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A Few/ Few/ A little etc.

A Few/ Few/ A little etc.

          A few and few – a little and little

1) (a) little Þ sayılamayan isimler (uncountable)     (a) few Þ  çoğulk isimler (plural)

2) a little = biraz [olumlu]      little   =  (çok) az  [olumsuz]

  • There is a little time before the train leaves. Let’s go and drink something.[1]
  • There is little time to finish this project. We can never finish it in time.[2]

3) a few = bir kaç      few   = (çok) az

  • I enjoy my life here. I have a few friends and we meet quite often.[3]
  • I’m very bored here. I have few friends to talk and they are boring.[4]

NOTE 1: Olumsuz anlam ile kastedilen nitelenenden isimden az miktarda olduğudur. Yoksa anlam pozitif olabilir.

  • She is lucky. She has few problem (Şanslı. Çok az problemi var.)
  • I have a few problems. Things are not going so well for me. (Biraz problemim var. İşler benim için                                                                                                                                            çok iyi gitmiyor.)

4) zamir olarak da kullanılır (alone, without a noun)

  • Many are called, but few are chosen.                                            
  • Very little is known about him.
  • Do you speak English? – A little (biraz,konuşabilirim) / Little (çok az, konuşamam)
  • Do you have some biscuits? – A few (biraz, sana verebilirim). / Few. (çok az sana veremem)

5) of + my, this, the kuralına dikkat

  • A few of his visitors left early. (A few his visitors.)
  • Few of Picasso’s pictures are good. (Few Picasso’s pictures)
  • Can I take a little of this sugar? (a little this sugar)
  • Little of the original building has survived. (Little the original building)

extra: “little” aynı zamanda küçük anlamında bir sıfattır.

  • A little girl wants to see you. (Küçük bir kız sizi görmek istiyor.)

extra: “the few” az miktarda insan, birkaç kişi anlamına gelen bir zamirdir.

  • Real power belongs to the few. (Gerçek güç az miktarda insana aittir.)
  • She was one of the chosen few. (O kız seçilmiş birkaç kişiden biriydi)

 

          A couple of (=a few)

1) Bir çift anlamı yanında bir kaç kişi anlamına da gelir.

  • I need a couple of eggs (=two eggs) for this.
  • We’re going out to a restaurant with a couple of friends (=a few friends).

2) Belirli bir isimde niceleme yaptığında the/my/these kullanılır.

  • A couple of my friends;

NOTE : Couple aynı zamanda çift, hayat arkadaşı gibi anlamlara gelir.

  • a married couple      a partner couple

Some and Any

1)     some        = in positive sentences, for plural and uncountable

any = in negative sentences and questions, for plural and uncountable

  • We bought some flowers/sugar
  • We didn’t buy any flowers/sugar.
  • He’s busy. He’s got some work to do.
  • He’s lazy. He never does any work.
  • Do we have any flowers/sugar?

 

NOTE:

Sorularda çoğunlukla any kullanılır.

Have you got any luggage? No, I haven’t.

Has anybody seen my bag? Yes, it is under the table.

 

Some : Fakat beklenen cevap yes ise  veya eğer soruda  rica veya davet var ise some kullanılır. (request, encouraging or giving an invitation)

Would you like something to eat? (teklif, offer)

Can I have some sugar, please? (rica, request)

Could I have some books, please?

Why don’t you take some books home with you?

Would you like some books?

 

NOTE 1: Some ve any’nin –body, -thing, –one ve -where kombinasyonları da any ve some’ın dahil olduğu kurallara dahildirler.

  • I’m hungry. I want something to eat.
  • I’m not hungry. I don’t want anything to eat.
  • There’s somebody at the door.
  • There isn’t anybody at the door.
  • Has anyone seen my glasses anywhere?

 

NOTE 2: Manayı olumsuzlaştıran bazı preposition, zarf, fiil ve sıfatlarda any kullanılır.

Without:

  • We went out without any money.

barely, hardly, never, rarely, scarcely, seldom

  • Hardly anybody passed the examination.(Hemen hiçkimse sınavı geçmedi)

deny, fail, prohibit, refuse, etc

  • He refused to eat anything. (=He didn’t accept to eat anything)

impossible, unlikely:

  • It is impossible to see any good view in this city.

If clause

  • If there are any letters for me, can you send them on this address?
  • If anyone has any questions, I’ll be pleased to answer them.
  • Let me know if you need anything.

Manada koşulluk varsa;

  • I’m sorry for any trouble I’ve caused. (=If I have caused any trouble I am sorry) (Neden olduğum herhangi bir problem varsa özür dilerim)

 

 

 

2) any + singular (positive cümlelerde): hangisi olursa olsun anlamında (herhangi bir…)

  • You can catch any They all go to the theatre. [1]
  • “Which sang shall I sing?” “Any I don’t mind.”[2]
  • Come and see me any time you want.
  • Any of the students could have answered this question.

3) some + singular/plural person:  kim olduğu belli değil. (-‘nın biri, birtakım…)

  • Some kind person sent me those flowers. (Kibar adamın biri bana bu çiçekleri göndermiş)
  • Some woman just stole my purse. (Kadının biri demin cüzdanımı çaldı)
  • Some people were playing ball. (Birtakım insanlar dışarıda top oynuyorlardı)

NOTE : Some ayrıca aşağıdaki anlamlarda da kullanılır.

  • Some people don’t like tea. (Bazı insanlar çay sevmezler)
  • The talks went on at some (Görüşmeler epey sürdü.) [adv]
  • You must run some to catch up. (Yetişmek için epey koşmalısın) [adv]
  • Some ten people were hired. (Yaklaşık on insan tutuldu.) [adv]

4) somebody / anybody ve someone / anyone tekil yüklem, çoğul zamir (they/them/their etc) alırlar.

  • Someone has forgotten their (Birileri şemsiyesilerini unutmuş)
  • If anybody wants to leave early, they (Ayrılmak isteyenler varsa, ayrılabilirler)

NOTE: of + my/the/this kuralına dikkat

  • Some of my parents. Any of your food.
  • Some of parents (Yanlış) Any of food (Yanlış)
  • Some my parents (Yanlış) Any your food (Yanlış)

[1] Herhangi bir otobüsü yakalayabilirsin. Hepsi tiyatroya gider

[2] “Hangi şarkıyı söyleyeyim?”            “Hangisi  olursa, fark etmez.”

 

[1] Tren ayrılmadan önce biraz vaktimiz var. Hadi gidip bir şeyler içelim.

[2] Projeyi bitirmek için (çok) az vakit var. Asla vaktinde yetiştiremeyiz.

[3] Burada mutluyum. Birkaç arkadaşım var ve epey sık buluşuyoruz.

[4] Burada çok sıkılıyorum. (Çok) az arkadaşım var ve onlar da sıkıcılar.

perizathoca

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