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ENGLISH VERB TENSES (2)

YDS – LYS 5 HAZIRLIK ENGLISH VERB TENSES PART 2 TIKLAYIN İNDİRİN

ENGLISH VERB TENSES (2)

 

ENGLISH VERB TENSES (2)                                                                PAGE

1- THE PAST PERFECT TENSE ………………………………………………………………………. 2

2-  SIMPLE PAST  and  PAST PERFECT TENSES in TIME CLAUSES ………….. 4

3- THE  PAST   PERFECT   CONTINUOUS  TENSE ……………………………………….. 11

4-  FUTURE  TIME  ( will/shall  or  be going to ) ………………………………………………… 17

5-  THE   FUTURE   CONTINUOUS  TENSE  …………………………………………………… 22

6-  THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE  ……………………………………………………………….. 24

7-  THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE ………………………………………. 26

8-  TENSE AGREEMENT in TIME CLAUSES …………………………………………………. 29

EXAMPLES FROM ÖYS/YDS  …………………………………………………………… 38

TEST YOURSELF 1  …………………………………………………………………………… 41

TEST YOURSELF 2 ……………………………………………………………………………. 51

TEST YOUR VOCABULARY …………………………………………………………….. 61

 

 

 

1-         THE  PAST  PERFECT  TENSE

1-1        FORM

Affirmative

 

Negative

 

Interrogative

 

I had finished my work.

You had studied hard. He/She/It had eaten lunch.

 

We had seen the film.

You had helped her.

They had heard the news.

 

I had net finished my work. You had not studied hard. He/She/It had not eaten lunch.

 

We had not seen the film.

You had not helped her.

They had not heard the news.

 

Had I finished my work? Had you studied hard?

Had he/she/it eaten lunch?

 

Had we seen the film?

Had you helped her?

Had they heard the news?

 

 

 

Bu tense’i oluşturmak için had + past participle  kullanılır. “I had, We had, She had, etc.” yerine kısaltılmış olarak  “I’d, We’d, She’d, etc.” yapılarını kullanabiliriz.

She had just eaten lunch.

I hadn’t finished my test when the bell rang.

I had already finished my work when the guests arrived.

I didn’t want to go to the cinema, because I’d seen the film before.

1-2   USE OF THE PAST PERFECT TENSE

  1. a) Past Perfect Tense, Present Perfect Tense’in past biçimidir.

Present   :     I am not hungry. I have just eaten.

Past        :    When I went home, I wasn’t hungry, because I had just
eaten
.

Present   :    I have never seen a kangaroo before.

Past        :    When I went to Australia last year, I saw a kangaroo
there. I had never seen a kangaroo before.

Present   :    I don’t want to see that film. I’ve already seen it.

Past        :    I didn’t want to go to the cinema with my friends. I had
already seen
the film.

Present   :    I can’t go out with you now. My daughter hasn’t come
back from school yet.

Past        :    I couldn’t go out with them, because my daughter hadn’t
come
back from school yet.

 

 

  1. b) Since, for, always, etc. gibi zarflarla kullanımı:

Since, for, always gibi zarfların, Present Perfect Tense (I have done) ile kullanıldığını ve geçmişte   başlayıp   içinde   bulunduğumuz   ana   kadar   devam   eden   ya   da   içinde bulunduğumuz anda da devam etmekle olan eylemleri ifade ettiğini görmüştük. Since, for, always gibi zarflar, Past Perfect Tense (I had done )   ile de kullanılır. Ancak bu kez, geçmişte başlayıp yine geçmişte bir noktaya kadar devam etmiş olan eylemleri anlatır.

PRESENT PERFECT or PAST    PERFECT

1996       1997             1998          1999          2000             2001

    past                    (had)                                                                      now                   future

 

 

                                                                          (have/has)

He started to work

for us as a clerk in 1996.

He became our assistant                       manager in 1998.

He is our assistant manager now.

He has been our assistant manager for three years. Before that, he had worked for us as a clerk for two years.

MORE    EXAMPLES

We were going to meet, in front of the cinema at 2p.m. yesterday. I arrived there at 2p.m. sharp, but she hadn’t come yet. When it was 2.30 and she still hadn’t come, I gave up waiting and went into the cinema.

Yesterday, the traffic was heavy, and it took me a long time to get home. When I arrived home, my parents had already eaten their dinner.

Last year, he made a very bad mistake at work, but his boss couldn’t dismiss him just for that. He had worked for them for ten years and hadn’t done anything wrong before.

  1. c) Past Perfect Tense, geçmişte belli bir noktada olmuş olaylardan söz ederken, daha geçmişte olmuş olayları vurgulamak için de kullanılır.

When I saw her again ten years later, I found her greatly changed, both physically and mentally. She had dyed her hair blond and had got thinner. She had left her parents and had started to earn her own living.

When her marriage was breaking up, she remembered her father’s words. He had warned her against the difficulties of taking on the responsibility of marriage, and he had told her that she was too young to lace them. She hadn’t listened to him then and had got married. She now realized how right he had been.

Ancak, amaç geçmişteki olayları sadece akış sırasına göre vermekse, Past Perfect kullanmak gerekmez.

She wanted to get married when she was only eighteen. Her father objected to it. He warned her against the difficulties of taking on the responsibility of marriage at such an early age, but she didn’t listen to him and got married.

 

Bazı durumlarda ise Simple Past yada  Past Perfect   kullanılması anlam değişikliğine yol

1)   When we arrived at the farm house, I warned her to beware of the dog. (Çiftlik evine varınca, köpeğe dikkat etmesi için onu uyardım.)

2)   When we arrived at the farm house, she was cautious. I had warned her to beware of the dog. ( Çiftlik evine vardığımızda, tedbirliydi. Köpeğe dikkat etmesi için onu uyarmıştım.)

Yukarıdaki cümlelerden birincisinde    “uyarma”    eylemi çiftlik evine gelince, ikincisinde ise gelmeden önce yapılmıştır.

When I arrived at the party, Chris left.

( First, I arrived. Then Chris left, so I saw him. )

When I arrived at the party, Chris had left.

( First, he left. Then I arrived, so I didn’t see him.)

While I was coming here, I saw an accident. A car had run into a cyclist.

(I didn’t see the accident happen. )

While I was coming here, I saw an accident. A car ran into a cyclist.

(I saw the accident happen. )

 

2-     SIMPLE PAST  and  PAST PERFECT TENSES in TIME CLAUSES

( Bu tense’lerin Zaman Bağlaçlarıyla kullanımı )

Bu tense’leri zaman bağlaçlarıyla kullanırken, eylemlerin geçmişteki oluş sıralarını dikkate almamız gerekir. İki eylemden daha önce olanını Past Perfect ile daha sonra olanını ise Simple Past ile ifade edebiliriz.

X                                 X

Past                                                                                          present               future

first action            second action

Past Perfect          Simple Past

 

First: She cleaned the house.                   Second: The guests arrived.

After she had cleaned the house, the guests arrived.

Before the guests arrived, she had cleaned the house.

She had cleaned the house when the guests arrived.

 

 

 

 

 

  1. a) With after:
After       +       Past Perfect,     Simple Past

Simple Past

 

 

 

 

After she had graduated from university, she went to England.

After we had travelled on a coach (or ten straight hours, we continued our journey by horse to get to the mountain village.

“After” in bağlı bulunduğu cümle, cümlenin sonunda da yer alabilir.

She felt better after she had taken a tablet.

After she had taken a tablet, she felt better.

“After”, geçmişteki iki eylemden daha önce olanım ifade ettiği için, bağlı bulunduğu cümlede normalde Past Perfect kullanılır. Ancak “after”, eylemlerin sırasını zaten belirttiği için , Past Perfect yerine Simple Past da kullanabiliriz. Bu durumda anlam değişmez.

After she graduated from university, she went to England.

After we travelled on a coach for ten straight hours, we continued our journey by horse to get to the mountain village.

 

  1. b) With before:
Before       +      Simple Past,       Past Perfect

Simple Past

 

 

 

“Before” un bağlı olduğu cümle, geçmişte yapılan iki eylemden, daha sonra yapılanı ifade ettiği için, “before”lu cümlede Simple Past, temel cümlede ise Past Perfect kullanılır. Ancak “before” da “after” gibi eylemlerin sırasını belirttiği için, temel cümlede Past Perfect yerine Simple Past da kulanılır.

Before she came to live in this city, she had lived in İzmir. Before she came to live in this city, she lived in İzmir.

I had finished my exam paper before the bell rang.                       I finished my exam paper before the bell rang.

  1. c) With till / until:
Till/until       +      Simple Past,       Simple Past

Past Perfect

 

 

 

I didn’t interrupt him until/till he   finished     his speech.

had finished

I didn’t speak to him until/till he   spoke     to me.

had spoken

Until/till” ile Past Perfect kullanımı çok yaygın değildir. Ancak, yan cümlecikteki eylemin temel cümledeki eylemden önce tamamlanmış olduğunu vurgulamak islersek, Past Perfect kullanabiliriz. Aksi takdirde, Simple Past kullanmamız yeterlidir.

They didn’t leave the office until I had completed my report.

( They left after I had completed my report.)

She didn’t give up studying prepositions until she had learnt them by heart.

Till/Until” ile kurulmuş bir cümlede, Past Perfect Tense’in never, always, once, in his life gibi zarflarla kullanımını göz önüne alarak, temel cümlede Past Perfect kullanmak mümkündür.

I had never seen a kangaroo until I saw one in Australia last year.

The teacher had always been patient with us until we made her furious yesterday.

The students hadn’t heard of the author in their lives until I mentioned him.

  1. d) With as soon as:
As soon as     +   Past Perfect,    Simple Past

Simple Past

 

 

 

“As soon as “, temel cümleyle yan cümleciğin eylemleri arasında gecen zamanın çok kısa olduğunu vurgular. Eylemleri oluş sırasına göre dizdiği için, Past Perfect kullanmak zorunlu değildir. Ancak birinci eylemin tamamlandığını vurgulamak amacıyla, Simple Past yerine Past Perfect kullanabiliriz.

As soon as the guests left/ had left, I went straight to bed.

I went to see her as soon as I heard / had heard the news.

The students burst into laughter as soon as the teacher left / had left the classroom.

As soon as they found /had found a better house, they sold their old one.

We decided to go shopping as soon as the rain stopped / had stopped.                     (Yağmur diner dinmez alışverişe çıkmaya karar verdik.)

  1. e) With when:

When“, kullanırken dikkat edilmesi gereken bağlaçlardan biridir. Çünkü, kullandığımız tense’ e göre, eylemlerin birbirleriyle olan ilişkisi farklılık gösterir, anlam değişir.

When he left home, I was washing the dishes.

( O evden çıktığında ben bulaşık yıkıyordum.)

( I started to wash the dishes before he left, and hadn’t yet finished when he was leaving.)

When he left home, I washed the dishes.

( O evden çıkınca, bulaşıkları yıkadım.)

( I waited for him to leave home and then I started to wash the dishes.)

When he left home, I had washed the dishes.

( O evden çıktığında, ben bulaşıkları yıkamıştım. )

( I started to wash the dishes and finished them before he left home.)

When +  Simple Past , was / were doing
When +  Simple Past , did
When +  Simple Past , had done

 

 

 

 

She was preparing dinner when I got home.

She prepared dinner when I got home.

She had prepared dinner when I got home.

Already, just, yet, hardly/scarcely” gibi zarfları “when” li bir cümlede kullandığımızda, temel cümle Past Perfect Tense gerektirir.

I hadn’t yet replied to their letter when they came to visit me.

She had hardly entered the classroom when the exam started.

(Sınav başladığında, o sınıfa henüz/yenice girmişti.)

When we arrived there, the film had already started.

Eğer  “when” in bağlı bulunduğu cümledeki eylem, temel cümledeki eylemden daha önce olmuşsa, “when” li cümlede de Past Perfect kullanabiliriz.

When I had explained the subject to the class. I gave them a quiz.

( First, I explained the subject. Then I gave them a quiz.)

When the workers had finished some part of their work, they sat down eat lunch.

  1. f) With by the time:
By the time             +  Simple Past            ,   Past Perfect

 

 

 

By the time she came back. I had finished my work.

The film had already begun by the time we got to the cinema.

We had already started to discuss the case by the time the manager came.

By the time the guests arrived, my mother had finished all the cooking. (Konuklar gelinceye kadar annem yemek pişirme işini bitirmişti.) Konuklar geldiğinde

By the time” ın Türkçe’ye çevirisine dikkat ediniz. Yukarıdaki örneği “………… gelinceye kadar” ya da “………….. geldiğinde” biçiminde çevirdik. Bu nedenle “by the time“, “when”  ile yakın bir anlama sahiptir. “Geçmişte bir eylem olduğunda/oluncaya kadar, diğer bir eylem olmuştu.’ anlamını verir.

X                      X              |

past                I finished cleaning                          now                                    future

(first action)

They came

(second action)

By the time they came, I had finished cleaning.

By the time I arrived at the station, the train had left.

By the time scientists found a cure for tuberculosis, many people had died of it.

Eğer,   “geçmişte bir eylem  olduğunda,  başka  bir eylem zaten  oluyordu” anlamını vermek istiyorsak, temel cümlede (already) + was/were doing kullanabiliriz.

 

past                 I left the office                                          now                      future

 

It was raining

By the time I left the office, it was already raining.

By the time we prepared her milk, the baby was already crying.

By the time I arrived at my date, my friends were already waiting for me.

Temel cümlede Simple Past kullanılmaz. Ancak, “be”    fiilinin past biçimi olan “was/were” kullanılır.

By the time I noticed the leak, the kitchen floor was already full of water.

By the time the journey was over, it was already midnight.

By the time we arrived home, it was already 2 o’clock.

By the time he retired from his work, he was sixty years old.

 

By the time”   ile   “until“, Türkçe’ye   “……………. oluncaya kadar” biçiminde çevrildiği halde, geçmişteki iki eylem arasında farklı bir ilişkiyi ifade ederler.

She came back

X                             |

past         X     X     X      X                                                  now                     future

Her plants died

By the time she came back from holiday, all her plants at home had died.

( When she came back, she found all her plants dead. )

Yukarıdaki   örnekte   ve   diğer   örneklerde   gördüğümüz  gibi,   “by the time“,   “ikinci   eylem olduğunda, diğer eylem olup bitmişti” anlamını vurguluyor.

She came back

X                              |

past                                                                                        now                   future

I watered her plants

I watered her plants until she came hack from holiday.

Bu örnekte de gördüğümüz gibi, “until” ,”birinci eylemin, ikinci eylemin olduğu noktaya kadar devam ettiğini, tam o noktada bittiğini” vurguluyor.

By the time I got to the airport, my plane had taken off.

(The plane departed some time before my arrival, so I missed it.)

I went to the airport yesterday to see a friend of mine off. I stayed in the waiting lounge until the plane took off.

(I saw the plane take off and then I left the airport.)

 

 

 

EXERCISE   1    :    Use   the   Simple   Past or   the Past Perfect   to complete the following sentences.

1-     When my sister (see) ……………….. a pair of large mistle thrushes at the bird table this morning, she (get) ……………….. quite excited because she (not, see) ……………….. one for a long time.

2-     The driver (call) ……………….. the police the minute he (discover) ……………….. that the salesman (rewind) ……………….. the speedometer on his car.

3-     Before I (visit) ……………….. Turkey last year. 1 (never, imagine) ……………….. it was such a culturally diverse place.

4-     They (sell) ……………….. more antiques than usual from their shop in the last week, so they (treat) ……………….. themselves to a meal out.

5-     When Cadbury’s (offer) ……………….. me this wonderful position within their company, I was glad that I (not, accept) ……………….. the e other job offered to me earlier.

6-     It was not until I (telephone) ……………….. Tim that I (discover) ……………….. that he (win) ……………….. the previous Saturday’s lottery.

7-     By the time I (finish) ……………….. my work and (leave) ……………….. the office,  there (be) ……………….. no bus to our district, so I (hire) ……………….. a taxi.

8-     When the sales reports from all the branches (reach) ……………….. the head office, it (be) ……………….. perfectly clear from the look on the managers’ faces that they (not, reach) ……………….. their sales targets.

9-      She was such a dedicated mother that she (sit) ……………….. by the bedside of her son until his fever (drop) ……………….. to a normal level.

10-    Last year, a pair of birds (nest) ……………….. in the large plane tree in our garden. The female (lay) ……………….. her eggs in March. Two weeks later, the eggs (hatch) ………………… and in April, the nervous young birds (fly) ……………….. for the first time.

11-    She still (not, receive) ……………….. the results of her hospital tests when I (ask) ……………….. her.

12-     He (eat) ……………….. his dinner out with a client of his. so he (just, sit) ……………….at the table with his family without eating anything.

13-    At his daughter’s party. Fred (play) ……………….. the tune on his guitar beautifully although he (not, play) ……………….. since he (be) ……………….. a student.

14-    It (cheer) ……………….. me up when the temperature (rise) ………………..  considerably yesterday because, until then, the weather (be) ……………….. freezing cold, and we (he) ……………….. stuck in the house with the children.

15-    I (have) ……………….. a lot of problems when I (first, start) ………………. my job here because I (not, send) ……………….. any e-mail before, and they use a computer system for internal mail.

16-    As the company (sack) ……………….. her for refusing to wear a skirt instead of trousers, she (take) ………………. them to an industrial court and (win) ……………….. the case for sexual discrimination.

17-    Even though he (already, buy) ……………….. a new car. he (keep) ……………….. asking the price of others for comparison purposes.

18-    I (hardly, win) ……………….. the prize money when my friend (telephone) ……………….. me with congratulations.

19-    Even though the chef (complain) ……………….. about the quality of their vegetables several times before, the supermarket (deliver) ……………….. substandard quality yet again.

20-   After I (pay) ……………….. for our swim at the kiosk. I (realise) ……………….. that I (forget) ……………….. to take my baby daughter’s inflatable ring with us.

 

EXERCISE   2    :    Use the Present Perfect  Simple or Past Perfect to  complete  the sentences.

1-     Before the artist Constable composed this classic oil painting, he (draw) ……………….. several small sketches of farm workers and hay wains.

2-     As soon as you (change) ……………….. into your dinner suit, I’ll call a taxi.

3-     She (consider) ……………….. Peter to be rather cold until he listened and discussed her problems with sympathy.

4-     As she (read) ……………….. the book twice, she was well prepared for the discussion.

5-     She (only, attend) ……………….. Turkish course for beginner’s as yet, but she can already have small conversations in the language.

6-     Sometime after Johnny (pass) ……………….. his exams, he remembered he (promise) ……………….. himself a vacation once they were over. There was a serious problem though. He was broke.

7-     The ship’s crew (all,  drown)……………….. before the helicopter crew spotted them in the Atlantic Ocean.

8-     I doubt she will be chosen for the part. She (not, act)……………….. in a serious play so far.

9-     I was surprised that they chose her for the part even though she (not, act) ………………. in a serious play until then.

10-    Isn’t that stupid! A young couple (name) ……………….. their new baby ‘Aston Villa’ after the football club.

11-    We were delighted with the apartment. As the owners (describe)……………….. it as basic, we didn’t expect such a wonderful location. It was on a hillside overlooking the bay.

12-    Oh no! We (give)……………….. him the incorrect price. We had better contact him immediately and correct the situation.

13-    By the time he noticed that he (not, charge) ……………….. the customer for everything, she (leave) ……………….. .

14-   I (apply) ……………….. for a position with the council, but I won’t know anything until next week.

15-   I (just, hear) ……………….. that ETA. the Basque separatists, (blow) ……………….. up several cars in a busy Spanish street and killed some civilians.

 

 

 

3-     THE  PAST   PERFECT   CONTINUOUS  TENSE

3-1   FORM

Affirmative

 

Negative

 

Interrogative

 

I had been working.

You had been sleeping. He/She/H bad been eating.

We had been waiting.

You had been dancing. They had been talking.

 

I had not been working.

You had not been sleeping. He/She/k had not been eating.

We had not been waiting.

You had not been dancing. They had not been talking.

 

Had I been working?

Had you been sleeping?

Had he/she/it been eating?

Had we been waiting?

Had you been dancing?

Had they been talking?

 

He had been sleeping for two hours when suddenly a noise woke him up in the middle of the night.

The two countries had been fighting for almost seven years when a peace treaty was signed between them.

The party had been going on for two hours when the lights suddenly went out.

When she decided to retire, she had been working as a teacher for fifteen years.

 

Örneklerde de görüldüğü gibi, Past Perfect Continuous Tense, tam olarak Present Perfect Continuous Tense‘in past biçimidir. Hatırlayacağınız gibi. Present Perfect Continuous, geçmişte başlayıp içinde bulunduğumuz anda da devam eden , ya da içinde bulunduğumuz anda henüz bitmiş ama belirtileri devam eden eylemleri ifade ediyordu. Past Perfect Continuous ise, geçmişte başlayıp yine geçmişte bir noktaya kadar devam eden eylemleri ifade eder.

1990       1991       1992       1993       1994                      2001

 

past              (had been fighting)                                                  now               future

They started to fight

The war ended

They had been fighting    for four years            when the war ended in 1994.
since 1990

We had been waiting for him for exactly three hours when he finally came.

His hands were covered in oil, because he had been repairing the car.

The child’s eyes were watery, because he had been crying.

They were all exhausted, because they had been working hard since the morning.

( Hepsi çok yorgundu, çünkü sabahtan beri çok yoğun çalışıyorlardı.)

He had been studying English for two hours when I went to see him.

( Ben onu görmeye gittiğimde, iki saattir İngilizce çalışıyordu.)

3-2       Past Perfect Continuous Tense ile Past Continuous Tense arasındaki ayrıma dikkat ediniz.

1)   When I went home, he was    studying. (Ben eve gittiğimde o ders çalışıyordu.) (Past Cont.)

2)   When I went home, he had been studying  for two hours. (Ben eve gittiğimde o iki saattir ders çalışıyordu.) (Past Perfect Cont.)

Birinci cümledeki ” was studying “, sadece “Den gittiğim anda ne yapıyordu?” sorusuna yanıt olabilir. İkinci cümledeki ” had been studying ” ise, “Ben gittiğimde yapmakta olduğu işi ne zamandır yapıyordu?” sorusunu yanıtlar.

The other members were discussing the agenda when I got to the meeting.

The other members had been discussing the agenda for the last half hour when I got to the meeting.

They were staying at a hotel near the sea when I met them in Bodrum.

They had been staying at a hotel for five days when I met them in Bodrum.

 

NOTE:        “Since“, Perfect Tense’lere özgü bir zarftır. Ancak, “for“, diğer tense’lerle de kullanılır.

I’m going to Ankara for two weeks. (Şimdiki zamanın Gelecek zaman anlamıyla kullanımı)  İki haftalığına Ankara’ya gidiyorum.

I have worked for this company for seven years. (Present Perfect)                Yedi yıldır bu şirkette çalışıyorum.

I have been living here for eight years. (Present Perfect Continuous) Sekiz yıldır burada yaşıyorum.

When I resigned from my work, I had worked there for ten years. (Past Perfect.) İşimden istifa ettiğimde, on yıldır orada çalışıyordum.

When the guests arrived, I had been working in the kitchen for three hours.  (Past Perfect C.)   Konuklar   geldiğinde,   üç   saattir   mutfakta çalışıyordum.

Last year, I stayed in İzmir for a month. (Simple Past)                                   Geçen yıl bir ay İzmir’de kaldım.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Özellikle bağlaçlı cümlelerde “for” un bu kullanımlarına çok dikkat ediniz. Şimdi şu iki cümle arasındaki farkı inceliydim:

1)  When I graduated, I lived in İzmir for five years.                                   (Mezun olunca beş yıl İzmir’de oturdum.)

2)  When I graduated, I had been living in İzmir for five years.                 (Mezun olduğumda beş yıldır İzmir’de oturuyordum.)

 

1986    1987       1988       1989       1990       1991             2001

 

past                                                                                               now              future

I lived

I graduated

I left İzmir

When I graduated in 1986, I lived in İzmir for five years.

(First, I graduated. Then 1 lived in İzmir.)

(Mezun olduktan sonraki beş yılı ifade ediyor.)

 

1981    1982       1983       1984       1985       1986             2001

 

past                                                                                               now              future

(had been living)

I started to live

in İzmir                                                   I graduated

 

When I graduated in 1986, I had been living in İzmir for five years.      (First I lived in İzmir. Then I graduated.)                                           (Mezuniyetten önceki beş yılı ifade ediyor.)

 

EXERCISE   3    :    Use the Past Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous of the verbs in parentheses.

1-     Because Dad (fix) ……………….. the boiler when I came home from the gym on Sunday. I couldn’t have a shower straightaway.

2-     When he arrived home, the children were in the garden, hut it was obvious they (bake) ……………….. pastry with their mother because the kitchen floor was covered in flour.

3-     The little girl (lie) ……………….. under rubble for days when the rescue team finally dug her out.

4-     When we arrived at the departure lounge, the passengers (board) ………………… so we quickly joined the queue.

5-     The salesman (telephone)………………..prospective clients for three hours when he made his first appointment that day.

6-     There was an autumn chill in the air, but as Paul walked towards me, I could see that he (swim) ……………….. in the lake. His hair was wet and as he came closer, I noticed that he (carry)……………….. a towel.

7-     The boys (wrestle) ……………….. quite fiercely with each other. I was worried, as I watched them, that somebody might get hurt.

8-     When I visited Sarah, her mother (crochet) ……………….. the edge of a scarf at the time.

9-     Unbelievably, he (live) ……………….. on the streets for many years when the officer accepted him for the army band.

10-   While she (investigate) ……………….. the role of her town during the war, she received a death threat.

11-   As soon as I heard the professor (give) ……………….. a speech on conservation. I booked a place as I (want) ……………….. to hear this lady speak for a long time.

12-   I (try) ……………….. to reach Leanne on the telephone all morning when suddenly halfway through my lunch, I remembered she was on holiday.

13-  The sales manager was furious when he noticed that the salesman (play) ………………. a computer game on his lap top computer while he (present) ……………….. the new product line.

14-   I’m certain he (tell) ……………….. the truth because I (look) ……………….. at him straight in the eye and he didn’t blink.

15-   I know his son’s behaviour (annoy) ……………….. him for months and, when I walked past their house yesterday, his son (move) ……………….. out.

EXERCISE       4:      Use the Present Perfect Simple or the Present Perfect Continuous, the Past Perfect Simple or the Past Perfect Continuous.

1-     A large grey wood pigeon (live) ……………….. in the field opposite our cottage for weeks before the farmer shot it.

2-     Look! A woodpecker (make)……………….. its nest inside our old oak tree.

3-     When my son went to bed, his bed was nice and warm because I (put) ……………….. a hot water bottle in it earlier.

4-     Oh! I’m sorry, we (just, sell) ……………….. the last one, but we are expecting another delivery soon.

5-     He was sure that the boys (paddle) ……………….. in the lake again because they (leave) ……………….. their muddy footprints everywhere.

6-     I (only, eat) ……………….. rabbit once in my life, and I don’t think I’ll ever eat it again as I didn’t like it.

7-     The crew (bail) ……………….. water out of their boat frantically for two hours when they decided to give up and lower the lifeboat.

8-     When I met my son after his year abroad, I was so proud of him as he (gain) ………………. so much confidence.

 

 

9-     She (attend) ………..a computer course after work for four weeks now and (take) ………………. on a new role at work recently.

10-   After he (lose) ……………….. an important vote in parliament, he retired from politics.

11-   Up until they made a recent decision, Marks and Spencer (sell) ……………. only British goods. Now they sell merchandise from all over the world.

12-   John (play) ……………….. snooker twice a week since he left school. Do you think he’ll give it up when he gets married to Susan?

13-   So far I (check) ……………….. files from A to M and (update) … … them, so I’m about halfway through the job.

14-   Last week they installed an internal e-mail system at work. Since then our manager (work)……………….. mainly from home.

15-   I (try) ……………….. to resolve this problem for my customer since Monday, but it’s Friday afternoon now and I still (not, have) ……………….. a satisfactory solution from the head office.

EXERCISE     5:     Use the Simple Present, Present Continuous, Simple Past, Past Continuous, Present Perfect, Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect or Past Perfect Continuous of the verbs in parentheses.

1-     When mankind (first, bake) ……………….. written tablets, he (begin) ………………….   a revolution. Since then, systems of communication (never, stop)…………evolving.

2-     TJ (travel) ………………..with the circus all his life, and so far, he (attend) ……………….. many different schools. At the moment, he (train) ……………….. to be a trapeze artist.

3-     Three days after they (drop) ……………….. an atom bomb on Hiroshima, the Americans (drop) ……………….. another one on Nagasaki. These two bombs (lead) ……………….. to one of the biggest massacres the world (witness) ……………….. up to that time.

4-     Since their defeat at Chelsea, they (add) ……………….. two Peruvian footballers to the team.

5-     The famous fungi, truffles, (grow) ……………….. underground.

6-     At the moment, the wine tasters (smell) ……………….. the Claret. Afterwards, they will taste it and spit it out. Only then will they say whether they think it is very good.

7-     Both the black leader Martin Luther King and the US President (attend) ……………….. the independence ceremony for the Gold Coast in 1957.

8-     Lots of customers (rush) ……………….. to the orange seller’s stall when he (reduce)……………….. his prices at the end of the day.

9-     A: When ………. you (last, get) …………… a pay rise?                                                               B: Well actually, I (not, receive) ……………….. a pay rise for eighteen months now.

10-    Leonardo Di Caprio (act) …………….. since he (be) ……………….. fourteen. He (win) ………………..  an award for best supporting actor in 1983. At the moment, he (star)  ……………….. in the film ‘The Beach’.

 

11-   I don’t think dinner is ready yet. The last time I (peep) ………………. into the kitchen, they (still, cook) ………………. .

12-   Freddie (work) ……………….. really hard last night. By the time he (turn)………………. his computer off, it (be)……………….. the early hours of the morning.

13-    When I (call) ……………….. at their house after work, it (be) ……………….. obvious that they (argue) ………………. . They (be) ……………….. both very polite to me but they (not, speak) ……………….. to each other at all.

14-   For the last hour, I (search) ……………….. the Internet for information useful to my essay and I (find) ……………….. a couple of things already.

15-   Look, Peter. Uncle Torn (not, come)……………….. here to play computer games with you. He (spend)……………….. the last two years in Borneo, you know, and we (all, want) ……………….. to hear about his adventures there. Now, stop causing trouble and join us, will you?

16-   Because my husband (not, give) ……………….. me the message about the workmen, I (be) ……………….. out when they (come) ………………..

17-   Joseph (work) ……………….. far too hard at the moment. He’ll be ill if he doesn’t relax a bit.

18-   As far as I know, the management still (not, decide) ……………….. who to promote to supervisor.

19-   You (avoid) ……………….. questions about your wedding all day. I hope you (not, change) ……………….. your mind.

20-    I (already, buy) ……………….. a new watch when my mother (offer) ……………….. to give me her old one.

21-    Usually, I (hand) ……………….. my weekly report into work punctually, but I (have) ……………….. the flu at the beginning of this week and that’s why I (still, write) ……………….. it now.

22-    Ever since she (receive) ……………….. the letter confirming her application, Julia (be) ……………….. very excited because, next week, she (go) ……………….. to Germany on a school exchange trip.

23-    On several occasions recently, oil tankers (spill) ……………….. oil near beautiful coastlines, but the governments of the world (not, seem) ……………….. willing to take any action to punish the shipping companies.

24-    For three years now, Lisa (take) ……………….. in mistreated dogs and that is why she (win) ……………….. the award last week from the Royal Society of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

25-    Centuries ago, the people of Hawaii (make) ……………….. simple wooden hoards on which they (ride) ……………….. the great Pacific waves. However, in recent years, surfing (become) ……………….. popular across the globe. Fred Van Dyke, a retired teacher, (write) ……………….. a book about riding some of the world’s largest  waves. I (order) ……………….. it yesterday.

 

 

 

 

4-         FUTURE  TIME  ( will/shall  or  be going to )

4-1       FORM

Affirmative

 

Negative

 

Interrogative

 

I will help you.

I am going to help you.

You will come early.

You are going to come early.

He/She/It will eat lunch.

He/She/It is going to eat lunch.

We will work.

We are going to work.

You will leave early.

You are going to leave early.

They will visit us.

They are going to visit us.

 

I will not help you.

I am not going to help you.

You will not come early.

You are not going to come early.

He/She/It will not eat lunch.

He/She/It is not going to eat lunch.

We will not work.

We are not going to work.

You will not leave early.

You are not going to leave early.

They will not visit us.

They are not going to visit, us.

 

Will I help you?

Am I going to help you?

Will you come early?

Are you going to come early?

Will he/she/it eat lunch?

Is he/she/it going to eat lunch?

Will we work?

Are we going to work?

Will you leave early?

Are you going to leave early?

Will they visit us?

Are they going to visit us?

 

Birinci tekil şahıs ” I ” ve  birinci çoğul şahıs “we”    için, “will”   yerine “shall”  de kullanılır.

We will/shall invite them to the party.

I will/shall help you with your homework.

will not” ve “shall not” kısaltılarak “won’t” ve “shan’t”  biçiminde kullanılır.

They will not/won’t come tomorrow.

We shall not/shan’t go to the party.

 

will”  ve “shall”  kısaltılarak   ” ’ll ”  biçiminde kullanılır.

 

They‘ll visit us next week.    /     I‘ll eat dinner out tonight.

 

4-2   USE OF THE FUTURE TENSES

  1. a) Eğer geleceğe yönelik bir tahminde bulunuyorsak (prediction), “will” yada “be going to

There will / is going to be a rise in prices after the elections.

According to the weather report, it will / is going to snow tomorrow.

  1. b) Önceden tasarlanmış, planlanmış bir durumdan söz ediyorsak ( prior plan ), “be going to” kullanmamız gerekir.

Why have you bought this material?

I’m going to make a skirt for myself.

  1. c) Henüz öğrendiğimiz bir konuda yapmaya istekli olduğumuz bir durumu  (willingness), “will”  ile ifade ederiz.

I don’t have any money.

Don’t worry. I‘ll lend you some.   (Üzülme. Ben sana veririm.)

Some guests are corning in two hours, and nothing is ready yet.

Don’t worry. I‘ll wash the dishes and you can do the cooking.                        (Ben bulaşıkları yıkarım, sen yemeği pişirirsin.)

I have a headache.

Wait here. I‘ll bring a tablet for you. (Bekle sana bir hap getireyim.)

will” in bu kullanımının Türkçe’ye çevirisine dikkat ediniz. Örneklerde de gördüğünüz gibi “will wash, will lend, will bring” ifadelerini “yıkayacağım, ödünç vereceğim, getireceğim” biçiminde değil, “yıkarım, ödünç veririm. getireyim”  biçiminde çevirdik.

  1. d) Eğer bir olayın olacağına ilişkin belirliler varsa, “going to” kullanılır.

The sky is black. It is going to rain.

There is a lot of blossom on the trees this spring. We are going to have a good crop.

  1. e) Bu tense’lerle yaygın olarak kullanılan zaman zarfları, tomorrow, next week, next month, next summer, in two days (iki gün sonra), in ten minutes (on dakika sonra), two days from now (iki gün sonra), five years from now (beş yıl sonra), soon ( az sonra, yakında) gibi zarflardır.

We will take an exam next week.

Tomorrow is a public holiday, so she won’t go to work.

She will graduate in three years.

Two months from now, they will move into a new flat.

Ancak, içinde bulunduğumuz ana göre gelecek zaman ifade eden pek çok zarf, bu tense’lerle kullanılır.

(In the morning)

I’m going to do some shopping today. Do you need anything special?

I’m not going to have breakfast this morning.

  1. f)am, is, are going to” nun past biçimi olarak “was, were; going to” kullanılır. Bu tense ile, geçmişte niyet ettiğimiz, planladığımız, ama çeşitli nedenlerle yapamadığımız eylemleri anlatırız.

I was going to visit my parents last night, but just as 1 was leaving home, some guests arrived, so I couldn’t. (Dün akşam ailemi ziyaret edecektim ama ………..)

We were going to have a test yesterday, but we couldn’t finish the unit, so we postponed the exam until next week. (Dün sınav olacaktık ama ………..)

 

EXERCISE   6    :    Complete the sentences using the Simple Future (will) or “going to” future.

1-     Look, a lot of tourist buses have just arrived in town, which means we (have) ……………….. a very busy day at the shop today.

2-     A:  I don’t think I (have) ……………….. time to fetch Sally’s birthday cake in the afternoon.

B: Don’t worry. I (do) ……………….. that on my way back from work.

3-      Look at Isabel. She is standing up by holding the side of the chair. It seems as if she (start) ……………….. walking by herself very soon.

4-     A: Would you like milk or cream in your coffee, madam?

B: Oh, I (take) ……………….. cream today. I (start) ……………….. my diet again tomorrow.

5-     A; Isn’t this shirt lovely?

B: It is. You can have it. I (pay) ……………….. for it as a birthday present for you.

6-     A: Have you decided on your plans for the weekend?

B: We (see) ……………….. Victoria’s mother on Saturday. On Sunday, we (take)……………….. the children to the Black Country Museum.

7-      Come away from the cliff edge, Arnie. You (fall) ……………….. off in a minute.

8-      This late frost has killed a lot of the young buds. I’m afraid we (experience) ……………….. a poor harvest this year.

9-     A:  I’m just popping out. I (pick) ……………….. up a sandwich.

B: I haven’t got time today to take a lunch break.

A:  I (bring) ……………….. you back a sandwich then, shall I?

10-   A: What do you think of my new trousers?

B: Great, but aren’t they a bit long?

A: I know they are, but I’ve bought some blue thread. I (turn) ……………….. them up tonight.

4-3       FUTURE TENSE  in TIME CLAUSES

When, after, before, as soon as, etc.” gibi zaman bağlaçlarının Past Tense ile kullanımını daha önce görmüştük. Şimdi bu bağlaçların Future Tense ile kullanımlarım inceliyelim.

First         :      I will do some shopping tomorrow.                                                                       Then        :      I will go to the cinema.

After I do some shopping tomorrow. I will go to the cinema.

First         :      She will talk to the teacher.

Then        :      She will leave school.

Before she leaves school tomorrow, she will talk to the teacher.

Yukarıdaki örneklerde gördüğünüz gibi, her iki eylem de gelecekte olmasına rağmen, yan cümlede “will” ya da “going to” kullanılmaz. Yan cümlede Simple Present Tense, temel cümlede ise “will” ya da “going to” kullanılır.

 

Before  
After  
As soon as +      Simple Present     ,      will or going to
When  
Until, etc.  

 

 

 

 

 

When she comes home, we will study together.

I will wait at home until my mother comes back from shopping.

We will leave home as soon as we finish our work.

I will decide what to do after I receive their letter.

She is going to phone us before she comes here.

Eğer, gelecekte bir eylemi tamamladıktan sonra diğerini yapacağımızı vurgulamak istiyorsak yan cümlede Simple Present yerine Present Perfect  kullanabiliriz.

After  
Before  
As soon as +    Present Perfect      ,        “will  or    going to

 

Until  
When  

 

 

 

 

After I finish/have finished my work, I will go out.

She will leave İstanbul when she graduates/has graduated from school.

Will you wait for me until I complete/have completed my work?

While”  da gelecek zaman yapılarıyla kullanılan bir bağlaçtır.

I’ll take my son to the park tomorrow. I‘ll read my book while he is playing with his friends.

Will you take care of my flowers while I‘m on holiday?

I‘ll wait for you outside the office while you are having your job interview.

EXERCISE       7:    Combine (the two sentences using the words in parentheses. For the subordinate clause use Simple Present and/or Present Perfect or Present Continuous.

1-     I will notify the secretary of the office manager vacancy. Then I will advertise the position in the newspaper.       (before)        ……………………………………………………………………………………..

2-     I will reach my sales target. Immediately, I will celebrate with my family, (as soon as) ……………………………………………………………………………………..

3-     You will have your hair done at the hairdresser’s. During that time. I’ll wait for you in the Blue Moon cafe.      (while) ……………………………………………………………………………………..

4-     I won’t book the airline tickets. First I will get official authorisation from my company for the holiday. (until)  ……………………………………………………………………………………..

5-     I will trim the hedge in the garden. Then I will take a bath.     (after) ……………………………………………………………………………………..

6     We’ll move into our new house, but prior to that, the workmen will install the central heating. (when) ……………………………………………………………………………………..

7-     I won’t continue explaining the formula. First of all, everyone will be silent. (until) ……………………………………………………………………………………..

8-     First, the tailor will measure you, and then, he will show you the fabrics you can choose from. (before) ……………………………………………………………………………………..

9-      My daughter will grow out of this snow suit. Then I’ll give it to you for your baby. (when) ……………………………………………………………………………………..

10-  You will get your commission. But before that, they will settle their account. (after) ……………………………………………………………………………………..

11-   I will make a cup of coffee. In the meantime, the computer will be printing my report. (while) ……………………………………………………………………………………..

12-  You will receive plenty of training in these new procedures. Then you’ll feel more comfortable. (after) ……………………………………………………………………………………..

13-  We won’t exchange agreements for the house. First of all, the surveyor will make his inspection. (until) ……………………………………………………………………………………..

EXERCISE   8    :    Complete the sentences with the Simple Present (and/or the Present  Perfect Simple) or Simple Future (will) of the verbs in parentheses.

1-     The plane (not, depart) ……………….. until the engineers (fix) ……………….. the turbine.

2-     When the director (see) ……………….. the finished play. I’m sure she (be) ……………….. really proud of you.

3-     I (lay) ……………….. the table while the children (be) ……………….. out in the garden, so everything (be) ……………….. ready when they (come) ……………….. in.

4-     You must be very tired from your long journey, so we (decide) ……………….. on plans for this evening after you (get) ……………….. some rest.

5-     She (be) ……………….. furious when she (find) ……………….. out about your joke.

6-     Before I (return) ……………….. your clock, I (replace) ……………….. the batteries for you.

7-     Yes Sir, as soon as your order (arrive) ………………… I (telephone) ……………….. you.

 

 

 

 

8-     Peter bought that book last week, and he (lend) ……………….. it to me after he (finish) ………………….. it.

9-     We (not, be able) ……………….. to use our new kitchen before the workmen (check) ……………….. all the appliances.

10-   Mrs. Wilson (stand) ……………….. in for the manager until he (come) ……………….. back to work.

11-   I (look) ……………….. at my finances before I (make) ……………….. a decision about changing the car.

12-   My parents (move) ……………….. to Cornwall as soon as my brother (return) ……………….. from abroad to lake over Dad’s business.

13-   Before they (put) ……………….. the car in the showroom, they (clean) ……………….. it thoroughly inside and outside.

14-   I (go) ………….. to the bank in the afternoon and Dennis (serve) ………….. in the shop while I (be) ……………….. out.

15-   When you (answer) ……………….. this exercise, you (start) ……………….. the one on the ‘future continuous tense’.

5-     THE   FUTURE   CONTINUOUS  TENSE

5-1   FORM

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I will be studying.

You will be working.

He/She/It will be eating.

We will be talking.

You will be sleeping.

They will be shopping.

 

I won’t be studying.

You won’t be working.

He/She/It won’t be eating.

We won’t be talking.

You won’t be sleeping.

They won’t be shopping.

 

Will 1 be studying?

Will you be working? Will he/she/it be eating?

Will we be talking?

Will you be sleeping? Will they be shopping?

 

5-2   USE OF THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

  1. a) Bu tense’i, gelecekte bir noktada yapıyor olacağımız eylemleri ifade etmek için kullanırız.

Don’t call me tomorrow between ten and eleven I’ll be having an interview then.

This time next year, you’ll probably be attending university.

My plane departs at nine tomorrow, so I’ll be flying to New York at this hour tomorrow.

  1. b) Bu tense’i birinden bir şey rica ederken de kullanabiliriz.

“Will you be going past the post office when you go out?”

‘Yes. Why?”

“If so, can you post this letter for me?”

“Will you be using your bike tomorrow?”

“No, I don’t think so.”

“If not, can you lend it to me for the afternoon?”

EXERCISE   9    :    Complete the sentences with   the   Simple Future (will do), Future Continuous (will be doing) or Simple Present (do/does) and/or Present Perfect Simple (have/has done) of the verbs in parentheses.

1-     Seeing as this is your last day at work, one thing is certain. This time tomorrow, you (not, work)……………….. like the rest of us here but (relax) ……………….. .

2-     You can come to the bookstore anytime between ten and twelve tomorrow. That’s when the author (sign)……………….. copies of her book.

3-     After you (undergo) ……………….. our expert parachute training, jumping out of an aeroplane (not, bother) ……………….. you at all.

4-     Right now, the ‘future continuous’ probably (seem)……………….. a little confusing, but this time next week, you (use) ……………….. it in sentences like a native speaker.

5-      A: ………… you (drive) ……………… to work tomorrow?

B: Yes, would you like a lift?

6-      According to the newspaper, the film ‘The Beach’ (show) ……………….. starting from tomorrow at the Odeon………… you (want) ……………….. to see it with me?

7-     We have asked Sheila, and she’s accepted the mission. I’m sure she (make) ……………….. a great goalkeeper for the girls’ team.

8-     The jury (not, announce)……………….. the winner until they (judge) ……………….. all the different competitions.

9-     Jenny (not, be able)……………….. to come to your party tomorrow night. During those hours, she (take part) ……………….. in the TV quiz ‘Family Fortunes’.

10-    How …………. you (think) ……………….. she (react) ……………….. when she (open) ……………….. the box and (see) ……………….. the puppy?

11-   If you (agree)……………….. to look after the children Saturday afternoon, I (go) ……………….. into town to do some shopping.

12-   When the weather (brighten)……………….. up, I (replace) ……………….. the winter pansies in my window boxes with marigolds.

13-   They are clearing the snow off a section of the Highland Way in Scotland where the road is closed. This happens every year, and I’m sure this time next year, they (clear) ……………….. the snow away and that the road (be) ……………….. closed again.

14-   Don’t try to take that tray out of the oven without wearing gloves. You (burn) ……………….. your hands!

15-   With the alterations They’re planning to do, I hope in the near future, the National Health Service (provide) ……………….. a better standard of health care than it (do) ……………….. today.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6-     THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE

6-1 FORM

Affirmative Negative Interrogative
I will have finished.

You will have left home. He/She/It will have eaten.

We will have left work.

You will have bought it. They will have gone out.

I won’t have finished.

You won’t have left home. He/She/It won’t have eaten.

We won’t have left work.

You won’t have bought it.

They won’t have gone out.

 

Will I have finished?

Will you have left home?

Will he/she/it have eaten?

Will we have left work?

Will you have bought it.?

Will they have gone out?

Gelecekte bir noktada yapmış, tamamlamış olacağımız eylemleri bu tense ile ifade ederiz. By, before, in a week (or in a week’s time), in ten days (or in ten days’ time), in three years (or in three years’ time) gibi zarflar, bu tense ile çok sık kullanılan zarflardır.

She will have graduated from university in two years.

She promises that she will have finished her report by tomorrow.

They will have completed the new school building by next year.

6-2         “By the time“, “when” ve “before“, bu tense ile sık kullanılan zaman bağlaçlarıdır.

I will have finished my homework by the time mother comes back.

Before this term is finished, you will have learnt most of the English grammar.

The children will have gone to bed when the guests arrive.

 

|                 X                         X

past                                                   now                                                        future

We will eat

He will come

We will already have eaten dinner when he comes.

O geldiğinde biz yemeğimizi yemiş olacağız.

***by” ile “by the time” arasındaki farka dikkat ediniz. “By” bir preposition olduğu için kendinden sonra bir isim gelir, (by two o’clock, by next month, by tomorrow, by then, etc.) “By the time” ise bir bağlaçtır. Kendinden sonra bir cümle gelir.

l will have finished my work by 5 o’clock.

I will have finished my work by the time you come back.

I’ll call you at 2.00. I hope you’ll have finished your work by then.

I’ll call you at 2.00. I hope you’ll have finished your work by the time I call you.

 

 

EXERCISE   10    :    Complete the sentences with the Simple Future (will do), Future Perfect (will have done) or Simple Present of the verbs in parentheses.

1-     I (expect) ……………….. that we (complete) ……………….. the renovations to the house by the time my mother (arrive) ……………….. to stay with us.

2-     Can you call the hospital on Friday as we (analyse) ……………….. your blood samples by then?

3-     I’m sure you (like) ……………….. the new collection at Marks and Spencer. It is simply superb!

4-     By the time my aunt (go) ……………….. into hospital for her operation, her hip (get) ……………….. considerably worse.

5-     Don’t drink too much. .You (regret)……………….. it tomorrow when you (wake) ……………….. up with a  hangover.

6-     I (call) ……………….. you as soon as the dinner (be) ……………….. on the table. I hope you (finish) ……………….. watering the garden by then.

7-     We (not, make) ……………….. a decision on the advertising campaign before we (speak) ……………….. to the directors.

8-     About half a century later, the Pacific Ocean (rise)……………….. to a level dangerous to the very existence of some inhabited islands.

9-     Before you (begin) ……………….. your work here in this office, we (send) ……………….. you to the head office in Carlisle for training.

10-   I’m glad that I (have) ……………….. plenty of money to buy my son a nice present because, by his birthday, my new employers (pay) ……………….. me my first month’s wages.

11-   Only adults who (be) ……………….. over 18 currently or (reach) ………………..18 by January 1st 2001 can apply for this offer.

12-   She says she has finished her homework, but I’m sure, when I (ask) ……………….. her a few questions about the topic, she (fail) ……………….. to answer them properly.

13-   ………… you (write) ………….. the first draft by Friday evening as I (need)……………….. it that day when I (go) ……………….. to see the manager?

14-   A: Do you think the Millennium Dome (pay) ……………….. for itself in the end?

B: I don’t imagine so. It cost so much money to build.

15-  When you (be) ……………….. a qualified doctor, you (realise) ……………….. that all this hard work is necessary.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7-      THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

7-1    FORM

Affirmative : Subject + will have been doing
Negative : Subject + will not have been doing
Interrogative : Subject + subject + have been doing?

 

 

 

 

7-2    USE OF THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

Gelecekte bir işi ne kadar zamandır yapıyor olacağımızı bu tense ile ifade ederiz. Yani gelecekte süreç bildiririz.

By next year, I will have been teaching English for nine years. Tomorrow, I will start work at   9 and finish at 12, so I will have been working for three hours by the time my last lesson is over.

 

|                 X                                               X

past                             now                                                                                 future

 

will have been studying

She will start

to study at 2.00.

Her mother will

come home at 5.00.

By the time her mother comes home at 5 o’clock, she will have been studying for three hours.

She started to work for us last year.                                                                     Now, she has been working for us for a year.                                                       By next year, she will have been working for us for two years.

The meeting will start at ten and I will arrive there at eleven.                              By the time I arrive there, the meeting will have been going on for an hour.

By the next elections, this government will have been governing the country for four years.

Bu lense ile kullanacağımız fiilleri seçerken dikkatli olmamız gerekir. Ancak work, write, travel, watch, listen, go on, study gibi sürerlik bildiren fiilleri bu tense ile kullanabiliriz. Finish, complete, arrive gibi bir anda olup biten eylemleri kullanamayız.

“By 9 o’clock tomorrow, I’ll have been arriving in Ankara for six hours.” ifadesi yanlış bir ifade olur. Çünkü insan.altı saattir bir yere varıyor olamaz. Bu cümleyi ancak şöyle doğru olarak ifade edebiliriz:

By 9 o’clock tomorrow, I‘ll have arrived in Ankara. (…. varmış olacağım.)

By the time I arrive in Ankara, I‘ll have been travelling for six hours. (…………… allı saattir yolculuk yapıyor olacağını.)

***   “By the time”   yapısıyla   “be” fiilinin kullanımına dikkat ediniz. Normalde “by the time”, temci cümlede Future Perfect gerektirir.

By the time they come, I will have eaten my dinner.

Ancak “be”  fiilini, eğer süreç bildirmiyorsa, Simple Future  (will be)  ile kullanırız.

By the time they come, dinner will be over.

By the time he retires from his job, he will be sixty.

By the time we come bark from holiday, they will be married.

Eğer “be” fiilini, süreç bildiren bir ifadeyle birlikte kullanırsak, Future Perfect gerektirir.

By the time he retires from his job, he will have been in this city for twenty years.

By the time we come back from holiday, they will have been married for two months.

EXERCISE   11    :  Complete the sentences using any appropriate Future tense: will do, will be doing, will have done or will have been doing.

1-     How long …………. you (renovate) …………… this house by the time it is ready to sell?

2-     If his business keeps going so well, by the time he is thirty-live, he (earn) ………………. over a million pounds.

3-     You should wait until January to buy your new sofa because, by then, the end-of-season sales (start) ……………….. .

4-     I hope they (serve) ……………….. dinner at Mario’s Pizza when we get there. I know it’s very early, but I’m starving.

5-     It’s certain that the owners (find) ……………….. another supplier if the quality of your meat doesn’t improve.

6-     By the end of April, Tesco’s Supermarket (recruit) ……………….. an extra 700 staff as they (open) ……………….. 200 new Tesco direct ‘Internet’ stores.

7-     By the time the case comes to court, the company (spend) ……………….. over three hundred and fifty thousand pounds in lawyers’ fees.

8-     By the end of this month, Jerry’s mum (be) ……………….. with them for two months, and I guess she (be) ……………….. there for another month, until the redecoration of her house has been completed.

9-     …………. Tony (work) …………….. here long enough by November to qualify for a wage increase?

10-  I (take) ……………….. the fabric out of the dye at four o’clock because, by then, it (soak) ……………….. in the solution for two hours, and I think that (be) ……………….. enough.

11-  Fire-fighters are confident and believe that, by midnight tomorrow, they (extinguish)……………….. the forest fire.

12-  At this time tomorrow, we (pack) ……………….. our suitcases for our holiday.

 

13-    Can you come a little later? At three o’clock, I (tutor)……………….. a private student. I’m afraid.

14-    By the time we get there, they (sell) ……………….. all the good items.

15-    By the time he gets his Doctorate, he (study)……………….. at that university for seven years.

EXERCISE   12     :    Complete the sentences using “until” or “by the time“.

1-     You won’t get any commission ……………. you have sold five cars.

2-    We won’t have any hot water ……………. the central heating has been repaired.

3-     ……………. the waiter serves our meal, our lunch break will be over.

4-     I won’t stop nagging you about that pain in your chest……………. you agree to see a doctor.

5-    The leaking chemicals will have spread over the surrounding area ……………. the emergency services arrive.

6-     ……………. peace is restored In Indonesia, many civilians will have died.

7-     I won’t be able to buy a new sofa ……………. I receive my wages.

8-     You will have forgotten all about this ……………. summer arrives.

9-     We will continue to operate according to these rules ……………. the commission publishes the results of their investigation.

10-  You won’t realise what a difficult child my son is ……………. you look after him yourself for a few hours.

11-   ……………. Mrs. Smith comes to collect her flower arrangement. I will have finished it.

12-   Although this T-shirt looks a little too loose at the moment. I think it will fit our daughter ……………. we go on holiday.

13-    She’ll feel dissatisfied at work ……………. she gets a promotion.

14-   ……………. my congratulation card and present arrive, she will have already graduated from university, but better late than never.

15-   I won’t forget what he did ……………. the day I die.

16-   I won’t take the gateaux out of the freezer ……………. eight o’clock and I expect it will be perfectly ready ………….. our guests arrive.

17-   We’ll be unable to move into our new apartment……………. we have fitted carpets and curtains.

18-    I would love to come for a drink.  ……………. I have cleaned this place thoroughly. I will deserve one.

19-    It’s not a good idea to go shopping In Marks and Spencer ……………. their sales start, because now their prices arc rather high.

20- You should avoid making any comments ……………. we have heard their excuses.

 

 

 

 

 

8-     TENSE AGREEMENT in TIME CLAUSES

Zaman bağlaçları temel cümle ile yan cümle arasında “tense” uyuşması gerektirir.

PAST TIME:

“When I got home, …………………….”     cümlesini   tamamlarken  getireceğimiz  yapılar mutlaka Past Time‘ a ait bir tense olmalıdır.

When I got home,    I had a bath and then ate my dinner.

I slept for three hours and then studied until midnight.

my son was sleeping.

my parents had eaten their dinner.

my son had been sleeping for two hours.

PRESENT TIME:

“When I get home after work, ………………… ”  ifadesini, eğer genelde yaptığımız bir    işi

anlatmak   üzere    kullanıyorsak,   Present  Time‘a   ait   bir   yapı   ile tamamlayabiliriz.

When I get home after work,    I usually take a rest for a while.

first of all, I play with my son for a while.

FUTURE TIME:

“When I get home after work tomorrow, ………………….”    ifadesi ise lemel cümlede

mutlaka Future bir yapı gerektirmektedir. (Yan cümlede Future tense kullanılmamasına dikkat ediniz.)

When I get home after work tomorrow.   I will take a rest for a while.

my son will be sleeping.

my son will have been sleeping for two hours, our guests will have arrived.

I am going to sleep for two hours.

EXERCISE    13   :     Use any appropriate tense for the verbs in parentheses.

1-     When you (come) ……………….. back from France next month, the eggs (hatch) ………………. and the young birds (sing) ……………….. in their nest.

2-     She says that from the start of next term, she (hand) ……………….. all her essays in on time, but I (not, believe) ……………….. she (manage) ……………….. it.

3-      I (only, diet) ……………….. for three days when I (go) ……………….. to Charlie’s parly.  You can imagine the difficulty I (have) ……………….. amongst all that wonderful food, but fortunately, I (not, break) ……………….. my diet and I (keep) ……………….. strictly to Doctor Smith’s low fat diet up until now.

4-     I (not, allow) ……………….. them to ignore my request any longer. If they (not, return)……………….. my telephone calls tomorrow, I (write) ……………….. to the manager.

 

5-     Normally, a baby (start) ……………….. to crawl at around six to eight months old and (walk) ……………….. at about twelve months old, but I don’t think my daughter (fit)……………….. this generalisation. She (be) ……………….. twelve months old already, but she (not, even, start) ……………….. to stand up by holding somewhere.

6-     I (type) ……………….. this essay from my hand-written notes for three hours now and I still (have) ……………….. pages of notes to type, so by the time I (finish) ……………….. it, I (type) ……………….. at least four hours without a break.

7-     My mother (knit) ……………….. several teddy bears lately. They are for a charity called Teddies for Tragedies’. This charity (send)……………….. teddy bears to children in areas of crisis such as Bosnia. It’s nice to know that soon, a child (play) ……………….. with the teddy my mother (knit) ……………….. at the moment.

8-     At the moment, workmen (lay) ……………….. new water pipes in the High Street and the road (not, re-open) ……………….. until next week.

9-     I (leave) ……………….. my son with my mother yesterday and I (miss) ……………….. him already, I (telephone) ……………….. twice today already and I (check) ……………….. with her again later.

10-   While we (be) ……………….. on holiday in Erzincan last month, we (meet) ……………….. a man who (sell) ……………….. copper trays on a stall at the corner of a busy street. When we (ask)……………….. him about his craft, he (take) ……………….. us to his workshop, where a man (engrave) ……………….. a tray. We (be) ………………. impressed with his work and (buy) ……………….. a tray. We (hang) ……………….. it on the wall, but we (not, decide) ……………….. exactly where yet.

11-  According to this plan, by the time we (return) ……………….. to London, we (see) ……………….. six European cities and we (take) ……………….. some lovely photographs.

12-   Last spring, the River Rhine (overflow) ……………….. its banks and (flood) ……………….. the surrounding area. At the time, Morris (stay)……………….. with his parents, who (live) ……………….. in a village on the river. During the flood, the whole family (work) ……………….. hard to rescue their possessions, and after the flood, it (take) ………………. them three days to clean up the house. Since then, Morris and his family (live) ……………….. in fear of the river rising again.

13-   For many years now, the British government (invest) ……………….. in public transport, but most people (prefer) ……………….. their own cars and cars (continue) ……………….. to congest the roads.

14-    During her teenage years, my aunt (study) ……………….. classical ballet. When she (leave) ……………….. school, she (join) ……………….. the New York ballet. She (dance) ……………….. with them for four years when she (break) ……………….. several toes in an accident. She (not, be)……………….. able to dance since then. At the moment, she (work) ……………….. as a primary school teacher.

15   My aunt and uncle (enjoy) ……………….. theatre, opera and ballet, so last month they (buy) ……………….. an apartment near Broadway in New York and recently, they (attend) ……………….. a lot of Broadway performances .

16-   Yesterday, the Sports Council (ban) ……………….. him from competitions for one year because they (find) ……………….. out that he (take) ……………….. performance enhancing drugs before the World Cup.

17-   At the moment, everyone in the village (prepare) ……………….. for the Queen’s visit on Monday. The school children (make) ……………….. flags and banners because the Queen (tour) ………………. the school. The council workers (dean)……………….. the streets, and gardeners (plant) ……………….. flowers in the park. The village (look)……………….. splendid when her Majesty the Queen (see) ……………….. it.

18-    I (just, apply) ……………….. a coat of varnish to the wooden floor in my living room. I (go) ……………….. shopping now and by the time I (return) ………………… the first coat (dry) ……………….. . Then I (apply) ……………….. a second and final coat.

19-  Marine pollution (kill) ……………….. large numbers of plants and animals every day and with more and more people living near the coast, the problem (get) ………………. worse all the time.

20-  Charles Darwin (detail) ……………….. his ideas about the survival of the fittest in his book ‘ The Origin of the Species’, which (be) ……………….. essential reading for anyone studying evolution ever since.

EXERCISE   14   :    Use any appropriate tense for the verbs in parentheses.

1-    Son:       Look. Mum! I (just, buy) ……………….. a computer and a modem.

Mother: Oh, that’s great. What ………… you (use) …………. them for?

Son:       The Internet mainly. This time tomorrow, I (surf)……………….. the Internet.

Mother: Yes, and I (worry)……………….. about our telephone bill.

2-     I (prepare) ……………….. for the finals all next week, so I (not, see) ……………….. you until after (take) ……………….. them.

3-     It says in today’s newspaper that a man (recently, design) ……………….. a car which (run) ……………….. on water and petrol. He (think) ……………….. that in ten years’ time, thousands of people (drive) ………………. around in cars using this environmentally-friendly fuel.

4-     Because of his interest in Karate, Mark (not, study) ……………….. much lately. He should make sure he (study) ……………….. as well as be (practise) ……………….. Karate, or he (find) ……………….. that he (not, know) ……………….. the answers when he (take) ……………….. his exams.

5-     We (not, see) ……………….. Mehmet and Ayşe since we (move) ……………….. to England, but next month, we (fly) ……………….. to Istanbul for a two-week holiday, so we (catch) ……………….. up on all their news when we (see) ……………….. them.

6-      Since I (arrive) ……………….. here, only three people (visit) ……………….. the eye, nose and throat specialist and, at this rate, it (be) ……………….. quite late in the afternoon when I (finally, see) ……………….. the doctor because my ticket (have) ……………….. number twenty-seven on it.

7-     My father (not, play) ……………….. professionally any more, but he often (get) ……………….. his guitar out at parties or when friends (ask) ……………….. him. The last time he (play)……………….. for us, he (break) ……………….. a string while he (play) ……………….. a Spanish folk tune.

8-     He (earn) ……………….. quite a lot of money since he (buy)……………….. his own taxi last month.

9-     By the time we (reach) ……………….. the bus stop for Ilıca, the minibus (leave) ……………….. . This was a shame because we (be)……………….. in Kütahya a long time before it (leave) ………………… but (not, know) ……………….. that the only bus in the morning in winter (leave)……………….. at 8.30.

10-   My brother (suffer) ……………….. from stress ever since he (borrow) ……………….. some money from the bank to buy a new car.

11-   I (visit) ……………….. customers all day tomorrow, so you can use my office for the interviews.

12-   When I (pick) ……………….. up my son and his friend from school yesterday, my son’s  nose (bleed) ……………….. and his friend’s eye (be) ……………….. black. Obviously they (fight) ………………… although they (deny) ……………….. this when I (ask) ………………… .

13-  A: Oh look, there it goes! We (miss)……………….. the 8.30 bus and the next one (not, leave) ……………….. until 2 p.m.

B: Let’s wait here in this tea shop, then, shall we?

A: OK, but, by the time we (leave) ………………… we (drink) ……………….. tea for five and a half hours!

B: I had better drink rose hip tea then; otherwise, I (nor, sleep)……………….. tonight.

14-   Next Friday, the Turkish-Japanese Trust (perform) ……………….. a selection of Turkish folk songs. A film crew from CNN (film) ……………….. the show.

15-   The match (begin) ……………….. by the time I (reach) ……………….. home and (turn) ………………..  on the television, so it (take) ……………….. me some time before I (find) ……………….. out which team (win) ……………….. at the time.

16-   A: Who was the boy you (sit) ……………….. next to on the bus just now. I (not, think) ……………….. I (see) ……………….. him around here before.

B: No, he is new. He (move) ……………….. here from Istanbul last week.

17-  There used to be a bus every hour from my village to town, but since the government (privatise) ……………….. the service, the company (reduce) ……………….. the service. Now buses (only, run)……………….. twice a day.

18-  While I (drink) ……………….. tea in the cafe, I (notice) ……………….. that they (not, change) ……………….. their calendar. It (still, be) ……………….. a 1999 one, although it (already, be) ……………….. February 2000.

19-   Karen claims that there’s a ghost at her house, but I (never, see) ……………….. it. She says last Friday, a ghastly scream (wake) ……………….. Louise, who (stay) ……………….. with her at the time. When she (open) ……………….. her eyes, a lady with a lantern and dressed in Victorian clothing (enter) ……………….. her room.

20-   Normally, Janet (work) ……………….. seven days a week as a florist, but she (not, open) ……………….. her shop yesterday because she (move) ……………….. into her new house.

 

EXERCISE 15    :    Complete the following passage using the appropriate forms of the verbs in parentheses.

Dear Glenda

I (1.write) ……………….. this postcard on a train. We (2.travel) ……………….. across Turkey at the moment. We (3.leave) ……………….. Erzurum at half past eleven this morning and (4. so far, reach) ……………….. as far as the Euphrates River. We (5.pass) ……………….. through some remote mountain  villages. In several hours, we (6.reach) ……………….. Sivas, where the train (7.stop) ……………….. for about ten minutes. I (8.start) ……………….. the new John Grisham novel on holiday. Do you remember that you (9.recommend) ……………….. it to me when I (10.last, see) ……………….. you? By the time we (11.arrive) ……………….. in Istanbul, I (12.probably, finish) ……………….. it. We (13.have) ……………….. a great time in Erzurum. Only yesterday we (14.ski) ……………….. down the slopes of the Palandöken Mountains. The sun (15.shine) ……………….. and the sky (16.be) ……………….. blue. When we (17.reach) ……………….. Ankara, I (18.post) ……………….. this card to you. We (19.still have) ……………….. a long way to go. By the end of our journey, we (20.travel) ……………….. for about thirty-six hours and (21.cover) ……………….. 1600 kilometres of Turkey. I (22.hope) ……………….. to see you soon.

Yours, Gill

EXERCISE  16   :    Complete the following passage using the appropriate forms of the verbs in parentheses.

The School

The first time Bob Green (1.tour) ……………….. the school, rain (2.pour) ……………….. through the roof. At that time, the school (3.rank) ……………….. fourth from the bottom of the National League Tables. In the school’s history, vandals (4.burn) ……………….. the school to the ground twice. On his appointment as headmaster, Bob Green (5.put) ……………….. his plans for the school into action. He (6.ask) ……………….. the students to design a school uniform. They (7.choose) ……………….. navy and black. Before Bob Green’s appointment as headmaster, the  school’s regime (8.be) ……………….. authoritarian, but this (9.prove) ……………….. unsuccessful. However, he (10.relax) ……………….. the rules. He (11.allow) ……………….. staff to call him by  his first name and (12.chat) ……………….. to pupils. Some teachers (13.not, agree) ……………….. with his approach and some (14.even, leave) ……………….. . Recently, Mr Green (15.take) ……………….. drastic measures on some matters. For example, to combat truancy, teachers now  (16.contact) ……………….. parents the same day a child (17.fail) ……………….. to attend class.  To solve the problem of lack of equipment, he (18.ask) ……………….. for the support and sponsorship from local businesses. So far he (19.raise) ……………….. enough money to build an   extension and to buy scientific and educational equipment. He (20.provide) ……………….. facilities for pupils with creative talents such as art. sport and music. Since she (21.leave) ………………. school, a former pupil, Julia Reeves, (22.sing) ……………….. in a professional  choir and staged musicals. The school (23.lie) ……………….. about half way up the National League Tables at the moment, but Bob Green (24.hope) ……………….. that in next year’s league tables, the school (25.be) ……………….. somewhere near the top.

EXERCISE   17  : I) Complete the following passage using the appropriate forms of the verbs in parentheses.

BLACK AFRICANS IN BRITAIN

Today, many people in Britain (1.believe) that the black African community (2.begin) to form in Britain after World War II. It is true that in 1948, the first large group of  Caribbean immigrants (3.come) …..………. to London on the ‘SS Empire Windrush’ and that in the 50s and 60s. many immigrants (4.arrive) ……. to fill shortages of labour in hospitals, factories and transportation systems. However, the black African community in Britain (15.be) …..………. far older than merely 50 years. In fact, archaeological finds (6.suggest)……….. that black Africans (7.fight) …..………. in the Roman army, which (8.conquer) …………. British Isles in 50 AD. In 1503, Catherine of Anigon (9.land) …..………. in England with her African attendants in order to marry King Henry VIII. A London register (10.list) ………… Black man by the name of Correlius living there in 1593. Between 1596 and 1601 black communities around London’s ports (11.expand) ………… so wide that fearful of their power. Queen Elizabeth I (12.expel) …………. all ‘Blacks’ from her kingdom. Later, however. Blacks (13. return) ………….. to these islands, but usually as slaves and by the mid 1700s, it (14.become) …………..  quite fashionable to have a Black valet. Some of these slaves (15.later, become) ……….free men and, in 1807, the government (16. abolish)  …………. the British slave trade altogether. Sonic of these former slaves (17.publish) ……….. accounts of their lives. They (18.describe) ……. how they (19.live) ……. idyllic lives in Africa before. kidnappers (20.snatch) …………….. them. Other influxes of black Africans included soldiers who (21.fight) ……….. . for Britain in earlier wars such as in Africa or against Napoleon. Today there (22. be) ………….. over three million Blacks in Britain, fifteen percent of all university ,students (23.be) ………… Black or Asian. In sonic areas, however, the Black existence in Britain is under-represented, for example, in the military. Of the soldiers who (24.serve ) ……….. at the moment, only one percent (25.be) …….…… black. Recently, the military (26.give) …………….. themselves a target and they hope that, of the soldiers who (27.serve) ………….  in 2002. five percent (28.be) ………. black.

  1. II) Find words or phrases in the passage which mean the same as the following

COLUMN A                                                      COLUMN B

  1. a) a group of people living together in                    one locality, having common interests                      …………………………………………….
  2. b) a person who comes info a country to live there, but is not a native of that country          …………………………………………….
  3. c) deficiency, a lack, insufficiency …………………………………………….
  4. d) only …………………………………………….
  5. e) to overcome by force …………………………………………….
  6. f) someone who is accompanying another person to help or protect him/her                                                                             …………………………………………..
  7. g) an official record …………………………………………….
  8. h) a place where ships enler and exit, especially for commerce …………………………………………….
  9. i) to drive out …………………………………………….
  10. j) a person whose life/liberty is under someone                                                                             else’s control                                                                             …………………………………………….
  11. k) a male personal servant …………………………………………….

1)  put an end to                                                                              …………………………………………….

  1. m) a record of events, description …………………………………………….
  2. n) charmingly simple or picturesque, perfect …………………………………………….
  3. o) to take something/someone quickly by acting                                                                            very fast                                                                              …………………………………………….
  4. p) a steady arrival of people or things into a                      place, usually in large numbers                                                                              …………………………………………….
  5. q) the state of being in a particular place …………………………………………….
  6. r) a goal, an objective …………………………………………….

III)     Choose the correct answer according to the passage.

1-    According to the information in the passage, the history of Blacks in Britain started ……. .

  1. A) long after the Romans had conquered the British Isles
  2. B) with the influxes after World War II
  3. C) much earlier than it is commonly believed today
  4. D) about 50 years ago, at the beginning of World War II
  5. E) sometime between 1596 and 1601

2-    In the mid 1700s in London, the popular trend was …… .

  1. A) to be part of the black community
  2. B) to fight against slavery
  3. C) to keep an army of slaves
  4. D) to serve in the army
  5. E) to have a black manservant

3-    It is emphasised in the passage that …… .

  1. A) there are disproportionately few Blacks in the British army
  2. B) black students in Britain are just as successful as Whiles
  3. C) it was thanks to the black soldiers that the Romans conquered the British Isles
  4. D) more and more Blacks are applying to serve in the army
  5. E) London was the centre of slave trade in the sixteenth century
  6. IV) Complete the sentences selecting words from Column B in EXERCISE II.

1-    When Jess visited the town in England where her father was born, she looked up the record of her grandparents’ marriage in the church ………………….. .

2-    One of the boys was lying because they gave two different………………. of the incident.

3-    During civil unrest in Chiapas province in Mexico in 1996, the Mexican government
………….. all foreign tourists from the area.

4-    John watched the Sun’s eclipse in 1999 from a small cottage in the …………………. Cornish countryside.

5-    There was no trouble at the protest, which was probably due to the high police

 

 

EXERCISE    18 :  I) Complete the following passage using the appropriate forms of the verbs in parentheses.

TUTANKHAMUN

When the archaeologist Howard Carter (1.discover) ……………….. KingTutankhamun’s tomb, he (2.search) …………….  in the Valley of the Kings for many years. The debris from the construction of a later tomb (3.cover) …………... the entrance to this particular burial place.  When this adventurer (4.clear) ……………..… away some of this rubble, he (5.see) ……………… some steps, and shortly afterwards, he (6.uncover) ………….. the entrance to the tomb containing the treasures of this young king. Although these treasures (7.since, make) ……………. the name Tutankhamun known worldwide, we (8.still, know) ……………….. very little about his life. We (9.not, even, know) ………. who his parents (10.be). …….. . Whoever his parents (11.be) ………… his claim to the throne (12.be) ……….. strong enough for him to become Pharaoh of all Egypt. In 1333 BC. at nine years old, he (13.become) .... king. We (14.be) ……….. also unsure of how, suddenly at the age of 18. he (15.die) ………. but all the evidence (16.point) …… to murder. X-rays of his skull (17.reveal) ………….. a severe blow to the head. It (18.seem) …….... likely that this blow (19.kill) …… him. Whether he (20.suffer) …………….. this impact as a result of an accident or due to someone’s deliberate action, we cannot prove. It is clear, however, that he (21.die) ….…… unexpectedly and without heirs. Before 1972. Tutankhamun’s treasures (22.tour) …………. many countries including the USA, the UK, Russia, Japan, France. Canada and West Germany, but. because the treasures (23.suffer) …………. some damage during these exhibitions, they (24.never, leave) ………… Egypt now. It (25.be) ……………….. still possible for us, however, to see the beauty of these artifacts, without visiting Egypt, in the carefully crafted replicas of the official Tutankhamun exhibition.

  1. II) Find words or phrases in the passage which mean the same as the following definitions.

                              COLUMN A                                                           COLUMN B

  1. a) a place for storing/burying a dead body                                                                                    ………………………………………………………….
  2. b) scattered remains of a building (two                     different words)                                                                              ………………………………………………………….
  3. c) passage, door or opening for going in ………………………………………………………….
  4. d) riches accumulated, such as precious metals                    or gems                                                                              ………………………………………………………….
  5. e) to demand as one’s right ………………………………………………………….
  6. f) the position of being king, queen, emperor, etc. ………………………………………………………….
  7. g) something which proves or disproves                      something                                                                              ………………………………………………………….
  8. h) the bony framework of the head ………………………………………………………….
  9. i) a sudden strike with a hard object or fist ………………………………………………………….
  10. j) intentional, on purpose ………………………………………………………….
  11. k) someone, usually a relative, who inherits rank                    or property                                                                              ………………………………………………………….
  12. l) a public display of art works ………………………………………………………….
  13. m) a close copy or reproduction ………………………………………………………….

III)     Choose the correct answer according to the passage.

1- We can conclude from the passage that ……. .

  1. A) the replicas of the official Tutankhamun exhibition are more attractive than the originals
  2. B) the Treasures of Tutankhamun will continue to leave Egypt for overseas exhibitions
  3. C) you have to visit Egypt to see the original Treasures of Tutankhamun
  4. D) some pieces of the Treasures of Tutankhamun were stolen during the world tour
  5. E) Egyptian officials do not take care of Tutankhamun’s treasures, so they suffer gradual damage

2-    The passage reveals that Tutankhamun’s tomb was not easy to find because ……. .

  1. A) those who had buried him had paid special attention to hide his burial place
  2. B) his murderers had taken great trouble to hide their burying place
  3. C) there was very little evidence that he had existed at all
  4. D) discarded material from another burial place obscured it from view
  5. E) it wasn’t in the Valley of the Kings as they had suspected

3-   Tutankhamun’s name has become world famous because ……. .

  1. A) of the treasures found in his burial place
  2. B) because of the mystery surrounding his death
  3. C) of the scandal of the damaged treasures
  4. D) he was such a great king
  5. E) he was only nine years old when he became king
  6. IV) Complete the sentences selecting words from Column B in EXERCISE II.

1-     There is a special ……………… gold jewellery from Ancient Greece at the New York Metropolitan Museum this week.

2-     After his arrest, the police discovered that the robber hadn’t threatened the bank cashier with a real gun. It was, actually, only a/an ………………….. .

3-     I’m sure the children broke your window merely by accident — it was not a/an   ………………….. action.

4-     The divers found ……………..consisting of gold coins and jewellery on the 17th century Spanish ship.

5-     Prince Charles, the Queen’s son, is the …………. to the United Kingdom throne.

 

 

EXAMPLES FROM ÖYS/YDS

 

1-   By the  time  school opens  again, I ……. in this restaurant eight weeks.

  1. A) would have worked
  2. B) will have worked
  3. C) would work
  4. D) would have to work
  5. E) had been working

(ÖYS   1990)

2-  The loud applause …….. how deeply the music ……… the audience.

  1. A) shows / would affect
  2. B) showed / affected
  3. C) had shown / could affect
  4. D) would have shown / have affected
  5. E) may show / had affected

(ÖYS   1991)

3-   This   is   the   twentieth   patient the doctor ………. today.

  1. A) had examined B) was examined
  2. C) has examined D)  was examining E)   have examined

(ÖYS   1991)

4-   I have noticed that since I …….. the university, my life …… much more interesting.

  1. A) was entering / had become
  2. B) have entered / becomes
  3. C) had entered / became
  4. D) enler / is becoming
  5. E) entered / has become

(ÖYS  1992)

5-   While   I   …….   for  my  aunt outside the shop, someone …….. my purse.

  1. A) waited / had been grabbing
  2. B) had waited / was grabbing
  3. C) was waiting / grabbed
  4. D) had to wait / had grabbed
  5. E) have been waiting /would have grabbed

(ÖYS 1992)

6-   When Queen Victoria …….. in 1901, she ……… for 63 years.

  1. A) died / had been reigning
  2. B) had died / reigned
  3. C) died / was reigning
  4. D) has died / reigned
  5. E) died / has reigned

(ÖYS   1993)

7-   I ran into him at 10 o’clock this morning just before the board meeting; I ……. him since.

  1. A) will not have seen E) didn’t see
    C)  
    haven’t seen              D) hadn’t seen
    E)  
    couldn’t  see

(ÖYS   J 993)

8-   Since  1950 the world …….. nearly one-fifth of the top soil from its agricultural land and one-fifth of its tropical forests.

  1. A) was losing         B)   is losing
  2. C) had been lost D)   has lost
  3. E) loses

(ÖYS 1994)

9-   So far I’ve only written half of the report, but I ……… all of it by Saturday.

  1. A) will have linished
  2. B) have finished
  3. C) finish
  4. D) finished
  5. E) might have finished

(ÖYS 1995)

10- I suppose you …… the contract and understand what it …… .

  1. A) read/has meant
  2. B) will read /meant
  3. C) have read/means
  4. D) had read/would mean
  5. E) are reading/mean

(ÖYS 1995)

11-  When I …….. into the cafe she …….. by herself at one of the tables near the window.

  1. A) walked/was sitting
  2. B) am walking/sat
  3. C) was walking/has sat
  4. D) have walked/would sit
  5. E) walk/has been sitting

(ÖYS  1996)

12- As soon as I ……… paid I ………  all out for a meal.

  1. A) have got/would take
  2. B) got/have taken
  3. C) will get/will take
  4. D) get/will take
  5. E) am getting/was taking

(ÖYS 1996)

13- He said he …… me today, but so far he ….. .

  1. A) will phone/doesn’t
  2. B) had phoned/hadn’t
  3. C) would phone/hasn’t
  4. D) phones/isn’t
  5. E) phoned/didn’t

(ÖYS 1996)

14-  I’m quite sure that Nigel wants to help you, but that doesn’t mean he ……. able to do so.

  1. A) has been
  2. B) will be
  3. C) had been
  4. D) would have been
  5. E) was

(ÖYS 1997)

15-  When I ……….. into his office at 11 o’clock he ……….. his coffee.

  1. A) will go/will have
  2. B) go/has had
  3. C) was going/has
  4. D) went/was having
  5. E) have gone/would be having

(ÖYS 1997)

16- Jane told me that she …….. to ring me all morning.

  1. A) had been trying
  2. B) has been trying
  3. C) will be trying
  4. D) has tried
  5. E) will have tried

(ÖYS 1997)

17- Jane …….. to the library; she ……. there every Friday morning.

  1. A) went/was going
  2. B) has gone/goes
  3. C) is going/would go
  4. D) had gone/went
  5. E) was going/is going

(ÖYS 1998)

18-  I……… the holiday enormously even though the weather ……… disappointing.

  1. A) enjoy/would have been
  2. B) had enjoyed/has been
  3. C) have enjoyed/was being
  4. D) enjoyed/was
  5. E) am enjoying/had been

(ÖYS 1998)

19- By the time the general manager …… back from his inspection tour of the overseas branches, the staff here …… the annual report.

  1. A) had got/completed
  2. B) has got/will complete
  3. C) got/have completed
  4. D) gets/will have completed
  5. E) will get/would have completed

(YDS 1999)

20-  As we ……. our plans for the weekend, my brother …… to say he wanted to come round.

  1. A) have made/had called
  2. B) made/was calling
  3. C) were making/called
  4. D) make/has called
  5. E) will make/would call

(YDS 1999)

21- During recent years, many people …… interested in Turkish music.

  1. A) might become
  2. B) are becoming
  3. C) had become
  4. D) would become
  5. E) have become

(YDS 2000)

22-  I hope that, by next summer, I …… up enough to go to Italy for a holiday.

  1. A) will have saved
  2. B) would have saved
  3. C) would save
  4. D) have saved
  5. E) had saved

(YDS 2000)

23- He ….. a book in the garden when I …… there.

  1. A) will read/have got
  2. B) is reading/will get
  3. C) was reading/got
  4. D) would be reading/was getting
  5. E) had read/had got

(YDS 2001)

24- They …… Bursa before, so they ….. what to expect.

  1. A) weren’t visiting/haven’t known
  2. B) haven’t visited /haven’t known
  3. C) didn’t visit/hadn’t known
  4. D) don’t visit/won’t know
  5. E) hadn’t visited/didn’t know

(YDS 2001)

 

“TEST YOURSELF” BÖLÜMÜNDEKİ SORULARI YANITLARKEN NELERE DİKKAT EDECEKSİNİZ?

1-   Eğer verilen cümlede “when, by the time, until, before,etc.”   gibi bir zaman bağlacı varsa,temel cümle ile yan cümle arasında mutlaka bir tense uyuşması gerekmektedir.

By the time he gets here, we will have finished our work.

By the time he got here, we had finished our work.

2-   Cümlede zaman bağlacı yoksa, o zaman o cümlenin tense’ini bulmamızı sağlayacak bir zaman zarfı vardır. Özellikle belli tense’lerin kendilerine özgü olan zaman zarflarına dikkat ediniz.

I haven’t seen him since yesterday.

I saw him two days ago.

3-   “Eşanlamlı Cümleler”   bölümünde su iki noktaya dikkal etmeniz gerekir:

  1. a) Size verilen cümle ile doğru seçenekteki cümle aynı zamanı ifade etmelidir. Yani, past time ile ifade edilmiş bir cümlenin eşanlamlısı yine past time

“I will wait at home until my mother comes.” cümlesinin eşanlamlısı

“I waited al home   until   my mother came.”    olamaz. Ancak, aynı anlamı şu cümle ile ifade edebiliriz.

“I won’t leave home before my mother comes.”

  1. b) Eşanlamlı iki cümlenin zamirleri arasında (pronouns) bir eşitlik olması gerekir. Yani, verilen cümledeki zamirler ne ise, doğru seçenekteki zamirler de aynı kişi ya da kişileri ifade etmelidir.

“I can’t finish this job if no one helps me.” cümlesinin eşanlamlısı

“I can   finish   this job only if you help me.”   olamaz. Çünkü bize verilen cümlede “you” diye birinden sözedilmiyor. Bu cümlenin eşanlamlısını şöyle ifade edebiliriz.

“I can finish this job only if someone helps me.” or

“I can finish this job only if I get some help.”

 

 

 

 

TEST YOURSELF 1

 

 

1-40. sorularda , cümlede bırakılan boşluğu uygun şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.

1-  Normally, people ……. quickly from the flu, but so far this year many people ……. as a result of it.

  1. A) are recovering/had died
  2. B) had recovered/are going to die
  3. C) have been recovering/die
  4. D) recover/have died
  5. E) were recovering/will die

2-  You ……. for three months by the time you leave for your holiday, so you ……. quite a lot of weight.

  1. A) have been dieting/will be losing
  2. B) will have been dieting/will have lost
  3. C) had dieted/lost
  4. D) were dieting/had lost
  5. E) are going to diet/have lost

3-    Carreta turtles ……. their eggs on the beach at night and ……. the reflection from the sea to find their way back to the water.

  1. A) lay/use
  2. B) were laying/have used
  3. C) are going to lay/used
  4. D) laid/arc using
  5. E) will lay/had used

4-  By the mid 1970s, ‘Marks and Spencer’ ……. one of the top department stores and they ……. more underwear than any other British company at the time.

  1. A) had become/were selling
  2. B) is going to become/had sold
  3. C) has become/arc selling
  4. D) became/will be selling
  5. E) was becoming/will have sold

5-   I ……. the potatoes while you …. the leeks for the soup.

  1. A) peeled/will be chopping
  2. B) will have peeled/have chopped
  3. C) was peeling/had chopped
  4. D) peel/will have chopped
  5. E) will peel/chop

6-  For the past 24 hours, a tropical storm ……. the houses of villages in Mozambique, but it is hard to know as yet how much damage it ……. by the time it has stopped.

  1. A) was going to batter/causes
  2. B) battered/will have been causing
  3. C) has been battering/will have caused
  4. D) had been battering/has caused
  5. E) is battering/has been causing

7-   By 1840, the US Army ……. most Eastern Indian tribes west of the Mississippi.

  1. A) will have pushed
  2. B) have pushed
  3. C) had pushed
  4. D) pushed
  5. E) are pushing

8-   For most of the time throughout the picnic, the boys ……. football while the girls ……. flowers.

  1. A) will play/have been picking
  2. B) are playing/will be picking
  3. C) have played/are picking
  4. D) were playing/were picking
  5. E) had been playing/have picked

9-    Over recent years, glue sniffing, which ……. negative effects on both the body and the mind, ……. a major problem among teenagers.

  1. A) has had/is becoming
  2. B) has/has become
  3. C) is going to have/had become
  4. D) will have/will have become
  5. E) is having/was becoming

10- Chinese merchants ……. trade in Tibet since 1950, when China ……. the country.

  1. A) dominate/was invading
  2. B) were dominating/has invaded
  3. C) will have dominated/had invaded
  4. D) had dominated/will be invading
  5. E) have dominated/invaded

11- In 1619, the first African slaves ……. in Virginia, USA, and by 1790, their numbers ……. nearly 700,000.

  1. A) wore arriving/have been reaching
  2. B) arrived/had reached .
  3. C) have arrived /were reaching
  4. D) were going to arrive/reach
  5. E) had arrived/will have reached

12- We ……. a lovely view of the Bosphorus and the bridges over it while the plane …… over Istanbul.

  1. A) are getting/flies
  2. B) had got/is flying
  3. C) got/was flying
  4. D) get/has flown
  5. E) are getting/had been flying

13- When they ……. in Sydney Harbour, they ……. non-stop for three months.

  1. A) anchor/will have been sailing
  2. B) were anchoring/sailed
  3. C) have anchored/were sailing
  4. D) are anchoring/have been sailing
  5. E) are going to anchor/have sailed

14- According to the new schedule the whole team have accepted, we ……. every Monday and Wednesday next term, but I’m sure we ……. back to our normal routine of once a week before long.

  1. A) had trained/revert
  2. B) train/have reverted
  3. C) are training/reverted
  4. D) arc going to train/will revert
  5. E) have been training/are reverting

15- The prospector ran into town in excitement because, at last, he .. some gold at the site which he … for months.

  1. A) was finding/was panning
  2. B) will find/is going to pan
  3. C) will have found/has panned
  4. D) had found/had been panning
  5. E) found/will have panned

16- I expect you ……. bored with working at the Post Office by this tim.e next year and ……. for a more interesting job.

  1. A) have become/will have looked
  2. B) were becoming/are going to look
  3. C) become/will look
  4. D) will become/arc looking
  5. E) will have become/will be looking

17- Listen! The coach ……. the strengths of our opponents because our team ……. against them before.

  1. A) has explained/weren’t playing
  2. B) explains/won’t play
  3. C) is explaining/haven’t played
  4. D) was explaining/don’t play
  5. E) will explain/hadn’t been playing

18- When I ……. the alterations to the company accounts, I was left in no doubt that the accountant ……. money from the firm.

  1. A) saw/had been stealing
  2. B) am seeing/has stolen
  3. C) was seeing/was stealing
  4. D) have seen/will have stolen
  5. E) see/steals

19- According to the doctor, this time next week, I ……. around as normal and the cut on my foot ……. completely.

  1. A) am walking/healed
  2. B) will be walking/mil have healed
  3. C) walked/was healing
  4. D) have been walking/heals
  5. E) walk/is going to heal

20- Shadow puppets ……. in China and ……. as far as Turkey and Greece today.

  1. A) will originate/have been spreading
  2. B) are originating/will be spreading
  3. C) originate/had spread
  4. D) originated/have spread
  5. E) will have originated/were spreading

21- Over recent years, many skilled craftsmen and women ……. their jobs in the pottery trade in the UK, but  gradually English porcelain ……. its reputation.

  1. A) will have lost/will regain
  2. B) had been losing/has regained
  3. C) lost/regains
  4. D) are losing/regained
  5. E) have lost/is regaining

22- After she ……. to turn up for our appointment for the third time, I ……. to meet her again.

  1. A) is failing/am refusing
  2. B) has failed/had refused
  3. C) was failing/will refuse
  4. D) had been failing/have refused
  5. E) had foiled/refused

23- Since I took part in my first debating match, I ……. a member of the debating club, which I ……. most weekends.

  1. A) will have been/have attended
  2. B) have been/attend
  3. C) will be/was attending
  4. D) am/had been attending
  5. E) was/am attending

24- By the first half of the 19th century, the potato ……. the staple food in Ireland. In 1854, a disease ……. which resulted in widespread starvation.

  1. A) was becoming/has struck
  2. B) will become/was going to strike
  3. C) had become/struck
  4. D) was going to become/strikes
  5. E) has become/has struck

25- The origins of domestic poultry ……. uncertain, but experts believe that some breeds are descended from the Indian jungle-fowl, which still ……. in India today.

  1. A) are going to be/will exist
  2. B) had been/will have existed
  3. C) were/had been existing
  4. D) are/exists
  5. E) have been/existed

26- In 1868, the US government ……. 7,000 Navajo Indians to return to their homeland and, since then, they ……. the largest and richest Indian tribe.

  1. A) allowed/have become
  2. B) has allowed/are becoming
  3. C) was going to allow/will become
  4. D) had allowed/were becoming
  5. E) was allowing/become

27- In 1960, only 2,000 American Indians ……. at university, while in 1970, only a decade later, this number ……. to 12,000.

  1. A) are studying/is increasing
  2. B) were studying/had increased
  3. C) will be studying/will have increased
  4. D) studied/will increase
  5. E) had studied/was increasing

28- Today we ……. a lot of tangerines at one pound per kilo, unlike yesterday, when we ……. very few customers.

  1. A) were selling/have had
  2. B) are selling/had
  3. C) had been selling/had had
  4. D) sold/will have had
  5. E) are going to sell/will be having

29- A: Isn’t that your daughter playing outside without a coat on? She ……. a chill.

B: She has a thermal vest on under her pullover, but you have a point. I ……. her coat.

  1. A) was catching/am fetching
  2. B) is catching/fetch
  3. C) will be catching/have fetched
  4. D) will catch /will fetch
  5. E) catches/am going to fetch

30- The number of orders per week …… all year and the sales manager is confident that we ……. our target.

  1. A) has increased/had been reaching
  2. B) will increase/have been reaching
  3. C) increases/reached
  4. D) increased/reach
  5. E) has been increasing/will reach

31- As the police ……. the road, we ……. a time-consuming detour around the mountain.

  1. A) are dosing/were making
  2. B) will close/had made
  3. C) had closed/made
  4. D) will have closed/had been making
  5. E) close/have made

32- I ……. some shopping during my lunch break, but I couldn’t as I … awful because of my cold.

  1. A) was going to do/fell
  2. B) have done/have felt
  3. C) will do/am feeling
  4. D) did/was feeling
  5. E) do/will have felt

33- By the time the work on their house is finished, they ……. the painters, decorators and carpenters a total of £8,000. They ……. a beautiful new kitchen, though.

  1. A) are paying/have had
  2. B) paid/are having
  3. C) had paid/were having
  4. D) will have paid/will have
  5. E) have paid/have

34- I feel certain that Greg ……. in his new business because he ……. so hard all the time.

  1. A) is succeeding/will work
  2. B) will succeed/works
  3. C) was succeeding/is going to work
  4. D) had succeeded/will be working
  5. E) has succeeded/had worked

35- Before Petar Preradovic ……. poems in his native Croatian, he ……. all his poems in German.

  1. A) has published/is writing
  2. B) is publishing/was writing
  3. C) published/had written
  4. D) had published/will have written
  5. E) has been publishing/has written

36- I ……. some notes earlier and ……. to them during my presentation. In the event, however, I didn’t use them once.

  1. A) will have written/will refer
  2. B) am going to write/refer
  3. C) had written/was going to refer
  4. D) wrote/have referred
  5. E) write/will have referred

37- Because of Istanbul’s geographical location, it ……. a place of trade since civilisation ……

  1. A) is/was beginning
  2. B) was/has begun
  3. C) will be/had begun
  4. D) had been/is beginning
  5. E) has been/began

38- When Boris Yeltsin ……. on 31st December 1999, he ……. President of Russia for eight years.

  1. A) had resigned/was
  2. B) has resigned/is
  3. C) will have resigned /will be
  4. D) resigned/had been
  5. E) resigns/is being

39- The circumference of a circle ……. 3.14159265 times its diameter no matter how small or large it is.

  1. A) measures
  2. B) measured
  3. C) will be measuring
  4. D) had measured
  5. E) was measuring

40- At present, British farmers ……. to the government because since the EC lifted the ban on British beef, the French ……. to buy any.

  1. A) were protesting/refused
  2. B) are protesting/have refused
  3. C) had protested/were refusing
  4. D) will protest/refuse
  5. E) protest/will be refusing
4150. sorularda, yarım bırakılan cümleyi uygun şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.

41- She hasn’t washed anything delicate in the washing machine ……. .

  1. A) until she bought some special soap powder
  2. B) since she shrank her favourite Shetland wool cardigan
  3. C) even when her mother offered to wash it for her
  4. D) until the garment becomes really faded
  5. E) because she thought it was better to handwash it

42- …… we will probably have eaten, but I’ll keep your dinner warm in the oven.

  1. A) Until we move the office to the city centre
  2. B) While you were travelling to Edinburgh
  3. C) As soon as he had got the job as a chef
  4. D) While I am cooking lasagne
  5. E) By the time you get home from Carlisle

43-  ……… suddenly, he had a great idea how to make the farm profitable.

  1. A) Until he has obtained the loan from the bank
  2. B) When he hires two new farm workers
  3. C) While he was milking the cows
  4. D) Whenever he considered selling the bottom field
  5. E) Ever since his son told him he wanted to be a lawyer

 

44- …… by the time you have unpacked.

  1. A) We were all in the living room watching television
  2. B) We have just run out of hot water
  3. C) You haven’t had time to take a shower
  4. D) The water will be hot enough for a bath
  5. E) You are taking quite a long time

45- Before the riders mount their horses, ……. .

  1. A) they usually went for a gallop around the paddock
  2. B) the horses were mostly thoroughbreds
  3. C) they were riding without wearing riding hats
  4. D) the instructor checks the bridle and saddle of the horses
  5. E) they watched some experienced riders jump over the fences

46- He qualified as a pilot just three months ago, but since then ……. .

  1. A) he has flown across the Atlantic several times
  2. B) he was fulfilling a lifetime ambition
  3. C) he usually works as a co-pilot
  4. D) he is terribly afraid of flying
  5. E) he probably won’t have any financial

47- It was only after she had visited her doctor that ….. .

  1. A) she has been worrying about the rash on her scalp
  2. B) her rash began to disappear
  3. C) she will have been suffering for two months
  4. D) she is feeling much better
  5. E) she has decided to ask at the chemist

48- ….. as soon as they find out the exact weight of the shipment.

  1. A) We suspected that they had overcharged us again
  2. B) They had been asking us for some business for weeks
  3. C) Perhaps they have delivered our goods
  4. D) They will let us know the precise cost of transportation
  5. E) The shipping company charges seven dollars per kilogram

49- Until the manager dropped the football star from the team, ….. .

  1. A) he has scored more goals than his team mates this season
  2. B) he won’t play for them in the future
  3. C) he expects to get an offer from a European club
  4. D) he doesn’t expect to get picked next season
  5. E) he really believed that he was indispensable

50-  …….. when thieves stole the radio cassette player.

  1. A) He has decided to pay in instalments
  2. B) The police aren’t doing enough to catch the thieves
  3. C) You have been waiting so long for the dealer to deliver your new stereo
  4. D) I don’t think the robbers will be sent to prison
  5. E) He had only just taken delivery of his new car
51-60. sorularda, cümleyi uygun şekilde tamamlayan sözcüğü bulunuz.

51- The main character was so funny that we laughed continually ……. the whole play.

  1. A) during B) until
  2. C) while D) as soon as
  3. E) before

52- She attended a supplementary  Mathematics course ……. she was studying for her ‘Advanced Calculus’ examination.

  1. A) before B) during
  2. C) while D) by the time
  3. E) after

53- I discussed the new advertisement with him over the telephone, but I haven’t spoken to him ……. then.

  1. A) before B) by
  2. C) during D) until
  3. E) since

54- ……. I read about his death in the newspaper, I sent a sympathy card to his widow.

  1. A) Before B) By the time
  2. C) During D) While
  3. E) As soon as

55- So much snow had covered the mountaineer that ……. they dug him out, he had almost frozen to death.

  1. A) while B) by the time
  2. C) until D) as soon as
  3. E) after

56- Joanna received treatment for many years ……… her cancer finally disappeared.

  1. A) by the time B) since
  2. C) as D) before
  3. E) while

57- She is very scared of dogs, so ……. she sees one, she gives it as much room as possible.

  1. A) whenever B) by the time
  2. C) while D) since

                         E)just as

58- We won’t be able to ski ……. this fog clears. It’s far too dangerous at the moment.

  1. A) while B) just as
  2. C) until D) by the time
  3. E) when

59-  ……. I was about to leave the office, the telephone rang and I’m glad I  answered it because a customer wanted to place a large order.

  1. A) Before B) Just as
  2. C) By the time D) While
  3. E) Since

60- Many people had drunk the contaminated water ……. the council informed the residents of the chemical spill.

  1. A) by the time B) since
  2. C) while D) after
  3. E) just as
61-70. sorularda, verilen cümleye anlamca en yakın olan seçeneği bulunuz.

61- The internet has become accessible to most people because computer prices have fallen and internet cafes have sprung up in the last few years.

  1. A) Lack of money is no longer a barrier to access to the Internet because those who can’t afford to buy a computer can go to computer cafes.
  2. B) A lew years ago, only the rich had been able to afford a computer, but due to falling prices, everyone can own one.
  3. C) Most people access the Internet on their own computer or at internet cafes, which are springing up everywhere.
  4. D) As the cost of a computer has dropped and internet cafes have opened up over recent years, the Internet is now only inaccessible to very few people.
  5. E) Because of falling prices and internet cafes opening up all over the place, everyone in the world will have access to the Internet soon.

62- Vicki wasn’t feeling well yesterday, so for once, I beat her at badminton.

  1. A) I always lose to Vicki at badminton, but yesterday was an exception because of her ill health.
  2. B) I usually beat Vicki at badminton, but yesterday I lost, though this was due to my ill health.
  3. C) I have only once won at badminton and that was against Vicki, who actually wasn’t feeling well at the time.
  4. D) Despite not feeling very well, Vicki beat me yesterday at badminton as she normally does.
  5. E) I beat Vicki for the first time yesterday at badminton, but she blamed her ill health for her defeat.

63- John has been responsible for sales in the Midlands since his promotion by the firm two months ago.

  1. A) The company promoted John two months ago and since then he has had the responsibility for sales in the Midlands.
  2. B) Before the company promoted John, he had the responsibility for sales in the Midlands for two months.
  3. C) John had the responsibility for Midland sales two months before his company promoted him.
  4. D) John has had the responsibility lor Midland sales for two months and his company has just promoted him.
  5. E) In two months’ time. John’s company will promote him and he will be responsible for sales in the Midlands.

64- I last hiked this sort of distance at university and, not surprisingly, I was much fitter then.

  1. A) You will be surprised to learn that I was much fitter a! university and could walk distances like this with no difficulty at all.
  2. B) I’m surprisingly fit considering that I haven’t done a walk of this length since university.
  3. C) Naturally, I’m tired as I’m not accustomed to walking so far. bul I was much fitter when I was at university.
  4. D) I’m not surprised I’m finding walking so far more difficult than last time, as I was attending university then.
  5. E) I haven’t walked such a distance since I was at university, when I was much fitter, of course.

65- FIFA football, which I played with my nephew last week, was the first computer game I had played in my life.

  1. A) I had never played a computer game until I played FIFA football with my nephew last
  2. B) I have never played any computer games, but my nephew played FIFA football last week.
  3. C) I beat my nephew on the computer game FIFA football last week for the first time ever.
  4. D) I had never used a computer until I played FIFA football last week with my nephew.
  5. E) I had never allowed my nephew to use my computer before, but he played FIFA football on it last week.

66- As the crust tasted like cardboard, that was the last time I ever tried to make an apple pie.

  1. A) I bought an apple pie for them instead of trying to make one myself because last time my pie crust resembled cardboard.
  2. B) They didn’t like my apple pie because it lasted like cardboard, so I won’t bake another one.
  3. C) Every time I try to make an apple pic. it tastes a bit like cardboard, so I’m going to give up trying.
  4. D) I never attempted to bake an apple pie again because the crust of my last attempt resembled cardboard in taste.
  5. E) The moment I saw my last apple pie come out of the oven, I knew it was another disastrous attempt as it had less taste than cardboard.

67- She stopped worrying about her son when he telephoned her from the university.

  1. A) She worries a lot about her son. who is at university, so he phones her frequently.
  2. B) He phoned his mother from the university because he didn’t want her to worry about him.
  3. C) After her son phoned her from the university, she was no longer worried about him.
  4. D) He phones his mother from the university because he knows she worries about him.
  5. E) After her son promised to phone her when he arrived at the university, she stopped worrying.

68- I didn’t feel sick once during the ferry trip from Italy to Turkey.

  1. A) Usually, I get sick whenever I travel on the ferry from Italy to Turkey.
  2. B) Although the sea between Italy and Turkey was rough, I wasn’t sick once.
  3. C) This time my ferry trip to Turkey from Italy wasn’t spoilt by my being unwell.
  4. D) I was quite sick while I was travelling to Turkey from Italy by ferry.
  5. E) I felt well throughout the sea crossing to Turkey from Italy.

69- My father has mastered four foreign languages so far in his life.

  1. A) At the moment, my father is learning four different languages.
  2. B) Up to now, my father has learnt four languages thoroughly in addition to his own.
  3. C) This is the fourth language my father has learnt already, and soon, he will start studying another one.
  4. D) My father can’t decide which of the four languages to study.
  5. E) By the time my father has learnt this language, he will be able to speak four different ones.

70- Lena Zavoroni had suffered for nearly twenty years before she died of an eating disorder.

  1. A) Lena Zavoroni passed away because of eating loo little for over twenty years.
  2. B) When Lena Zavoroni died twenty-years ago, she was suffering from an eating disorder.
  3. C) After almost twenty years of suffering from an eating disorder, Lena Zavoroni passed away.
  4. D) Almost twenty years of eating unhealthy food caused the death of Lena Zavoroni.
  5. E) Lena Zavoroni’s death was a result of twenty years of overeating.
71-75. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümlenin İngilizce dengini bulunuz.

71- Programa göre kurtarma ekibi, afet bölgesine gitmek üzere yarın şafakta yola çıkıyor.

  1. A) The schedule says that the rescue team is leaving the disaster area tomorrow at dawn.
  2. B) The rescue team is keeping to the schedule and arriving at the disaster area tomorrow at dawn.
  3. C) According to the schedule, the rescue team is leaving for the . disaster area tomorrow at dawn.
  4. D) If they follow the schedule, the rescue team will have arrived at the disaster area tomorrow by dawn.
  5. E) The rescue team is scheduled to go to the disaster area tomorrow before dawn.

72- İlk Avrupalı kaşifler Amerika’ya ayak bastığında. Amerikan yerlileri binlerce yıldır orada yaşıyorlardı.

  1. A) When the first European explorers landed in America, they were greeted by Native Americans, who had lived there for millennia.
  2. B) America has been inhabited for thousands of years; originally by Natives and later by Europeans.
  3. C) At the time of the European exploration of America, the area was inhabited by Native Americans, who had been living there for millennia.
  4. D) When the first European explorers set foot in America, the Native Americans had been living there for thousands of years.
  5. E) European explorers arrived in America to find Native Americans, settlers from thousands of years earlier, living there.

73- Gece yansına kadar katılımcıların sadece dördü konuşma yapabilmişti.

  1. A) Although it was past midnight, only four participants had given their speeches.
  2. B) Unfortunately, only four speeches had been completed by midnight.
  3. C) It was past midnight and we had heard only four of the speeches.
  4. D) Only four of the participants had managed to give their speeches by midnight.
  5. E) With the speeches by four participants, the discussion lasted until midnight.

74- Vücut hareketleri ve yüz ifadeleriyle bale, insan duygularının tümünü çok estetik bir biçimde anlatır.

  1. A) Through bodily movements and facial expressions, ballet expresses the full range of human emotions very aesthetically.
  2. B) The beauty of ballet is that it expresses human emotions aesthetically using both bodily movements and facial expressions.
  3. C) Ballet is a combination of bodily movements and facial expressions, which can aesthetically display every possible human emotion.
  4. D) The beauty of ballet’s bodily movements is enhanced by facial expressions, which express the full range of human emotions.
  5. E) Ballet combines bodily movements with facial expressions in order to express all of the human emotions, and it does this very aesthetically.

75- Argo çoğunlukla toplumun alt tabakalarında ortaya çıkar ve daha sonra yavaş yavaş kendini toplumun geneline kabul ettirir.

  1. A) Many words used by the general public were originally slang expressions within a subgroup, but they slowly became widely accepted.
  2. B) Slang words are often first used on the margins of society and later become accepted by the general public.
  3. C) Slang, usually first used by specific cultural groups, becomes accepted extremely slowly by the rest of the society.
  4. D) Society’s subgroups often use slang words, but sometimes these words slowly become accepted by the general public.
  5. E) Slang often originates in society’s subgroups and then works its way slowly into acceptance by the general public.
76-80. sorularda, verilen İngilizce cümlenin Türkçe dengini bulunuz.

76- The artifacts from the tomb of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen, including the magnificent golden mask, are on display at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.

  1. A) Kahire’de Mısır Müzesi’nde gösterime sunulan Mısır Firavunu Tulankamen’in mezarından çıkarılan ve altın maskeyi de içeren sanat eserleri muhteş
  2. B) Mısır Firavunu Tutankamen’in mezarından çıkarılan sanat eserleri, muhteşem altın maske dahil. Kahire de Mısır Müzesi’nde gösterimdedir.
  3. C) Muhteşem altın maske dahil, Mısır Firavunu Tutankamen’in mezarından çıkarılan sanat eserleri Kahire’de Mısır Müzesi’nde gösterime sunulacaktı
  4. D) Kahire’de Mısır Müzesi’nde gösterim­de olan, muhteşem altın maske dahil, sanat eserleri Mısır Firavunu Tutankamen’in mezarından çıkarılmıştı
  5. E) Mısır Firavunu Tutankamen’in mezarında bulunan sanat eserleri ve muhteşem allın maske Kahire’de Mısır Müzesi’nde sergilendi.

77- The destruction of Brazil’s rain forests, in the name of economic progress, diminishes the amount of oxygen over the whole Earth.

  1. A) Ekonomik gelişme sağlanırken bir yandan tüm dünya üzerindeki oksijen miktarının azalması, Brezilya’nın yağmur ormanlarının yok olmasına neden olmuş
  2. B) Tüm dünyanın üzerindeki oksijen miktarının azalmasının nedeni, ekonomik gelişme sağlamak için Brezilya’daki yağmur ormanlarının yok edilmesidir.
  3. C) Brezilya’nın yağmur ormanlarının yok edilmesi, ekonomik gelişme adına da olsa; dünyanın üzerindeki oksijen miktarını azaltmıştı
  4. D) Ekonomik gelişme adına Brezilya’nın yağmur ormanlarının yok edilmesi, tüm dünyanın üzerindeki oksijen miktarını azaltı
  5. E) Brezilya’nın ekonomik gelişme adına yağmur ormanlarını yok etmesi, tüm dünya üzerindeki oksijen miktarını azaltmaktadı

78- While the rest of Europe was still in the Stone Age, the Minoan-Mycenaean peoples of the Aegean region had achieved a highly organised Bronze Age culture.

  1. A) Avrupa’nın geri kalanı hala Taş Devri’nde iken, Ege bölgesinin Minos-Miken halkları son derece örgütlü Bronz Çağı kültürünü yaratmışlardı.
  2. B) Ege bölgesinin Minos-Miken halkları örgütlülük düzeyi yüksek Bronz Çağı kültürünü yaratı Avrupa’nın geri kalanı hala Taş Devri’ndeydi.
  3. C) Avrupa’nın geri kalanı henüz Taş Devri’ni yaşıyordu, ama Ege bölgesindeki Minos-Miken halkları daha örgütlü Bronz Çağı kültürünü yaratma çabasındaydı.
  4. D) Ege bölgesinin Minos-Miken halkları son derece örgütlü Bronz Cağı kültürünü yaratmaya, Avrupa’nın geri kalanı hala Taş Devri’ndeyken başlamışlardı.
  5. E) Minos-Miken halklarının Ege bölgesinde yarattığı Bronz Cağı kültürü, Avrupa’nın geri kalanı henüz Taş Devri’ndeyken bile son derece örgütlüydü.

79- Because of his knee injury, our best player won’t be able to play in next week’s critical match.

  1. A) Gelecek haftaki kritik maçta en iyi oyuncumuz oynayamayacak çünkü dizini çok kötü incitti.
  2. B) En iyi oyuncumuzun gelecek haftaki kritik maçta oynayamayacak olmasının nedeni dizindeki incinmedir.
  3. C) Dizindeki incinme yüzünden en iyi oyuncumuz gelecek haftaki kritik maçta oynayamayacak.
  4. D) Dizindeki incinme, en iyi oyuncumuzun gelecek haftaki kritik maçta oynamasını imkansız kılı
  5. E) En iyi oyuncumuzun dizindeki incinme nedeniyle gelecek haftaki maçta oynayamaması, maçı kritik bir hale sokuyor.

80- The mountaineers had been walking in the rain since eight o’clock in the morning and all had fallen exhausted.

  1. A) Dağcıların hepsi bitkin düşmüş olmasına rağmen sabah sekizden beri yağmur altında yürüyorlardı.
  2. B) Dağcılar sabah sekizden beri yağmur altında yürüyorlardı ve hepsi de bitkin düşmüştü.
  3. C) Dağcılar sabahın sekizinde yağmur altında yürüyorlardı ve hepsi de çok bitkin görünüyordu.
  4. D) Sekiz saattir yağmur altında yürüyen dağcılar, sabah saatlerinde bitkin düşüp mola verdiler.
  5. E) Saat sabahın sekiziydi ve hepsi de bitkin düşmüş dağcılar, yağmur altında yürümeye devam ediyordu.

 

 

 

TEST YOURSELF 2

 

 

1-40. sorularda, cümlede bırakılan boşluğu uygun şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.

1-   Winter, the most unpredictable of all seasons in Istanbul, sometimes ……. as early as October and ……. until April.

  1. A) began/has lasted
  2. B) will begin/is lasting
  3. C) began/will have lasted
  4. D) begins/was lasting
  5. E) begins/lasts

2-    People ……. down all the world’s rain      forests before the authorities ……. any action.

  1. A) have cut/took
  2. B) will have cut/take
  3. C) will be culling/will take
  4. D) are cutting/have taken
  5. E) had cut/are taking

3-    In 1865 the northern states of the United States ……. the southern states, which ……. to break away and form a separate nation.

  1. A) were defeating/have attempted
  2. B) defeated/had attempted
  3. C) defeat/were attempting
  4. D) have defeated/attempted
  5. E) had defeated/have been attempting

4-    Although a number of nuclear power plants ……. safely for years, public concern about the potential dangers of nuclear power ……. it from becoming a major electricity producer.

  1. A) have been operating/has prevented
  2. B) are operating/prevented
  3. C) had operated/will prevent
  4. D) operated/had been preventing
  5. E) were operating/was preventing

5-    No one ……. in climbing the world’s highest mountain, Everest, before  Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay ……. it in 1953.

  1. A) was succeeding/have been doing
  2. B) succeeded/were doing
  3. C) has succeeded/have done
  4. D) had succeeded/did
  5. E) had been succeeding/had done

6-    As late as the 1960s, only a few specialists ……. how to use computers, but now computer programming ……. one of the most popular professions in the world.

  1. A) were going to know/becomes
  2. B) had known/became
  3. C) knew/has become
  4. D) will have known/will become
  5. E) have known/is becoming

7-     Searchers ……. to be confident that they ……. the missing climbers before nightfall.

  1. A) are appearing/find
  2. B) appear/will have found
  3. C) were appearing/are finding
  4. D) will appear/had found
  5. E) had appeared/have found

8-    Some people think that robots, which ……. an important role in automobile manufacture already, ……. most of our physical work for us soon.

  1. A) had played/are doing
  2. B) played/have done
  3. C) are playing/will be doing
  4. D) were playing/will have done
  5. E) had been playing/do

9-    Even after colonialism ……. early in the second half of the 2Oth century, many former colonies ……. to use the language of their former rulers.

  1. A) ended/continued
  2. B) has ended/were continuing
  3. C) had ended/have been continuing
  4. D) was ending/had continued
  5. E) has ended/have continued

10- I hope the pond ……. over by Christmas, so we can go skating when our cousins ……. to visit.

  1. A) will be freezing/have come
  2. B) is freezing/are coming
  3. C) had frozen/were coming
  4. D) has frozen/came
  5. E) will have frozen/come

   11- We ……. a new car, but we couldn’t  because we ……. how expensive they were.

  1. A) were buying/won’t realise
  2. B) have bought/don’t realise
  3. C) had bought/haven’t realised
  4. D) were going to buy/hadn’t realised
  5. E) bought/won’t have realised

12- When Cyprus ……. an independent republic in 1960, it ……. a British colony since 1892.

  1. A) became/had been
  2. B) was becoming/has been
  3. C) has become/was
  4. D) had become/was being
  5. E) becomes/will have been

13- I’m sure you ……. badly in your exams because you ……. hard enough lately.

  1. A) are doing/hadn’t studied
  2. B) have done/won’t study
  3. C) will do/haven’t been studying
  4. D) do/won’t have been studying
  5. E) did/don’t study

14- When the judge ……. to all of the arguments, he ……. to postpone the hearing until another time.

  1. A) was listening/decides
  2. B) listens/has decided
  3. C) has listened/was deciding
  4. D) had listened/decided
  5. E) will listen/is deciding

15- We ……. at the traffic lights when the bus ……. into us from behind.

  1. A) were walling/crashed
  2. B) had waited/has crashed
  3. C) waited/was crashing
  4. D) have waited/had been crashing
  5. E) are waiting/will crash

16- Even Thomas Edison, the inventor of the gramophone, ……. what people ……. it for.

  1. A) didn’t know/were going to use
  2. B) hadn’t known/are using
  3. C) wouldn’t know/use
  4. D) hadn’t known/used
  5. E) doesn’t know/had been using

17- The United States ……. the world’s only super-power since the Soviet Union  ……. in the late 1980s.

  1. A) is/has collapsed
  2. B) was/was collapsing
  3. C) has been/collapsed
  4. D) will have been/would collapse
  5. E) had been/collapses

18- Archaeologists ……. under the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, but political protests ……. the excavations.

  1. A) have excavated/will block
  2. B) were excavating/had been blocking
  3. C) excavate/are blocking
  4. D) had excavated/will have blocked
  5. E) were going to excavate/blocked

19- The defendant ……. that he ……. the pub before the crime was committed,

  1. A) was swearing/leaves
  2. B) swore/had left
  3. C) swears/will have left
  4. D) was going to swear/is leaving
  5. E) will be swearing/has left

20- It is final exam time, and the students ……. so hard that they . forward to the vacation.

  1. A) have been working/are looking
  2. B) will work/looked
  3. C) are working/had been looking
  4. D) work/have looked
  5. E) have worked/were looking

 

21- Prices ……. steadily all year, so I hope that we ……. a pay rise soon.

  1. A) rose/have got
  2. B) are rising/got
  3. C) have been rising/will get
  4. D) had risen/get
  5. E) were rising/had got

22- The first heavier-than-air flight ……. place in 1903, and aeronautics ……. ever since.

  1. A) was taking/developed
  2. B) took/has been developing
  3. C) has taken/will develop
  4. D) had taken/develops
  5. E) takes/is developing

23- Since he ……. the Microsoft Corporation, Bill Gates ……. one of the richest men in the world.

  1. A) was founding/is becoming
  2. B) has founded/became
  3. C) had founded/will become
  4. D) founded/has become
  5. E) is founding/becomes

24- When the reinforcements …….. it was too late; the enemy ……. their comrades already.

  1. A) were arriving/annihilated
  2. B) have arrived/was annihilating
  3. C) arrive/has annihilated
  4. D) had arrived/annihilate
  5. E) arrived/had annihilated

25- Because of the recent floods, a large number of people ……. their homes and it seems that they ……. the winter in tents.

  1. A) are losing/have had to spend
  2. B) lost/were spending
  3. C) lose/have to spend
  4. D) were losing/had spent
  5. E) have lost/will have to spend

26-  It was not until the early 20th century that Henry Ford ……. the automobile through mass production, though a Frenchman named Nicolas Joseph Cugnot ……. the world’s first self-propelled vehicle as early as 1769.

  1. A) was popularising/has invented
  2. B) popularised/had invented
  3. C) has popularised/was inventing
  4. D) had popularised/was inventing
  5. E) popularises/has invented

27- The steel mill in Youngstown ……. steel since 1804 when it ……. down in the 1980s.

  1. A) had been making/closed
  2. B) has been making/was closing
  3. C) made/had closed
  4. D) was going to make/closes
  5. E) was making/has closed

28- On the assumption that the Chinese economy ……. to grow as at present, China ……. the United States as the world’s greatest economic superpower by the mid 21st century.

  1. A) continued/has overtaken
  2. B) continues/was going to overtake
  3. C) will continue/will have overtaken
  4. D) is continuing/overtakes
  5. E) has continued/is overtaking

29- Ever since slavery …. African  Americans … rights…. in 1863, … for their civil

  1. A) has been ending/were fighting
  2. B) had ended/are lighting
  3. C) ended/have been fighting
  4. D) was ending/fought
  5. E) has ended/will have fought

30- Though Susan ……. some of the best marks in her class last year, it appears that she ……. most of her courses this year.

  1. A) has got/is failing
  2. B) had been gelling/falls
  3. C) was getting/had failed
  4. D) got/will fall
  5. E) has been getting/lias failed

31- George ……. to get Sally to marry him for years when, finally, she……. him by saying, “Yes”.

  1. A) had been trying/surprised
  2. B) tried/was surprising
  3. C) has tried/surprises
  4. D) was trying/will be surprising
  5. E) will be trying/has surprised

32- My friend ……. tor an ice hockey team that ……. only one match this season. It’s no wonder that he is not very happy there with them.

  1. A) was playing/is winning
  2. B) has played/had won
  3. C) has been playing/wins
  4. D) played/will be winning
  5. E) plays/has won

33- Ferdinand Magellan ……. out to sail around the world in 1519. Before then, no one ……. to do that.

  1. A) was setting/has attempted
  2. B) has set/was attempting
  3. C) will have set/attempted
  4. D) had set/will have attempted
  5. E) set/had attempted

34- Though Magellan himself ……. along the way, one of his five ships ……. the voyage in 1522.

  1. A) had died/has completed
  2. B) died/completed
  3. C) was dying/completes
  4. D) dies/is completing
  5. E) has died/was completing

35- In the year 2022, it ……. 500 years

since that memorable voyage ……. .

  1. A) is/has ended
  2. B) has been/was ending
  3. C) will have been/ended
  4. D) had been/ends
  5. E) will be/is ending

36- George claims that he ……. a novel for five years, but I don’t think that he ……. it ever.

  1. A) wrote/is finishing
  2. B) has written/had finished
  3. C) writes/was finishing
  4. D) has been writing/will finish
  5. E) will have written/finishes

37- Trains ……. since early in the 19th century and they still ……. one of the best ways of transportation.

  1. A) existed/will provide
  2. B) are existing/will be providing
  3. C) were existing/have provided
  4. D) exist/are providing
  5. E) have existed/provide

38- My father ……. forward to retiring for years, but once he was a retired person, he ……. bored quickly.

  1. A) looks/has become
  2. B) was looking/becomes
  3. C) has been looking/is becoming
  4. D) had looked/became
  5. E) is looking/will become

39- Fred ……. with us any more because they ……. him to head of the London branch.

  1. A) won’t be working/have appointed
  2. B) hasn’t worked/appointed
  3. C) didn’t work/are appointing
  4. D) won’t have worked/appoint
  5. E) doesn’t work/were appointing

40- For the last two weeks, Sandra …… about her exams so much that her hair ……. out because of stress.

  1. A) worries/has fallen
  2. B) has been worrying/is falling
  3. C) was worrying/had fallen
  4. D) is worrying/had been falling
  5. E) worried/will have fallen
41-50. sorularda, yarım bırakılan cümleyi uygun şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.

41- ……. our client will have decided to use one of our competitors, so let’s hurry up and make a decision.

  1. A) Until the manager gave us the latest sales figures
  2. B) During yesterday’s meeting about our strategy for the coming year
  3. C) While we were trying to figure out where to hold the New Year’s office party
  4. D) As soon as we had mapped out our strategy
  5. E) At this rate, by the time we have come up with a plan

42- The union leaders achieved a breakthrough in the tricky negotiations with management ….. .

  1. A) until it appeared that the entire plan would fail
  2. B) when they decide to drop their unreasonable wage demands
  3. C) since the last pay rise the employers agreed to give to the workers
  4. D) whenever they devise a plan that their members will accept
  5. E) just when it seemed that there was no hope

43- My neighbour is having great difficulty with her financial affairs.

  1. A) since her husband died last year
  2. B) until her son promised to sort them out
  3. C) so I’ve arranged to help her this evening
  4. D) when her business was struggling last month
  5. E) as soon as she sold two of her flats in the city centre

44- Write your names on top of your paper …… .

  1. A) when you had practised tenses and conjunctions for weeks
  2. B) before you start answering the questions
  3. C) by the time you are able to write good, clear sentences
  4. D) while the teacher was checking the attendancy sheet
  5. E) until the bell rang and the teacher asked the papers back

45- Mike graduated from university just two years ago, but since then, ……. .

  1. A) he has earned enough on the stock market to be able to retire
  2. B) he is living in a luxurious flat in one of the most expensive parts of town
  3. C) he worked for one of the most successful stockbrokers in the city
  4. D) he will probably have quite a successful career
  5. E) he had travelled all around the world and learned three languages

46- She only remembered that she was on a diet ……. .

  1. A) so she is starting to worry about her appearance
  2. B) when she eats too much and feels bad about it afterwards
  3. C) after she had eaten two helpings of dessert
  4. D) she won’t cat as much for dinner as she did for lunch
  5. E) ever since she became one of the top models of the country

47- ……. when their first child was born.

  1. A) They don’t think they will have moved into their new house
  2. B) They have been taking too long to decide where to move
  3. C) They have worked and saved for this moment
  4. D) They had just moved into their new house
  5. E) They have decided that she should look after the baby herself

48- Alice has not trusted men ……. .

  1. A) because she will probably never get married
  2. B) ever since her husband ran off with the money she inherited from her father
  3. C) by the time she is old enough to consider marriage
  4. D) when she rejected Fred’s proposal several times
  5. E) until the man of her dreams comes along and sweeps her off of her feet

49- It’s easy to see he’s been crying for a long time, …… .

  1. A) as he has just learned that he has failed his driving test
  2. B) until his mother tried to soothe him by cuddling him tightly
  3. C) as soon as he entered the living room with his broken toy car
  4. D) because his eyes are very red and he can’t stop sniffing
  5. E) by the time his parents realise that he is not in his room

50- By the time the farmers managed to purchase the new insecticide, …… .

  1. A) it proved more effective than anything they had used before
  2. B) they will probably have lost over half of their potential harvest to insects
  3. C) insects had severely damaged most of their crops
  4. D) it has been in short supply because of the great demand for it
  5. E) they have never seen such an increase in their yield
51-60. sorularda, cümleyi uygun şekilde tamamlayan sözcüğü bulunuz.

51- No one has seen Fred ……. he decided rather foolishly to go sailing in the hurricane.

  1. A) when B) before
  2. C) since D) by the time
  3. E) just as

52- The athlete raised his hand in a victory salute ……. he crossed the finish line.

  1. A) until B) during
  2. C) by the time D) since
  3. E) as

53- You got a “0” on your homework because you weren’t listening ….. the teacher was explaining what to do.

  1. A) while B) as soon as
  2. C) until D) after
  3. E) before

54- The traffic was so bad this morning that ……. I got to work, it was already coffee break.

  1. A) until B) during
  2. C) while D) by the time
  3. E) since

55- He was found guilty on all charges, and it will be at least 20 years ……. he is a free man again.

  1. A) since B) while
  2. C) as soon as D) before
  3. E) after

56- Slavery has only been illegal in Saudi Arabia ……. 1963.

  1. A) in B) before
  2. C) or D) during
  3. E) since

57- I’m not going to speak to Veronica again ……. she apologises for the dreadful things she said about my husband.

  1. A) just as B) when
  2. C) until D) by the time
  3. E) while

58- The telephone rang much to our annoyance ……. we were about to eat our dinner.

  1. A) just as B) since
  2. C) alter D) as soon as
  3. E) by the time

59- ……. the United Nations decided to act, it was too late to stop a huge civilian refugee problem in Kosova.

  1. A) Since B) Until
  2. C) During D) While
  3. E) By the time

60- The defendant persistently maintained his innocence ……. the trial that continued for months.

  1. A) while B) during
  2. C) as soon as D) by the time
  3. E) just as
61-70. sorularda, verilen cümleye anlamca en yakın olan seçeneği bulunuz.

61- Julia has been painting a portrait of her mother for the last three weeks.

  1. A) About three weeks ago. Julia painted a portrait of her mother.
  2. B) Julia started painting her mother’s portrait three weeks ago and hasn’t finished yet.
  3. C) The portrait Julia painted of her mother took three weeks to finish.
  4. D) Al the moment. Julia is painting her mother’s portrait, which will probably take her three weeks to finish.
  5. E) In three weeks’ time, Julia will have finished the portrait she is painting of her mother.

62- Though she is an intelligent and talented woman, her four marriages have all failed

  1. A) It is surprising that anyone with her talent and intelligence should have difficulty sustaining a marriage.
  2. B) She believes that intelligence and talent do not necessarily lead to happiness in married life.
  3. C) Perhaps she is too intellectual for men, because she does not seem able to remain married.
  4. D) None of her four attempts at marriage has been successful in spite of her intellect and abilities.
  5. E) Naturally, her talent and intelligence have led to the failure of her four marriages.

63- The president was working continuously throughout his illness.

  1. A) The president was so ill that he couldn’t conduct affairs efficiently.
  2. B) The president was able to handle most of his normal workload during his recent illness.
  3. C) While he was ill. the president never stopped working.
  4. D) His continuous illnesses mean that he is no longer fit enough to be president.
  5. E) We should not expect a president who is so ill to continue working.

64- The baby woke up again before I was half-way through cleaning and tidying the house.

  1. A) I could do twice as much housework before I had the baby.
  2. B) I usually do only half of my housework while the baby is asleep.
  3. C) By the time the baby woke up, I had hardly finished the housework.
  4. D) I couldn’t finish my housework because the baby kept waking up.
  5. E) My housework wasn’t half done when the baby woke up again.

65- We last saw John just when he’d decided on a radical change in his life.

  1. A) When we met John again, we noticed that he had changed his life radically.
  2. B) When we met John last month, he had just reached a major decision.
  3. C) John was considering the possibility of doing something different when we last saw him.
  4. D) We haven’t seen John since the very moment that he expressed his decision to change his life completely.
  5. E) In order to make such a radical decision about his life, John wanted to talk to us one last time.

66- We had never lived abroad until we went to Africa for three years in the early 1990s.

  1. A) When we went to Africa in the early 1990s for a period of three years, it was our first stay overseas.
  2. B) We have plenty of experience of living abroad, because we stayed in Africa for three years in the early 1990s.
  3. C) We were going to live in Africa for three years in the early 1990s, but we decided not to because we hadn’t done anything like that before.
  4. D) Three years after our first visit to Africa in the early 1990s, we wanted to go there again.
  5. E) We haven’t been on an overseas trip since the early 1990s, when we stayed in Africa for three years.

67- As soon as I mentioned the price of the vase, the lady’s face took on a disappointed expression.

  1. A) The lady looked quite happy until she knew how much 1 had charged her for the vase.
  2. B) The disappointment showed on the lady’s lace the moment I told her the cost of the vase.
  3. C) It was obvious from the expression on the lady’s face that she didn’t want the vase because it was expensive.
  4. D) I think the lady was disappointed because the vase was too expensive for her to buy.
  5. E) From the expression on her face, I could see the lady was angry because the vase was overpriced.

 

68- Once she had made her decision to quit her job, no one even tried to convince her to change her mind.

  1. A) She decided to quit her job once, but her friends convinced her to change her mind.
  2. B) There was no reason for anyone to try to convince her to change her mind after she made a decision.
  3. C) There was not a single person who made the effort to persuade her not to quit her job after she had decided.
  4. D) When she mentioned quitting her job, there was no one who said that it was a good decision.
  5. E) No one saw any point in trying to persuade her to stay with her job because she has never once changed her mind.

69- He had studied English for years, but it was only when he arrived in London that he discovered how little he really knew.

  1. A) By the time he arrived in London, he had forgotten most of the English that he had studied over the years.
  2. B) He was glad that he had studied English before he went to London because every little bit he knew was useful to him.
  3. C) He had been studying English for years, but he knew that it was still not enough for him to go to London for education.
  4. D) Before he arrived in London, he had thought that he had learned more English than he actually had.
  5. E) During the years he studied the English language, he was aware that if he knew too little, he wouldn’t be able to study in London.

70- She was surprised that, although her father had never smoked or eaten fatty foods, he had a heart attack.

  1. A) To her amazement, her father didn’t have a heart attack even though he was a heavy smoker and ate an unhealthy diet.
  2. B) She could not believe it when her father gave up smoking and eating fatty foods after his heart attack.
  3. C) Because of her father’s healthy diet, she feels certain that he’ll never have a heart attack.
  4. D) She was glad that, after his heart attack, her father never smoked or ate fatty foods for the rest of his life.
  5. E) She didn’t expect her father to have a heart attack because he had kept away from cigarettes and fatty foods all his life.
71-75. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümlenin İngilizce dengini bulunuz.

71- Bilim adamları, bir tümörü, normal hücrelere zarar vermeden sadece kanserli hücreleri öldürecek bir dereceye kadar ısıtma konusunda cesaret verici sonuçlar almışlardır.

  1. A) Scientists have had encouraging results in heating a tumour to a temperature high enough to kill cancerous cells without harming normal cells.
  2. B) Experiments by scientists, in which they heat a tumour to a temperature high enough to kill cancerous cells without harming normal cells, have been quite successful.
  3. C) Cancer sufferers are encouraged by scientists’ success of heating a tumour to a temperature high enough to kill cancerous cells without harming normal cells.
  4. D) It’s really encouraging that scientists have had some success in heating tumours high enough to kill harmful cells while not destroying healthy cells,
  5. E) Although the technique is not yet fully developed, scientists have had encouraging success with killing cancerous tumours by heating them to high temperatures.

72- Çocukluğundan beri burada yaşadığı için babam kasabada oturanların hemen hepsini ismiyle tanır.

  1. A) My father knows the names of most of the residents of the town where he lived when he was a child.
  2. B) My father has lived here since his childhood, so most of the inhabitants of the town know him by name.
  3. C) As my father has lived here since he was a child, he knows almost all the inhabitants of the town by name,
  4. D) Because my father spent his childhood in this town, he knows the names of almost all the residents.
  5. E) Although my father only lived in this town when he was a child, he still knows most of the residents by name.

73- 1998’de, Hindistan hükümeti nükleer silah denemesi yapmaya karar verince en büyük tepki, Hindistan’ın ezeli rakibi Pakistan’dan geldi.

  1. A) Pakistan sharply criticised India for conducting nuclear weapons testing in which is not surprising as they are historic rivals.
  2. B) The sharpest criticism came from Pakistan. India’s historic rival, when, in 1998, the Indian government decided to conduct nuclear weapons testing.
  3. C) In 1998, the Indian government decided to conduct nuclear weapons testing, for which it was heavily criticised by its historic rival Pakistan.
  4. D) Following their nuclear weapons testing in 1998, the Indian government was criticised by one of its greatest rivals. Pakistan.
  5. E) No country criticised India as much as its historic rival Pakistan over its decision to conduct nuclear weapons testing in 1998.

74- Okul müdürü, açılış konuşmasını yaparken bütün öğrenciler ve veliler sessizlik içinde onu dinledi.

  1. A) While the headmaster made his opening speech, the students, as well as their parents, tried to keep quiet.
  2. B) The students and parents remained silent as the headmaster made his opening speech.
  3. C) The headmaster made his opening speech to the students and parents, who listened intently.
  4. D) The school opened with a speech from the headmaster, which was listened to in silence by all the students and their parents.
  5. E) As the headmaster made his opening speech, the students and the parents all listened to him in silence.

75- Bu dönem o kadar çok çalışıyorsun ki sınıf birincisi olman kesin gibi görünüyor.

  1. A) I’m sure you will finish top in the class because of your intense studying this term.
  2. B) You’re studying very hard this term, so I’m sure that you’ll become top of the class.
  3. C) I wouldn’t be surprised if you became top in the class as you’ve been studying really hard this term.
  4. D) You seem to be studying extremely hard this term in order to become top of the class.
  5. E) You’ve been studying so hard this term that it seems certain that you’ll become top in the class.
76-80. sorularda verilen İngilizce cümlenin Türkçe dengini bulunuz.

76- A harsh climate and rugged terrain have made the Norwegians look to the sea for their livelihood.

  1. A) İklimin sert, arazinin engebeli olduğu Norveç’te insanlar geçimlerini sağlamak için denize muhtaçtı
  2. B) Norveçliler, sert iklim ve engebeli arazi nedeniyle geçimlerini büyük ölçüde denizden sağlamak zorundadırlar.
  3. C) Norveçlileri, geçimlerini sağlamak için denize yönelten sert iklim ve engebeli arazidir.
  4. D) Sert iklim ve engebeli arazi Norveçlileri geçimlerini sağlamak için denize yöneltmiştir.
  5. E) İklimin sert, arazinin engebeli olması nedeniyle Norveçliler, geçimlerini denizden sağlamaktadırlar.

 

77- Ancient Egyptians associated the river Nile with the worship of gods and the prosperity of the land.

  1. A) Eski Mısırlılar Nil nehrini, tanrılara tapınma ve toprağın verimliliğiyle bütünleştirmiş
  2. B) Eski Mısırlılar, tanrılarına tapınmak için toprağı verimli kılan Nil nehrine giderlerdi.
  3. C) Eski Mısırlılar, toprağı verimli kıldığı için tanrı gibi gördükleri Nil nehrine taparlardı.
  4. D) Eski Mısırlılar, toprağın verimliliğini Nil nehrine değil, tapındıkları tanrılara bağlıyorlardı.
  5. E) Tanrılara tapınma ve toprağın verimliliği ile bütünleştirilen Nil nehri eski Mısırlılarca kutsallaştırılmıştır.

78- We were going to have a picnic at the weekend, but this unexpected rain has spoilt all our plans.

  1. A) Hafta sonu yapmayı planladığımız piknik bu beklenmedik yağmur yüzünden bozuldu.
  2. B) Hafta sonu pikniğe gidecektik ama bu beklenmedik yağmur bütün planlarımızı bozdu.
  3. C) Yağmurun yağacağını hiç beklemediğimiz için hafta sonu pikniğe gitmeyi planlıyorduk.
  4. D) Bu beklenmedik yağmur planlarımızı bozmasaydı hafta sonu pikniğe gidecektik.
  5. E) Hafta sonu için planladığımız pikniğe gidemedik çünkü hiç beklenmedik bir biçimde yağmur yağdı.

79- Months after the graduation, he had still not found a job and begun to feel discouraged.

  1. A) Cesareti kırılmaya başlamıştı; çünkü mezun olduktan aylar sonra hala bir iş bulamamıştı.
  2. B) Mezuniyetten aylar sonra, tam bütün direncim kaybetmek üzereyken, bir iş
  3. C) Mezuniyetin ardından aylar geçtiği halde hala bir iş bulamayınca cesareti kırıldı.
  4. D) Mezuniyetten aylar sonra hala bir iş bulamamıştı ve cesareti kırılmaya başlamıştı.
  5. E) Mezun olduktan sonra aylarca iş aramış, bulamayınca tüm direncini kaybetmiş

80- I have come across many unusual people during my travels abroad.

  1. A) Sıra dışı insanlarla pek çok yurtdışı seyahatlerine katıldı
  2. B) Ne zaman yurtdışına seyahat etsem, sıradışı pek çok insanla karşılaşırdı
  3. C) Yurtdışı seyahatlerim sırasında pek çok sıradışı insanla karşılaştı
  4. D) Sıradışı insanlarla karşılaşmak için sık sık yurtdışına seyahat ederdim.
  5. E) Çoğunlukla pek çok sıradışı insana yurtdışı seyahatlerimde rastlamışımdı

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TEST YOUR VOCABULARY

 

 

1-    Before he settled down with his family in his hometown, Oxfordshire, he had worked ……..; first in Nigeria and then in Saudi Arabia.

  1. A) overtime B) outdoors
  2. C) abroad D) nationally
  3. E) inland

2-    It’s not a good idea to make a/an ……. between your children — they are all different individuals and they each have different characters.

  1. A) fight B) comparison
  2. C) discussion D) argument
  3. E) record

3-    The care at many of Michigan’s nursing homes for the elderly fails to meet the required level of service. In fact, at 95% of homes, the care provided is …….. .

  1. A) eroded B) damaged
  2. C) substandard D) gradual
  3. E) excellent

4-    It was a terrible tragedy. The ice cracked while Michael was skating on the lake and he ……. in the icy water below.

  1. A) drowned B) buried
  2. C) injured D) swam
  3. E) floated

5-  The captain decided to shelter the ship from the storm for the night by sailing her into a small …….. on the East coast of the island.

  1. A) pond B) puddle
  2. C) ocean D) wave
  3. E) bay

6- A bomb during the Second World War reduced my mother’s friend’s house to …….. .   Only the fireplace was still standing.

  1. A) explosions B) rubble
  2. C) mixtures D) garbage
  3. E) plans

7- My large rug has been hanging over the balcony in the sun since this morning, but it’s still …….. . I’ll have to hang it out again tomorrow.

  1. A) patterned B) dirty
  2. C) dry D) wet
  3. E) thick

8- When the actress read all the nasty lies the journalist had written about her, she was …….. .

  1. A) furious B) nervous
  2. C) impressed D) envious
  3. E) excited

9-  Some struggles in the world have been going on for so long and are so complicated that it is hard for anyone studying the situation from a distance to know what the …….. really is.

  1. A) truth B) witness
  2. C) moral D) topic
  3. E) innocence

10- It was far too cold to swim in the Irish Sea while we were on holiday, but we took off our shoes and socks, rolled up our trousers and …….. in the icy water.

  1. A) dived B) paddled
  2. C) floated D) drowned
  3. E) swam

 

11- Submarines were first used as effective war machines by the Germans in WW I. These ‘U-boats’ had a …….. made up of about four officers and 25 staff, who lived in cramp conditions.

  1. A) group B) set
  2. C) gang D) crew
  3. E) board

12- The villagers have fought over the strip of land between the two villages for so long that it is hard to see how they will ever …….. the dispute.

  1. A) calculate B) agree
  2. C) resolve D) analyse
  3. E) arouse

13- As soon as she heard the news a the accident, she …….. to the hospital to be at her son’s side.

  1. A) crawled B) skipped
  2. C) strolled D) peeped
  3. E) rushed

14- We have been working hard all week, so, tomorrow, we are going …….. . We are going to get up late and go to the park.

  1. A) to employ B) to relax
  2. C) to retreat D) to depress
  3. E) to battle

15- Our English teacher likes to start her classes ……… so she wants the students to come to school on time.

  1. A) punctually B) normally
  2. C) lately D) accurately
  3. E) actively

 

16- The judge banned him from driving for twelve months …….. him for driving after drinking alcohol.

  1. A) to persuade B) to imprison
  2. C) to destroy D) to punish
  3. E) to release

17- Surfing has never really become popular in the UK as, although they get some quite powerful waves on their …….. the sea is usually extremely cold.

  1. A) banks B) settlements
  2. C) orchards D) shores
  3. E) citizens

18- I applied for the job you recommended, and I am going for second ……… on Monday, which means I have a good chance of getting the position.

  1. A) operation B) interview
  2. C) promotion D) resignation
  3. E) treaty

19- In the early years of international shipping, sailors believed that the world was flat and they were frightened of sailing off the …….. .

  1. A) corner B) border
  2. C) edge D) boundary
  3. E) top

20- The late frost this year means that fruit farmers will probably have a poor …….. .

  1. A) field B) seed
  2. C) area D) harvest
  3. E) farm

 

21- A: I’m looking for a part-time job to help with my university expenses.

B: Have you asked at the library? I think they have a few …….. for trainee librarians.

  1. A) titles B) volunteers
  2. C) folders D) properties
  3. E) vacancies

22- Harris Tweed is a heavy woven …….. which is made of pure Shetland wool. It is famous throughout Europe and popular for making jackets and coats.

  1. A) fabric B) leather
  2. C) curtain D) flag
  3. E) cotton

23- He …….. the length and width of all the rooms before he calculated exactly how much carpet he needed.

  1. A) measured B) weighed
  2. C) laid D) guessed
  3. E) examined

24- The officials from the Department of Education carry out a/an …….. of each school every year. They look at the  registers for all classes and observe one or two lessons.

  1. A) assistant B) promotion
  2. C) essay D) inspection
  3. E) search

25- The doctor didn’t think Tom had broken or fractured his ribs, but an X-ray of his chest was …….. in order for him to be sure.

  1. A) certain B) necessary
  2. C) cultural D) classical
  3. E) regular

26- This new political party has …….. members in almost every city in America — it is growing very rapidly.

  1. A) rescued B) evacuated
  2. C) recruited D) rejected
  3. E) exercised

27- Sally is not naturally very outgoing, but team work at university and success in her career have made her quite a …….. young lady.

  1. A) generous B) grateful
  2. C) cowardly D) miserly
  3. E) confident

28- Brian wants to move out of his mother’s house soon because she …….. him all the time. She always has lots of things for him to do but doesn’t like the way he does anything.

  1. A) spoils B) praises
  2. C) mistakes D) agrees
  3. E) nags

29- The bomb planted by an illegal group killed two policemen and two …….. . These innocent bystanders were shopping at the time of the explosion.

  1. A) victims B) Chilians
  2. C) warriors D) terrorists
  3. E) prisoners

30- Because the Governor had received so many complaints about the level of care in nursing homes in the state, he ordered an official …….. .

  1. A) investigation B) ceremony
  2. C) election D) gathering
  3. E) tournament

 

31- I’ll take the children to an amusement park tomorrow. They have been studying so hard lately that they …….. a break.

  1. A) travel B) deserve
  2. C) earn D) regret
  3. E) prepare

32- We asked the director of the hospital for his opinion, but he refused to make any …….. on the issue.

  1. A) progress B) comment
  2. C) argument D) sense
  3. E) sentence

33- I have …….. two more librarians for the new school year, but I expect that the financial controller will only allow us to employ only one.

  1. A) attended B) fired
  2. C) requested D) introduced
  3. E) promoted

34- The roof of the cave was so low that, at times during the expedition, we had to …….. on our hands and knees.

  1. A) roll B) crawl
  2. C) leap D) stand
  3. E) skip

35- Her grandmother has …….. Lucy two lovely jumpers. It isn’t possible to buy such special items in shops.

  1. A) mended B) purchased
  2. C) rinsed D) knitted
  3. E) stolen

36- John left the bank and now works in his own small……… where he makes wooden furniture.

  1. A) workshop B) darkroom
  2. C) warehouse D) station
  3. E) supermarket

37- On the 5th of October, 1864, high winds caused the sea to rise ten feet above the highest spring tides, causing terrible …….. which killed 45,000 people near the mouth of the Ganges.

  1. A) avalanches B) floods
  2. C) clouds D) puddles
  3. E) tremors

38- When Kate and Richard moved to Japan, they took as many …….. as they could fit into four suitcases and left the big pieces like tables, chairs, cupboards behind because they didn’t want to pay for shipping.

  1. A) mansions B) memories
  2. C) possessions D) projects
  3. E) properties

39- The Lebanese …….. features the famous Cedar trees between two red strips.

  1. A) cuisine B) government
  2. C) flag D) language
  3. E) tradition

40- Her voice is good enough to sing …….. but she prefers to make her living as a doctor and remain an amateur singer in the church choir.

  1. A) dreadfully B) boastfully
  2. C) managerially D) professionally
  3. E) vigorously

 

GOOD LUCK

ELS 2001/2 ANSWER KEY

Exercise 1   (pg. 9)

1.saw/got/hadn’t seen 2. called/discovered/had rewound 3.visited/had never imagined 4.had sold/treated 5. offered/hadn’t accepted 6.telephoned/discovered/had won 7.finished/left/was/ hired 8. reached/was/hadn’t reached 9.sat/dropped 10.nested/laid/hatched/flew 11.had still not received/asked  12.had eaten/just sat  13.played/hadn’t played/was 14.cheered/rose/had been/had been 15.had/first started/hadn’t sent  16.had sacked/took/won 17.had already bought/kept 18.had hardly won/telephoned 19.had complained/delivered 20.had paid (paid) realised/had forgotten

Exercise 2   (pg. 10)

1.had drawn 2.have changed 3.had considered 4.had read 5.has only attended 6.had passed/had promised 7.had all drowned 8.hasn’t acted 9.hadn’t acted 10.have named 11.had described 12.have given 13.hadn’t charged/had left 14.have applied 15.have just heard/have blown

Exercise 3  (pg. 13)

1.was fixing 2.had been baking 3.had been lying 4.were boarding 5.had been telephoning 6.had been swimming/was carrying 7.were wrestling 8.was crocheting 9.had been living 10.was investigating 11.was giving/had been wanting 12.had been trying 13.was playing/was presenting 14.was telling/was looking  15.had been annoying/was moving

Exercise 4  (pg. 14)

1.had been living 2.has made 3.had put 4.have just sold 5.had been paddling/had left 6.have only eaten 7.had been bailing 8.had gained 9.has been attending/has taken 10.had lost 11.had sold (had been selling) 12.has been playing 13.have checked/have updated 14.has been working (has worked) 15.have been trying/haven’t had

Exercise 5  (pg. 15)

1.first baked/began/have never stopped 2.has been travelling (has travelled)/has attended/is training 3.had dropped (dropped)/dropped/led/had witnessed 4.have added 5.grow 6.are smelling 7.attended 8.rushed/reduced 9.did…last get/haven’t received 10.has been acting/was/won/is starring 11.peeped/were still cooking 12. worked/turned/was 13. called/was/had been arguing/were/didn’t speak 14.have been searching/have found 15.hasn’t come/spent/all want  16.hadn’t given/was/came 17.is working 18.hasn’t decided 19.have been avoiding/haven’t changed 20.had already bought/offered 21.hand/had/am still writing 22.received/has been/is going 23.have spilt/don’t seem 24.has been taking/won 25.made/rode/has become/has written (wrote)/ordered

Exercise 6  (pg. 19)

1.are going to have 2.will have/will do 3.is going to start 4.will take/will start 5.will pay 6.are going to see/are going to take 7.are going to fall (will fall) 8.are going to experience 9.am going to pick/will bring 10.am going to turn

 

 

 

 

 

Exercise 7    (pg. 20)

1.Before I advertise the position in the newspaper, I will notify the secretary of the office manager vacancy. 2.As soon as I reach (have reached) my sales target, I will celebrate with my family. 3.I’ll wait for you in the Blue Moon cafe while you are having your hair done at the hairdresser’s. 4.I won’t book the airline tickets until I have got/get official authorisation from my company for the holiday. 5.After I have trimmed (trim) the hedge in the garden, I will take a bath. 6.We’ll move into our new house when the workmen have installed (install) the central heating. 7. I won’t continue explaining the formula until everyone is silent. 8.The tailor will measure you before he shows you the fabrics you can choose from. 9.When my daughter grows out of this snow suit, I’ll give it to you for your baby. 10.You will get your commission after they have settled (settle) their account. 11.I will make a cup of coffee while the computer is printing my report. 12.After you receive (have received) plenty of training in these new procedures, you’ll feel more comfortable. 13.We won’t exchange agreements for the house until the surveyor has made (makes) his inspection. 14.I’ll start a diet as soon as I come back from holiday. 15.I’ll turn the water and gas off before we leave for the airport.

Exercise 8    (pg. 21)

1.won’t depart/fix (have fixeD) 2.sees/will be 3.will lay/are/will be/come 4.will decide/get 5.will be/finds 6.return/will replace 7. arrives/will telephone 8.will lend/has finished (finishes) 9.won’t be able/have checked (check) 10.will stand/comes 11.will look/make 12.will move/returns 13.put/will clean 14.will go/will serve/am 15.answer (have answered)/will start

Exercise 9    (pg. 23)

1.won’t be working/will be relaxing 2.will be signing 3.undergo (have undergone)/won’t bother 4.seems/will be using 5.Will…be driving 6.will be showing/Do…want 7.will make 8.won’t announce/judge (have judged) 9.won’t be able/will be taking part 10.do…think/will react/opens/sees 11.agree/will go 12.brightens/will replace 13.will be clearing/will be   14.will burn 15.will be providing (will provide)/does

Exercise 10    (pg. 25)

1.expect/will have completed/arrives 2.will have analysed 3.will like 4.goes/will have got 5.will regret/wake 6.will call/is/will have finished 7.won’t make/speak 8.will have risen 9.begin/will send 10.will have/will have paid 11.are/will have reached 12.ask/will fail 13.Will…have written/will need/go  14.will pay 15.are/will realise

Exercise 11    (pg. 27)

1.will…have been renovating 2.will have earned 3.will have started 4.will be serving 5.will find 6.will have recruited/will open (will be opening) 7.will have spent 8.will have been/will be 9.Will…have been working 10.will take/will have been soaking/will be 11.will have extinguished 12.will be packing (will have packed) 13.will be tutoring 14.will have sold 15.will have been studying

Exercise 12    (pg. 28)

1.until 2.until 3.By the time 4.until 5.by the time 6.By the time 7.until 8.by the time 9.until 10.until 11.By the time 12.by the time 13.until 14.By the time 15.until 16.until/by the time 17.until 18.By the time 19.until 20.until

Exercise 13    (pg. 29)

1.come/will have hatched/will be singing 2.will hand/don’t believe/will manage 3.had only been dieting/went/had/didn’t break/have kept 4.won’t allow/don’t return/will write 5.starts/walks/fits/is/hasn’t even started  6.have been typing/have/finish/will have been typing 7.has knitted/ sends/will be playing/is knitting 8.are laying/won’t re-open 9.left/am missing/have telephoned/will check 10.were/ met/was selling/asked/took/was engraving/ were/bought/are going to hang/haven’t decided 11.return/will have seen/will have taken 12.overflowed/flooded/was staying/live (lived/were living)/worked/took/have been living (have lived) 13.have invested/prefer/continue 14.studied/left/joined/had been dancing/broke/hasn’t been/is working 15.enjoy/ bought/have been attending (have attended) 16.banned/ found/had taken 17.is preparing/are making/will be touring (will tour/is going to tour) /are cleaning/are planting/will look/sees 18.have just applied/am going/return/will have dried/will apply (am going to apply) 19.kills/is getting 20.detailed/has been

Exercise 14    (pg. 31)

1.have just bought/are…going to use/will be surfing/will be worrying 2.will be preparing/won’t see/have taken (take) 3.has recently designed/runs/thinks/will be driving 4.hasn’t been studying (hasn’t studied)/studies/practises/will find/doesn’t know/takes 5.haven’t seen/moved/are flying (are going to fly)/will catch (are going to catch)/see 6.arrived/have visited/will be/finally see/has 7.doesn’t play/gets/ask/played/ broke/was playing 8.has earned (has been earning)/bought 9.reached/had left/had been/left/didn’t know/leaves (left) 10.has suffered (has been suffering)/borrowed 11.will be visiting (am visiting) 12.picked/was bleeding/was/had been fighting/denied/asked 13.have missed/doesn’t leave/leave/will have been drinking/won’t sleep 14.will be performing (are performing/are going to perform)/are going to film (are filming) 15.had begun/reached/turned/took/found/was winning 16.were sitting/don’t think/have seen/moved  17.privatised/has reduced/only run 18.was drinking/noticed/hadn’t changed/was still/was already 19.have never seen/woke/was staying/opened/was entering (had entered) 20.works/didn’t open/moved

Exercise 15    (pg. 33)

1.am writing 2.are travelling 3.left 4.have so far reached 5.have passed (passed) 6.will reach (will have reached) 7.will stop 8.started 9.recommended 10.last saw 11.arrive 12.will probably have finished 13.had 14.were skiing 15.was shining (shone) 16.was 17.reach 18.will post (am going to post) 19.still have 20.will have been travelling 21.will have covered 22.hope

Exercise 16    (pg. 33)

1.toured 2.was pouring 3.ranked 4.had burnt 5.put 6.asked 7.chose 8.had been 9.had proved (proved) 10.relaxed 11.allowed 12.chatted 13.didn’t agree 14.even left 15.has taken 16.contact 17.fails 18.asked (has asked) 19.has raised 20.provided (has provided) 21.left 22.has sung (has been singing) 23.lies 24.hopes 25.will be

Exercise 17    (pg. 34)

(I) 1.believe 2.began 3.came 4.arrived 5.is 6.suggest 7.fought 8.conquered 9.landed 10.lists 11.were expanding (had expanded) 12.expelled 13.returned 14.had become 15.later became 16.abolished 17.published 18.described 19.had been living (had lived/lived) 20.snatched 21.had fought (fought) 22.are 23.are 24.are serving 25.are 26.have given 27.will be serving 28.will be

(II) a.community b.immigrant c.shortage d.merely e.conquer f.attendant g.register h.port i.expel j.slave k.valet l.abolish m.account n.idyllic o.snatch p.influx q.presence r.target

(III) 1.2.E 3.A

(IV) 1.register 2.accounts 3.expelled 4.idyllic 5.presence

Exercise 18    (pg. 36)

(I) 1.discovered 2.had been searching 3.had covered 4.cleared 5.saw 6.uncovered 7.have since made 8.still know 9.don’t even know 10.were 11.were 12.was 13.became  14.are 15.died 16.points 17.have revealed (revealed/reveal) 18.seems 19.killed 20.suffered 21.died 22.had toured (toured) 23.had suffered (suffered) 24.never leave 25.is

(II) a.tomb b.debris/rubble c.entrance d.treasure e.claim f.throne g.evidence h.skull i.blow j.deliberate k.heir l.exhibition m.replica

(III) 1.C 2.D 3.A

(IV) 1.exhibition 2.replica 3.deliberate 4.treasure 5.heir

 

TEST  YOURSELF   1
1.D

 

2.B

 

3.A

 

4.A

 

5.E

 

6.C

 

7.C

 

8.D

 

9.B

 

10.E

 

11.B

 

12.C

 

13.A

 

14.D

 

15.D

 

16.E

 

17.C

 

18.A

 

19.B

 

20.D

 

21. E

 

22.E

 

23.B

 

24.C

 

25.D

 

26.A

 

27.B

 

28.B

 

29.D

 

30.E

 

31. C

 

32.A

 

33.D

 

34.B

 

35.C

 

36.C

 

37.E

 

38.D

 

39.A

 

40.B

 

41.B

 

42.E

 

43.C

 

44.D

 

45.D

 

46.A

 

47.B

 

48.D

 

49.E

 

50.E

 

51.A

 

52.C

 

53.E

 

54.E

 

55.B

 

56.D

 

57.A

 

58.C

 

59.B

 

60.A

 

61.D

 

62.A

 

63.A

 

64.E

 

65.A

 

66.D

 

67.C

 

68.E

 

69.B

 

70.C

 

71. C

 

72.D

 

73.D

 

74.A

 

75.E

 

76.B

 

77.D

 

78.A

 

79.C

 

80.B

 

 
TEST  YOURSELF   2
1.E

 

2.B

 

3.B

 

4.A

 

5.D

 

6.C

 

7.B

 

8.C

 

9.A

 

10.E

 

11.D

 

12.A

 

13.C

 

14.D

 

15.A

 

16.A

 

17.C

 

18.E

 

19.B

 

20.A

 

21.C

 

22.B

 

23.D

 

24.E

 

25.E

 

26.B

 

27. A

 

28.C

 

29.C

 

30.D

 

31.A

 

32.E

 

33.E

 

34.B

 

35.C

 

36.D

 

37.E

 

38.D

 

39.A

 

40.B

 

41.E

 

42.E

 

43. C

 

44.B

 

45.A

 

46.C

 

47.D

 

48.B

 

49.D

 

50.C

 

51.C

 

52.E

 

53.A

 

54.D

 

55.D

 

56.E

 

57.C

 

58.A

 

59.E

 

60.B

 

61.B

 

62.D

 

63.C

 

64.E

 

65.D

 

66.A

 

67.B

 

68.C

 

69.D

 

70.E

 

71.A

 

72.C

 

73.B

 

74.E

 

75.E

 

76.D

 

77.A

 

78.B

 

79.D

 

80.C

 

 
TEST  YOUR VOCABULARY
l.C

 

2.B

 

3.C

 

4.A

 

5.E

 

6.B

 

7.D

 

8.A

 

9.A

 

10.B

 

11.D

 

12.C

 

13.E

 

14.B

 

15.A

 

16.D

 

17.D

 

18.B

 

19.C

 

20.D

 

21.E

 

22.A

 

23.A

 

24.D

 

25.B

 

26.C

 

27.E

 

28.E

 

29.B

 

30.A

 

31.B

 

32.B

 

33. C

 

34.B

 

35.D

 

36.A

 

37.B

 

38.C

 

39.C

 

40.D

 

 
EXAMPLES FROM ÖYS/YDS
1.B   2.B   3.C   4.E   5.C   6.A   7.C   8.D   9. A   10.C  11.A  12.D   13.C   14.B   15.D

16. A   17.B   18.D   19.D   20.C   21.E   22.A   23.C   24.E

 

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