as a source of ready money
  5. B) tourism is an important way of achieving international understanding


35- The author believes that ……………  .

A)tourists learn a lot from museums

  1. B) tourism encourages cultural interaction between tourists and local people
  2. C) many local communities need tourism to survive
  3. D) money earned from tourism is more important than the environment
  4. E) tourism is harmful as well as helpful


36-One can conclude from the passage that ………….. .

  1. A) tourism is not. on balance, a good thing for local communities
  2. B) making and selling souvenirs is a good way to keep up local traditions
  3. C) tourists generally go away with happy memories
  4. D) tourism always leads to discontent
  5. E) the world is becoming a smaller place


Readers of factual material should bear in  mind this aspect: their authors, like authors of fiction, have beliefs and theories that affect the way they present their subject matter. For example, a British professor’s account of the American Revolution would be different from the version written by a professor from the United States. Because of national loyalties, the two scholars might look at the events from different angles: the former as a colonial rebellion on a distant continent, and the second as a struggle for personal freedom. The two authors would write from different points of view and express certain opinions because they have different ways of looking at the subject.


37-The best statement to summarise the passage is that ………. .

  1. A) fact and fiction actually refer to the same thing
  2. B) the American Revolution was a struggle for personal freedom
  3. C) American scholars are more objective than British authors
  4. D) even facts can be interpreted differently by different people
  5. E) there was no personal freedom in America before the Revolution









38-The writer believes that ………..  .

  1. A) authors from different countries will always have cultural conflicts
  2. B) scholars from the United States understand their history better than British scholars do
  3. C) readers should prefer fictional books to factual ones
  4. D) it is right to struggle for personal freedom
  5. E) authors also reflect their own ideas when presenting facts


39- It is implied in the passage that ………… .

  1. A) some factual books are not really worth reading
  2. B) some authors purposely try to deceive their readers
  3. C) a reader of factual material should be aware of the author’s background

D} an author’s point of view is less important than the facts he presents

  1. E) there are always two ways of looking at facts


Medieval Christians confronted Muslims chiefly in military crusades, in Spain and the Holy land, and in theology. From this encounter came the restoration of ancient learning to the West. The Reconquista in Spain gradually pushed the Moors south from the Pyrenees, and among the treasures left behind were Arabic translations of Greek works of science and philosophy. In 1085 the city of Toledo, with one of the finest libraries in Islam, fell to the Christians. Among the occupiers were Christian monks who quickly began the process of translating ancient works into Latin. By the end of the 12th century, much of the ancient heritage was again available to the Latin West.


40-The topic of the passage is …………. .

  1. A) the military confrontation between Muslims and Christians
  2. B) why Medieval Christians were ignorant of ancient learning
  3. C) the cruelty of the war between Muslims and Christians
  4. D) the great classical library of Toledo, Spain
  5. E) how Medieval Christians benefited from their conquest of Moorish Spain


41- Some of the books in Arabic that Christians captured with the conquest of Toledo……… .

  1. A) also had copies written them written in Latin
  2. B) contained invaluable information about the birth of Christianity
  3. C) had originally been translated from Greek
  4. D) had been seized from the Spanish by Muslims
  5. B) helped Christians progress faster than the Islamic world










42- The passage implies that, over the years, ancient Europe ……….. .

  1. A) had become the most advanced part of the world
  2. B) had adopted the Islamic science and philosophy
  3. C) had surpassed the Islamic world in many areas

D)had had its heritage of ancient Greek science and philosophy stolen

E)had used Toledo as a centre of science and knowledge


As a biological concept, race refers to a large group of people who share certain inherited physical characteristics. These characteristics may include particular skin colour, head shape, hair type, nose shape or blood type. One common classification of races recognises three groups: Caucasoid, Mongoloid and Negroids, all of whom have different coloured skin and other differing characteristics. However, there are at least two important problems with such a classification of races. First, some groups fit into none of these categories, like people of the Indian subcontinent who have Caucasoid features but dark skin. The other problem is that, with so many intermarriages, there are no pure races today.


43-We understand from the passage that a race……

A)has become a branch of biology in modem times

B)is a characteristic that is learnt rather than inherited

C)is a large group of people who are physically similar

D)is the general term which means physical appearance

  1. E) refers to social status of people rather than physical features


44-It is clear from the passage that ….

A)skin colour is the only reliable determining factor in classifying races

B)a common way of classifying races is inadequate

C)many people in India are actually Negroids

D)it is always obvious which race a particular person belongs to

E)pure races present no problems to the biologist


45-One idea emphasised in the passage is that……..

A)some races are superior to others

B)there are only’ a few pure races in the world

C)biological classification of the human species has some drawbacks

D)a new classification of races should be developed

E)it is more difficult to classify races than it would seem at first sight











America is almost completely dependent on the automobile, and this has been a terrible mistake. Even in the 1950s, a large percentage of Americans used public transport. But the big car manufacturers wanted them to buy cars, and local governments cooperated with the manufacturers, with the result that countless excellent tramway and rail systems were destroyed. Today, the entire American lifestyle is dictated by the motor car. Homes are far from work, and shopping is far from everything. In between there is nothing but ugly stretches of concrete or asphalt roads for the motor car.


46- The author believes that today, …………

  1. A) tramway and rail systems are not enough to meet the needs of the increasing population

B)local governments are more inclined to consider what is best for the people

C)what is good for the big car manufacturers is good for the United States in general

D)almost everyone in the United States owns a car

E)the motor car is the most significant single factor in the American lifestyle

47- Th. passage implies that  in the united States, public transport…………… .

A)is no longer very good

B)cooperated with local governments after the 1950s

C)destroys the natural environment

  1. D) has never been considered comfortable

E)has been used by more and more. people since the 1950s


48-According to the p-age. American landscape ………………… .

A)is made up of spectacular scenery

  1. B) has been spoiled by the roads extending through it

C)has become more accessible with the widespread use of the car

D)looks better when one drives through it in a car

E)is too far for the people to get there without the automobile


In the world we live in, the aggressive person, the one who is forceful in his or her demands, is usually the one who gets the biggest salary and the best job. Since men are traditionally trained from an early age to be aggressive, they are the ones most often picked for the most important positions. Many people criticise this situation, and feel that women have an equal contribution to make in science and industry.; Some have gone so far as to suggest that girls should be given aggression lessons in school. This does not mean that every little girl should take boxing lessons. One suggestion is for games that teach competition.









49- It is Clear from the passage that ………

  1. A) aggression is not acceptable according to moral values
  2. B) women hide their natural aggression, but it can easily be brought out
  3. C) boxing can stimulate the potential aggression in women
  4. D) it generally pays to be aggressive
  5. E) the most respected jobs are also the best paid


50-One conclusion we can derive from the page is that women …..

  1. A) have to fight the prejudice held against them in society
  2. B) should not be employed in extremely competitive sectors
  3. C) have already taken part in science and industry despite their lack of aggression
  4. D) are less successful than man even at school
  5. E) are presently at a disadvantage when it comes to getting the top jobs


51-We can conclude from the passage that …………

  1. A) there would be fewer wars if science and industry were controlled by women
  2. B) science and industry would benefit by hiring less aggressive people
  3. C) people can be. trained to be competitive
  4. D) women in general find working in science and industry unpleasant

E)boxing is not popular among women because it is too competitive


Getting a Ph.D. Doctor of Philosophy degree, is the highest academic achievement in the United States. Normally, only professors with Ph.Dr. are hired by universities. However, the Ph.Dr. is a research degree, not a teaching degree. This means that many professors in American colleges and universities have no Idea how to teach. Their lectures are often dull, and they do not know how to communicate with their students. The irony is that while the Ph.Dr. is vital to getting a university Job, and that many people spend years to acquire that qualification for this aim, it does not prepare them for the Job at all.


52-what is emphasized in the passage is that ………….

  1. A) the PhD is useful for any qualified teacher
  2. B) the process of getting a PhD is rather dull
  3. C) the PhD is the highest degree of the profession of teaching
  4. D) professors teaching in the USA are not actually trained for the Job

E)educational standards are low in American schools despite their hiring professors for teaching.






53-From what is stated in the passage. we can assume that most people study for a Ph.D.… .

A)to become researchers at universities rather than teachers

B)so that they can be hired as teachers by universities

C)so as to acquire teaching skills

D)for the express purpose of spending years acquiring a qualification

E)in order to be able to communicate with a wider range of people


54- It is implied in the passage that, considering the situation at American universities today

A)a PhD is useless for practical teaching purposes

B)it is not worth trying to get employed at a university

C)university teachers are no more knowledgeable than ordinary college teachers

D)getting a PhD is not as difficult as it would look

E)anyone with enough time can get a PhD


At a recent performance of Shakespeare’s “The Merchant of Venice”, school children who had been given free tickets were accused of misbehaving. They chatted, laughed. threw rubbish, and walked in and out during the performance. Legitimate theatre-goers were outraged and some even demanded their money back. Yet a little reflection should remind us that this is the way audiences usually behaved during the original performances of Shakespeare’s work. In fact, the playwright himself would probably be more comfortable with the unruly teenagers than with the more sedate audiences thought of as normal today.


55-In Shakespeare’s own times ………… .

A)his plays were already recognised as great literature

B)audiences were often undisciplined

  1. C) children weren’t allowed into the theatre halls

D)only the rich went to see his plays

  1. E) no one would consider creating a disturbance during a performance


56- The author believes that ………. .

A)everyone should be exposed to great literature

B)it is a waste to give free tickets to school children

C)Shakespeare himself might have

preferred the way the school children behaved

D)Shakespeare is the greatest author in the English language

E)the school children should have been better prepared for their visit to the theatre


57-It is stated in the passage that …………. .

A)the performance was too bad to attract children’s attention

B)Shakespeare’s plays are not suitable for young audiences

C)the theatre lost money as they had to give the rest of the audience their money back

D)children should be informed of Shakespeare’s work before they go to see a play

E)some of the audience asked for refunds because of children’s attitude

When men first went into space in the late 1950’s, everyone expected that space trave would develop far faster than it actually has within ten years of the first man orbiting the Earth, men were actually walking on the surface of the Moon. It was at that point that more problems arose. A series of disasters led to the highly publicised deaths of number of astronauts and cosmonauts Added to that, the cost of manned space flight became literally “astronomical”. While there are manned space stations orbiting the Earth today, most people in the 60s would have expected a moon base, and certainly  manned landing on Mars by this time.


58-In the late 1950………….. .

A)men were walking on the moon

B)many astronauts and cosmonauts lost their lives

C)space travel developed far faster than It does now

D)most people expected a great deal from space programs

E)mankind had not yet ventured into space


59-It is clear from the passage that……

A)advances in space travel have not kept up with earlier expectations

B)space travel is one of the most important technological achievements of recent years

C)until a few decades ago, few people realised how expensive space travel would be

D)poverty and famine are, in part, caused by expensive space travel

E)there will soon be a manned landing on Mars


60-It is stated in the passage that, until the late 196Os,………

A)there were relatively few problems with the space program

B)man still hadn’t achieved a major success in his space venture

C)the number of astronauts with a good astronomical knowledge was small

D)the space technology was not advanced enough to prevent accidents

E)people did not believe that man could walk on the Moon



















The potato plant is native to the Peruvian Andes. It was cultivated in Peru and Bolivia and, along with corn, was the main food of the Incas. It was introduced into Europe by 16th-century Spanish explorers.  Initially, the potato was avoided as a food by Europeans.  It was supposedly endowed with powers such as the ability to cure certain illnesses, and so long as the plant remained rare in Europe, its price often reached astronomical heights.   By 1573, however, it was being grown in Spain, and shortly thereafter in the Netherlands and in Switzerland.


61-The potato………….. .

A)was the favourite food of 16th-century Spanish explorers

  1. B) used to be served with corn by the Incas
  2. C) was spread to the rest of the world from the Peruvian Andes

D)has only been known to Europeans for less than five decades

E)is now more common in Europe although it was originally grown in Peru and Bolivia


62-At first, Europeans…………………… .

A)were hesitant to use the potato as a foodstuff

B)didn’t find potatoes delicious enough to be worth eating

C)were able to grow potatoes in astronomical sizes

D)didn’t know how to produce potatoes in large quantities

E)were not aware of the curative value of the potato plant


63-We can infer from the passage that, in Europe, the potato

A)didn’t grow as big as It was In Bolivia and Peru

B)began to be sold at reasonable prices only after It became more common

C)has only been grown in Spain, the Netherlands, and Switzerland

D)is the most common foodstuff today

E)was only eaten by the sick for a long time


Hand-made paper has been produced in Velke Losiny, North Moravia since the beginning of the 16th century. Established by the Zevotin family, the actual manufacturing site used to be a unique wooden workshop built from the remains of a flour mill. The written records state that this paper mill, which was soon followed by others, began its operation between 1592 and 1596. Other documents, such as the remains of the oldest surviving paper samples, have watermark imprints with the year 1596 and the Zerotin’s family coat of arms. The production of hand-made paper didn’t prove very profitable for the Zerotins as there were a few similar paper mills in the area which stiffened the competition.






64-We can conclude from the passage that

A)hand-made paper is only found in North Moravia

B)paper In North Moravia is no longer made by hand but by machine

C)paper was only introduced to Moravia a hundred years ago

D)the tradition of making paper by hand is nearly five centuries old in North Moravia

E)North Moravian paper is renowned throughout the world for its fine quality


65-It’s clear from the passage that

  1. A) the first paper mill was designed specifically for making paper
  2. B) the Zerotins used to be bread makers before they started making paper
  3. C) many documents were written about the paper mills in North Moravia
  4. D) the first paper mill only worked for four years before it went bankrupt
  5. E) pieces of paper bearing the emblem of the Zerotin family still exist


66-The passage states that, because of the rivalry with the other paper mills, the Zerotins …………..

A)couldn’t produce good quality paper

B)had to start producing machine-made paper

C)did not make much money

D)had to lower their prices

E)were forced to close down their mill


Herman Melville, known primarily as the author of Moby-Dick, the story of Captain Ahab’s maniacal search for revenge against Moby-Dick, the beautiful, white whale that had injured and left him disabled, is widely regarded as one of America’s greatest and most influential novelists. A major figure in that group of eminent pre-Civil War writers – often called the American Romantics – who created a new and vigorous national literature, he is also one of the most notable examples of an American author whose work went largely unrecognised in his own time and who died in obscurity, believing himself a failure.


67-According to the passage Herman Melville ……… .

A)was left disabled by a white whale

B)helped Captain Ahab to take his revenge from Moby-Dick

C)wrote mainly about the pre-Civil War period

  1. D) only became well-known after his death
  2. E) used animals very often as the main characters of his stories









68-It’s Implied In the passage that Moby-Dick…………… .

A)was eventually killed by Captain Ahab

B)was Herman Melville’s most famous work

C)could never be found by Captain Ahab

D)was one of the biggest whales seen around America

E)caught the attention of the literary critics after the Civil War


69-The passage tells us that the “American Romantics”…….. .

A)were not usually recognised in their own life-times

B)considered Herman Melville to be a failure

C)protested the Civil War by not writing anything about it

D)were strongly opposed to the American Civil War

E)started a new phase in American literature


Traditional Slovakian folk instruments include the fujara, a two-metre long flute, the gajdy, or the bagpipe, and the korukovka, a strident shepherd’s flute. Folk songs helped preserve the Slovak language during the millennium of Hungarian control. Even today, an aspect of Slovakian nationalism is pride in the mother tongue and Slovaks can get angry when other Slavic languages are spoken instead of theirs. Another tradition, which keeps Slovakian culture alive, is the dancing which accompanies the music. While the songs tell of love, grief, anticipation and celebration, vigorous dancing removes the uncertainty of life.


70-It’s stated in the passage that…………..

A)folk songs prevented the Slovak language from dying

B)the folk instruments are chiefly played by the Slovak farmers and shepherds

C)Slovakian songs use a different language for the lyrics

D)the traditional Slovakian folk instruments have their origins in the Hungarian culture

E)very few people know how to play Slovakian music nowadays


71-It’s emphasised in the passage that the Slovakian culture…………….. .

A)survived the long period of Hungarian rule through its music and dancing

B)gradually became forgotten as people spoke other languages in preference to Slovakian

C)was deeply affected by the cultures of other peoples in the region

D)has been best carried up to today by shepherds and peasants

E)was not passed down to the younger generations very successfully







72-The passage suggests that dancing ……………. .

A)used to be more vigorous In early Slovakian society

B)complements the music in Slovakian culture

C)symbolised the frustration of being born human

D)was not as popular as singing until recently

E)is only performed at special celebrations today


Mata Hari was the stage name of a Dutch dancer, Margaretha Geertruida Zelle, who was accused of spying for the Germans in France during World War I. An erotic dancer, she performed in Paris. Berlin, London, and Rome before the war and, as a neutral, continued to move about freely and perform during the war. Among her many lovers were high-ranking Allied military officers, from whom she is alleged to have gleaned valuable information that she passed on to the Germans. Arrested in Paris in 1917, she was tried by court martial and sentenced to death. Opinion is divided as to whether she was really a spy or not.


73-We can infer from the author’s statement that

  1. A) lack of solid evidence prevented court martial from sentencing Mata Hari to death
  2. B) some high-ranking Allied military officers were also involved in the espionage
  3. C) there are people who believe that Mata Hari was innocent of the charge
  4. D) it was French officers who made it known that Mata Hari was a German spy
  5. E) Mata Hari moved from country to country in order to escape arrest


74- Margaretha Geertruida Zelle was……… .

  1. A) the person who forced Mata Hari to spy for the Germans
  2. B) the actual name of the dancer known as Mata Hari
  3. C) the Dutch dancer who accused Mata Hari of being a spy
  4. D) the name Mata Hari used when she was in France as a spy
  5. E) a Dutch woman who helped Mata Hari on the stage


75- The passage tells us that…………

  1. A) Mata Hari’s performances weren’t restricted by the war
  2. B) Mata Hari attained fame as an erotic dancer during the war
  3. C) Mata Hari used to be an unknown dancer before the war
  4. D) there was no doubt that Mata Hari was a German spy
  5. E) Mata Hari didn’t deserve to be punished by death










The term soap opera refers to serialised domestic dramas that were so named because, during the 1930s, when they were first broadcast on radio, their principal sponsors were soap companies. The plots, which often take years to unravel, usually focus on the romantic difficulties of stereotyped middle-class characters. During the 1960s, soap operas virtually disappeared from radio, but the format proved so successful on television that much of daytime programming is now given over to them. The soap-opera public, once restricted to housewives, has broadened to include every part of the national audience.


76-It’s clear from the passage that soap operas…….. .

  1. A) have an educational role for the audience
  2. B) require singers with very strong voices
  3. C) appeal mostly to middle-class viewers
  4. D) used to be watched only by housewives
  5. E) are no longer the most keenly watched programs


77- The author states that, today , ….. .

  1. A) radio programs don’t attract as much audience as TV programs
  2. B) the plots of soap operas are too dramatic to appeal to the m6dern viewer
  3. C) soap companies are not very keen to sponsor such serialised dramas
  4. D) viewers lose interest in soap operas as they continue for years
  5. E) soap operas are watched by every type of television viewer


78-One can conclude from the passage that soap operas on television………….. .

  1. A) have proved very profitable for the companies that sponsored them
  2. B) have nothing in common with the early radio programs
  3. C) reflect characters from all parts of the society
  4. D) would find more audience were they shown in the evening

E)are basically the same as the ones that used to be broadcast on the radio


The Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbour in 1941 resulted in the immediate entry of the USA into World War II. In late 1941 more than 75 US warships were based at this base. On November 26, a Japanese force departed in secret from the Kuril Islands. Observing radio Silence, it reached a launching point at 6 a.m., December 7. At 7:50 a.m., the first wave – of Japanese planes struck Pearl Harbour, bombarding airfields and battleships. A second wave followed. The surprise attack was over before 10 a.m. Approximately 2,400 Americans ‘were killed, 1,300 wounded, and 1.000 missing. Japanese losses were fewer than 100 casualties, 29 planes, and 5 submarines.




79-The passage tells us that the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour……….. .

  1. A) had been expected by the Americans
  2. B) lasted about two hours
  3. C) made the USA retreat from the war
  4. D) caused both sides almost equal losses
  5. E) was carried out by only 100 Japanese soldiers


80-According to the passage, until the bombing of Pearl Harbour, ………….. .

A)the Japanese hadn’t had any real success in the war

B)Americans had been in a more advantageous situation than the Japanese

C)Japan hadn’t lost so many soldiers and warships

D)the Kuril Islands hadn’t been used as a military base

E)the USA had remained out of World War II


81-The passage points out that……….. .

  1. A) there were 2400 Americans at the base during the attack
  2. B) 1000 Americans were taken hostage by the Japanese
  3. C) 75 US warships were sunk at Pearl Harbour
  4. D) the attack started early in the morning
  5. E) it was the second wave that caused the greatest damage at the base


Ibuprofen is a mild drug used to relieve aches and pains and to reduce inflammation. Patented in Britain in 1964, it became available there several years earlier than in the United States. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved its sale in 1984.  It may produce the same reactions experienced by people allergic to aspirin, but it is less irritating to the stomach lining. Some doctors warn of possible kidney damage in the elderly or patients with heart or kidney disease.


82- It’s clear from the passage that Ibuprofen… .

  1. A) should be preferred by those who are allergic to aspirin
  2. B) is most suitable for severe internal pains
  3. C) is similar to aspirin in certain respects
  4. D) is a drug which is used to relieve upset stomachs
  5. E) should be taken under strict control of a physician


83- We can infer from the passage that… .

  1. A) aspirin can irritate the stomach lining
  2. B) Ibuprofen is less expensive than aspirin
  3. C) Ibuprofen was available only in Britain before 1984
  4. D) Britain was more technologically advanced in the 1960s than the USA
  5. E) it is better to suffer minor aches and pains than to take Ibuprofen


84- As the passage suggests  Ibuprofen…….. .

  1. A) was produced as an alternative to aspirin.
  2. B) does the greatest harm to kidneys
  3. C) cannot be used safely for all patients
  4. D) was banned in the USA in 1984
  5. E) is widely used in Britain and in the USA


For people who have lost the power of speech, the voice synthesiser is wonderful. All they have to do is type what they want to say on a lap top computer, and their words are changed into sound. However, when we speak, we use intonation and stress to give extra meaning to what we say, and up to now, computerised voices have not been able to do this. This makes it difficult to express things like urgency or irony. But new developments allow the user to add emphasis to what they are saying, choose a voice of the same sex and approximate age, and even to choose a similar regional accent.


85- The voice synthesiser …………….. .

A)is a way of helping people with no voices to communicate

B)is a device which intensifies the voices of mute people, thus enabling them to speak

C)is a big help for all handicapped people

D)has revolutionised the lives of deaf people

E)gives the best performance when attached to a laptop computer


86- It’s stated in the passage that the sound produced by the voice synthesiser ……… .

A)is sometimes not clearly audible

B)does not change depending on the age and sex of the user

C)lacks certain qualities a natural voice has

D)is difficult to produce in times of emergency

E)ignores the regional accent of the place where the user lives


87-The passage emphasises that ………. .

A)until recent developments, the voice synthesiser was almost useless

B)recent developments have made the voice synthesiser more lifelike

C)anyone who can use a laptop computer should use a voice synthesiser

D)urgency and irony are difficult for most people to convey

E)someday  we will all be able to speak using computers


The Roman Empire ruled the Mediterranean world from about 500 B.C. to about 500 A.D., almost a millennium. From a base around Rome, it spread out to cover North Africa, the Middle East and Northern Europe. It had a complex governmental structure and a bureaucracy which enabled it to administer the areas it conquered. The people surrounding the Empire were barbarians and nomads. Some of these, who were semi-Romanised, were used as buffer states in defence of the Empire, which, to some extent, ensured its existence for centuries. Towards the end of the Empire’s rule, some of these buffer states revolted. The final collapse occurred when the German and Slavic barbarians from the buffer states broke through the defences and the Roman Empire fell to the Germans.


88-The passage states that ……….

  1. A) the Roman Empire ruled the world for about five centuries
  2. B) in the end, semi-Romanised barbarians proved to be the greatest threat to the Roman Empire
  3. C) the German tribes always hated the Roman Empire
  4. D) the final collapse of the Roman Empire was caused by the failure of its bureaucracy
  5. E) the Roman Empire was the greatest Empire of all times


89-The Roman Empire…………..

  1. A) lasted longer than any other empire
  2. B) was a democracy except in the buffer states
  3. C) ruled so brutally that its people rebelled
  4. D) fell because it was administered so inefficiently
  5. E) was surrounded by barbarians and nomads


90-The passage suggests that the long existence of the Roman Empire was partly because ……. .

  1. A) it had the largest and strongest army in the Mediterranean then
  2. B) it was the largest single power in the region
  3. C) they combined an efficient bureaucracy with a clever military strategy
  4. D) the barbarians in the buffer states were semi-Romanised
  5. E) the German and Slavic rebellions were successfully crushed


Proverbs, an important part of conversation all over Africa, contain advice on behaviour or observations on human nature. Many are entertaining because they express ideas in a surprising way. Instead of saying, “Be careful,” a Ewe might say, ‘The housefly does not play a sticky drum.” When a Kikuyu says, ‘The staring frogs do not prevent cattle from drinking,” he means, “Don’t worry about other people’s opinions.” Riddles, another common way to maintain conversation, usually take the form of a statement, not a question. So, in the riddle “People run away from her when she is pregnant, but they rejoice when she has delivered,” the question “What is it?”, to which the answer is “a gun, is understood. Often the riddle is intended to display the questioner’s imagination rather than to test the cleverness of the audience.


91-The purpose of riddles in conversation …………… .

  1. A) is usually to challenge the person who is being asked them
  2. B) is often to show the creativity of the person saying them
  3. C) is said to be a sort of intelligence test of the audience
  4. D) can be to confuse the people who are directed at
  5. E) be misunderstood by the speaker and the audience





92- According to the passage, in Africa, both riddles and proverbs …….. .

  1. A) are means by which conversation can be kept up
  2. B) can only be found in certain parts of the continent
  3. C) show a lack of concern for the listeners’ feelings
  4. D) always describe human behaviour in animalistic terms
  5. E) are mainly used to pass traditions and ideas onto younger generations


93- The author tells us that African proverbs……… .

A)are the primary form of entertainment in most parts of Africa

B)frequently surprise non-African people because they are not expected

  1. C) are used to give advice or comment on the way people act
  2. D) are the sole form of human conversation throughout Africa
  3. E) can easily be confused with riddles as the two are similar


The weather forecast for the next century in England is not very good. Winters will have heavy rain leading to frequent flooding, gales will cause damage to trees and buildings and storms and high tides will threaten the coast. Summers will be drier with frequent droughts, particularly in the south and east of England, with many more days over 25 C – when cities become uncomfortably hot, having negative effects upon people’s work performance. Events like Easter’s floods in the Midlands, described in the official report as happening once in 100 years, will occur at least every 10 years, as will other extreme weather events.


94- The best way to summarise England’s weather forecast for the next century would be that…………. .

  1. A) England is going to have plenty of water shortages
  2. B) both winters and summers will be more extreme
  3. C) buildings and trees will be damaged by the weather
  4. D) here will be lots of floods, causing great damage to coastal regions
  5. E) it may not be safe to live in a coastal town in England


95-According to the forecast of England’s weather, in winter….. .

  1. A) trees are going to fall down and damage buildings
  2. B) storms will only affect the regions on the coast
  3. C) floods will be common, caused by heavy down-pours
  4. D) there are going to be water shortages in some places
  5. E) Easter’s floods will occur once in 100 years






96- It’s mentioned in the passage that temperatures over 25 C ……… .

  1. A) have never so far been recorded in England
  2. B) are not actually a problem for countries in the southern hemisphere
  3. C) are only bearable in England’s’ coastal towns
  4. D) create discomfort in England’s cities and, thus, poor working conditions
  5. E) will increase the number of people flooding to the coast


In the 19th century, sugar cane became a major crop in the Hawaiian Islands. Rats, which came ashore from ships, began nesting in the cane and causing considerable damage. Because the mongoose, a small mammal from India, was known to be an excellent rat hunter, they were imported and a law was made against hunting them. After only a few years, the rat population was significantly reduced. However, at the same time the mongoose population increased, and went looking for new sources of food: young pigs and goats, for example. They also began to destroy the native animals that ate the insects causing damage to sugar cane. Soon the mongoose became a bigger problem than the rats had ever been, and to this day they are a major pest in the Hawaiian Islands.


97-One generalisation we can make from the passage is that, ……….. .

  1. A) despite the harm it causes, the mongoose is an important pet in the Hawaiian Islands
  2. B) the mongoose likes domesticated animals like pigs and goats better than rats
  3. C) rats were deliberately spread from their original habitat all over the world on ships
  4. D) sugar cane is one of the most difficult crops in the world to grow
  5. E) man’s attempts to change an environment may not always come out as he’s intended


98-We can infer from the passage that some animals native to the Hawaiian Islands

  1. A) feed exclusively on sugar cane
  2. B) are declining in number because of the pesticides used against the mongoose
  3. C) have been exterminated by the mongoose
  4. D) form a bigger threat to sugar cane than the mongoose
  5. E) eat insects and thus help reduce damage to sugar cane


99-Compared to the rat, the mongoose…….. .

  1. A) eats more sugar cane
  2. B) increases in number more quickly
  3. C) was hunted by man in greater numbers

D)causes more damage in the long run

  1. E) is not as good at surviving in a new environment






In the year 1920, the United States attempted a hold experiment: making the drinking of alcohol a crime. Many people, who felt that alcohol was the root of all evil, thought that this would bring about a new and happier age. There would be no more need for prisons, they felt, and slums would disappear. However, in the end, new prisons had to be built for all the new criminals created by the new law. “Prohibition”, as the law was called, destroyed respect for the law and led to an increase in organised crime, but it did not stop people from drinking. On the contrary, drinking increased during the Prohibition period. In the end, the law had to be reversed.


100 The author of the passage states that…… .

  1. A) Prohibition only helped increase the consumption of alcoholic drinks
  2. B) Prohibition could have stopped people from drinking alcohol, had it been applied effectively
  3. C) drinking alcohol is the cause of most crime and violence
  4. D) there were fewer prisons in the United States after l920
  5. E) drinking alcohol was the main reason for the emergence of slum areas


101-It is clear from the passage that…….. .

  1. A) the law had the opposite effect from what was intended
  2. B) the number of Americans who obeyed the law was smaller than those who didn’t
  3. C) the best way to stop people from doing something is to make a law against it
  4. D) Prohibition was the main cause of the existence of slums in the 1920s
  5. E) Americans in general like drinking alcohol


102- When the law was introduced, ………. .

A)no one thought that it would eliminate organised crime groups

B)the USA was the leading country in terms of the amount of alcohol consumed

C)some people were bold enough to fight against it

D)there were people who believed that it would really work

E)a noticeable decline was observed in the number of crimes committed by slum-dwellers


Around 8000 B.C. agriculture was developed. People had never before eaten so well, and a population increase followed. But this also meant that people had to give up their free, nomadic life, and remain tied to a single place. It also meant hard labour. Nomadism did not disappear, of course. Those who retained the old wandering way of life continued to regard themselves as freer and more noble than settled peoples, whom they would often raid. These divisions and conflicts between nomad and settled farmer continue in many parts of Africa and Asia right up to the end of the 20th century.


103-The passage states that one result of the development of agriculture was that ……… .

A)people didn’t have to work as hard as they used to

B)people began to make inventions

C)there was an improvement in people’s diet

D)nomadism gradually disappeared

E)people became less savage


104- It is clear from the passage that…….. .

  1. A) was invented after long periods of hard work
  2. B) was regarded as too difficult by nomads
  3. C) was best carried out by the people in Asia and Africa
  4. D) also helped develop people’s way of thinking
  5. E) prevented people from living as freely as before



105-From the information given in the passage, one can conclude that, in Africa and Asia ….. .

  1. A) the nomadic way of life has gained in popularity in the 20th century
  2. B) agriculture started earlier than in other continents
  3. C) nomadism. which disappeared in ancient times, has been revived in modern times
  4. D) there are still people leading a nomadic way of life
  5. E) nomads can find m6re to eat than settled farmers



Around a quarter of all prescription drugs sold around the world are believed to be based on chemicals obtained from only forty plant species. So far, fewer than 1% of the world’s 265,000 flowering plants have been tested for their powers to cure. In the past few years, however, breakthroughs in computer technology, genetic engineering and other realms of biology have led to a “gold rush” to the rain forests and mountain ranges of the tropics, home to uncounted plant species. Here, scientists hope to profit from the traditional knowledge of tribes, which had previously been looked down on as “primitive” and “backward”.


106- From the figures in the passage, we learn that……. .

  1. A) there are only about 2,650 known species of plant in the world
  2. B) about 265,000 of the world’s flowering plants can be used as medicine
  3. C) breakthroughs in technology have diminished the interest in plants with medicinal value
  4. D) plants that can be used as medicines are worth more than gold
  5. E) around 25 percent of the world’s prescription drugs are plant-based










107- The passage tells us that tropical rain forests and mountain ranges of the tropics……. .

A)have been destroyed by the natives

B)are a rich source of plants

C)own extremely rich gold mines

D)need to be protected from those rushing there for gold

E)are home to 265,000 plant species


108-The aim of the scientists going to the rain forests and mountain ranges of the tropics is….. .

A)to extract huge amounts of gold with the help of the natives

B)to find out about the traditional ways of life of the tribes people

C)to get information from the natives about plants with medicinal value

D)to help the native peoples of the region become civilised

E)to become rich through the exploitation of the riches in the region


Given its rich resources, large population and regional importance, Nigeria’s economic performance over the past decade can only be described as disappointing. Low investment and productivity levels, as well as poor infrastructure, have led to poor output. Political instability and a terrible human rights record have frightened off many potential foreign investors. However, a new government, and a package of economic measures including an exchange rate reform, may be able to put the nation on a path to recovery and growth.



109-The author of the passage does not believe that …….. .

  1. A) Nigeria is of great regional importance
  2. B) the economic performance of the country is so bad
  3. C) Nigeria’s present government can recover the country from its bad situation
  4. D) Inviting foreign investors to the country would be a good idea
  5. E) Nigeria is characterised by political instability and a poor human rights record


110The author’s comments about Nigeria can be best summarised as that ……….. .

A)Nigeria’s economy has great potential, but has been mismanaged

B)in spite of sensible policies, Nigeria’s economy persists in performing badly

C)the state of Nigeria’s economy is hopeless

D)the most urgent thing Nigeria needs is a sensible family-planning

E)taking all factors into consideration, Nigeria is a perfect place for foreign investors





111-The main problem for the Nigerian economy has been……… .

A)an insensitive privatisation program

B)its poor resources, large population and regional importance

C)the widespread violation of human rights

D)a combination of factors resulting from bad government

E)the recent package of economic measures including an exchange rate reform


Scientists have succeeded in making human volunteers immune to malaria by injecting them with genetic material. The breakthrough brings the prospect of a much-needed vaccine significantly closer. Malaria kills between one and two minion people every year – mostly and mostly in Africa – and makes a further 500 million people ill. The hunt for a vaccine has lasted for more than 20 years. Dr Stephen Hoffman and his team of researchers have

taken from the malarial microbe, which can not cause the disease in themselves, into 20 volunteers, following successful tests on animals. The volunteers’ immune systems were found to be as good as those of people who have naturally contracted the infection through a mosquito bite and recovered.


112- The passage states that scientists……… .

A)have just been successful in finding an effective vaccine against malaria

B)illegally carried out tests on more than 500 people

C)forced people to take part in their experiment to find a cure for malaria

D)have been looking for a way to protect people from malaria for over two decades

E)have so far found approximately one million volunteers to take part in their tests


113-The passage gives us the information that malaria ……. .

A)is fatal for more than 500 million people per year

B)mostly affects aged people who live in Africa

C)will soon be eliminated from the Earth due to this discovery

D)has spread to the rest of the world from Africa

E)is a disease transmitted by mosquitoes


114-According to the passage, if someone has contracted malaria and recovered from it, …….. .

  1. A) he becomes naturally immune to the disease
  2. B) it’s quite likely that he will suffer some permanent ailments
  3. C) it is regarded as a miracle even by the scientists
  4. D) he will never be bitten by mosquitoes again
  5. E) he should be vaccinated against the disease without delay






According to a survey conducted between 1985 and 1995, there were fewer girls than boys in schools world-wide. In the 51 countries with the most significant gap, 75 million fewer girls than boys were enrolled in school. Afghanistan and Pakistan saw the greatest increases in the gap over the ten-year period, in spite of the survey being conducted before the fundamentalist Islamic Taliban militia came to power. On the other hand, a number of Middle Eastern countries, including Iran, Saudi Arabia and Lebanon, have made the biggest strides towards closing the education gap.


115-In the 51 countries with the largest gender gap in education, ………. .

  1. A) the feminist movement has made significant gains in recent years
  2. B) the number of girls attending school was gradually decreasing
  3. C) male students outnumbered female students by 75 million
  4. D) the gap between educated men and women was diminishing
  5. E) the number of females enrolled in school was only 75 million


116-We understand from the passage that the survey……… .

A)was carried out in 51 countries

B)reflects the educational states of the countries over a ten-year period

C)did not include any of the Western countries

D)was conducted under great difficulty in certain countries

E)is repeated every ten years


117- From the implication in the passage about Islamic Taliban militia, we can conclude that….. .

A)Pakistan must have achieved equality in education

B)they give girls less chance to attend school

C)they came to power using force

D)they must have stopped the survey of their educational situation

E)Pakistani people must be too busy to spend time on improving their education


If the Nobel Peace Prize were awarded for actually securing peace, many of those who have received it would have to give it back. For example, in 1994 Yasir Arafat, Yitsak Rabin, and Shimon Peres received the prize jointly, though years later Palestinians and Israelis are still fighting. Mikhail Gorbachev, who received the Prize in 1990, dissolved the Soviet Union, but left the Russian economy in collapse and its people in chaos. One of the more notorious awards went to Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho, who negotiated a cease-fire to end the Vietnam War. The war went on for two more years, and Le Duc Tho, though not Kissinger, was honest enough to decline the award.


118-What is emphasised in the passage is that the Nobel Peace Prize……….. .

  1. A) is frequently given to people who have not actually attained peace
  2. B) has mostly been given to someone from a Western country
  3. C) has to be given to a different person each year
  4. D) has, in several cases, brought about the end of bloody wars
  5. E) is always given to people who have brought about peace


119-It is clear from the passage that ……… .

A) corruption is involved in awarding the Nobel Peace Priz

B) all the people who have received the Prize should give it back

C) the end of the Soviet Union has proved beneficial for the rest of the world

D) the Nobel Peace Prize can be given to more than one person in the same year

E) the award has led to a new understanding between Israelis and Palestinians


120- The author believes that some of those who were awarded with the Nobel Peace Prize……. .

A)had, in fact, worked for their own good, not for world peace

B) returned the Prize when they were involved in a war in later years

C) had, in the first place, started the wars themselves

D)did not actually deserve it

E) were not even politicians

Answer Key

1C 2A 3D 4E 5B 6A 7B 8D 9B 10A 11E 12C 13C 14E 15D 16A 17A 18D 19E 20E 21B 22A 23E 24B 25A 26E 27C 28E 29D 30D 31C 32B 33E 34D 35E 36A 37D 38E 39C 40E 41C 42D 43C 44B 45C 46E 47A 48B 49D 50E 51C 52D 53B 54A 55B 56C 57E 58D 59A 60A 61C 62A 63B 64D 65E 66C 67D 68B 69E 70A 71A 72B 73C 74B 75A 76D 77E 78E 79B 80E 81D 82C 83 84C 85A 86C 87B 88B 89E 90D 91B 92A 93C 94B 95C 96D 97E 98E 99D 100A 101A 102D 103C 104E 105D 106E 107B 108C 109C 110A 111D 112D 113E 114A 115C 116B 117B 118A 119D 120D

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