A Few/ Few/ A little etc.
A few and few – a little and little
1) (a) little Þ sayılamayan isimler (uncountable) (a) few Þ çoğulk isimler (plural)
2) a little = biraz [olumlu] little = (çok) az [olumsuz]
- There is a little time before the train leaves. Let’s go and drink something.
- There is little time to finish this project. We can never finish it in time.
3) a few = bir kaç few = (çok) az
- I enjoy my life here. I have a few friends and we meet quite often.
- I’m very bored here. I have few friends to talk and they are boring.
NOTE 1: Olumsuz anlam ile kastedilen nitelenenden isimden az miktarda olduğudur. Yoksa anlam pozitif olabilir.
- She is lucky. She has few problem (Şanslı. Çok az problemi var.)
- I have a few problems. Things are not going so well for me. (Biraz problemim var. İşler benim için çok iyi gitmiyor.)
4) zamir olarak da kullanılır (alone, without a noun)
- Many are called, but few are chosen.
- Very little is known about him.
- Do you speak English? – A little (biraz,konuşabilirim) / Little (çok az, konuşamam)
- Do you have some biscuits? – A few (biraz, sana verebilirim). / Few. (çok az sana veremem)
5) of + my, this, the kuralına dikkat
- A few of his visitors left early. (A few his visitors.)
- Few of Picasso’s pictures are good. (Few Picasso’s pictures)
- Can I take a little of this sugar? (a little this sugar)
- Little of the original building has survived. (Little the original building)
extra: “little” aynı zamanda küçük anlamında bir sıfattır.
- A little girl wants to see you. (Küçük bir kız sizi görmek istiyor.)
extra: “the few” az miktarda insan, birkaç kişi anlamına gelen bir zamirdir.
- Real power belongs to the few. (Gerçek güç az miktarda insana aittir.)
- She was one of the chosen few. (O kız seçilmiş birkaç kişiden biriydi)
A couple of (=a few)
1) Bir çift anlamı yanında bir kaç kişi anlamına da gelir.
- I need a couple of eggs (=two eggs) for this.
- We’re going out to a restaurant with a couple of friends (=a few friends).
2) Belirli bir isimde niceleme yaptığında the/my/these kullanılır.
- A couple of my friends;
NOTE : Couple aynı zamanda çift, hayat arkadaşı gibi anlamlara gelir.
- a married couple a partner couple
Some and Any
1) some = in positive sentences, for plural and uncountable
any = in negative sentences and questions, for plural and uncountable
- We bought some flowers/sugar
- We didn’t buy any flowers/sugar.
- He’s busy. He’s got some work to do.
- He’s lazy. He never does any work.
- Do we have any flowers/sugar?
Sorularda çoğunlukla any kullanılır.
Have you got any luggage? No, I haven’t.
Has anybody seen my bag? Yes, it is under the table.
Some : Fakat beklenen cevap yes ise veya eğer soruda rica veya davet var ise some kullanılır. (request, encouraging or giving an invitation)
Would you like something to eat? (teklif, offer)
Can I have some sugar, please? (rica, request)
Could I have some books, please?
Why don’t you take some books home with you?
Would you like some books?
NOTE 1: Some ve any’nin –body, -thing, –one ve -where kombinasyonları da any ve some’ın dahil olduğu kurallara dahildirler.
- I’m hungry. I want something to eat.
- I’m not hungry. I don’t want anything to eat.
- There’s somebody at the door.
- There isn’t anybody at the door.
- Has anyone seen my glasses anywhere?
NOTE 2: Manayı olumsuzlaştıran bazı preposition, zarf, fiil ve sıfatlarda any kullanılır.
- We went out without any money.
barely, hardly, never, rarely, scarcely, seldom
- Hardly anybody passed the examination.(Hemen hiçkimse sınavı geçmedi)
deny, fail, prohibit, refuse, etc
- He refused to eat anything. (=He didn’t accept to eat anything)
- It is impossible to see any good view in this city.
- If there are any letters for me, can you send them on this address?
- If anyone has any questions, I’ll be pleased to answer them.
- Let me know if you need anything.
Manada koşulluk varsa;
- I’m sorry for any trouble I’ve caused. (=If I have caused any trouble I am sorry) (Neden olduğum herhangi bir problem varsa özür dilerim)
2) any + singular (positive cümlelerde): hangisi olursa olsun anlamında (herhangi bir…)
- You can catch any They all go to the theatre. 
- “Which sang shall I sing?” “Any I don’t mind.”
- Come and see me any time you want.
- Any of the students could have answered this question.
3) some + singular/plural person: kim olduğu belli değil. (-‘nın biri, birtakım…)
- Some kind person sent me those flowers. (Kibar adamın biri bana bu çiçekleri göndermiş)
- Some woman just stole my purse. (Kadının biri demin cüzdanımı çaldı)
- Some people were playing ball. (Birtakım insanlar dışarıda top oynuyorlardı)
NOTE : Some ayrıca aşağıdaki anlamlarda da kullanılır.
- Some people don’t like tea. (Bazı insanlar çay sevmezler)
- The talks went on at some (Görüşmeler epey sürdü.) [adv]
- You must run some to catch up. (Yetişmek için epey koşmalısın) [adv]
- Some ten people were hired. (Yaklaşık on insan tutuldu.) [adv]
4) somebody / anybody ve someone / anyone tekil yüklem, çoğul zamir (they/them/their etc) alırlar.
- Someone has forgotten their (Birileri şemsiyesilerini unutmuş)
- If anybody wants to leave early, they (Ayrılmak isteyenler varsa, ayrılabilirler)
NOTE: of + my/the/this kuralına dikkat
- Some of my parents. Any of your food.
- Some of parents (Yanlış) Any of food (Yanlış)
- Some my parents (Yanlış) Any your food (Yanlış)
 Herhangi bir otobüsü yakalayabilirsin. Hepsi tiyatroya gider
 “Hangi şarkıyı söyleyeyim?” “Hangisi olursa, fark etmez.”
 Tren ayrılmadan önce biraz vaktimiz var. Hadi gidip bir şeyler içelim.
 Projeyi bitirmek için (çok) az vakit var. Asla vaktinde yetiştiremeyiz.
 Burada mutluyum. Birkaç arkadaşım var ve epey sık buluşuyoruz.
 Burada çok sıkılıyorum. (Çok) az arkadaşım var ve onlar da sıkıcılar.
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