Grammar topics with past simple verb or past PARTICIPLE:
Irregular PAST (V2) is used in:
Past Simple – I took it. (Mime what you did yesterday, last week/month/Christmas, x days ago)
reported speech – present simple -> past simple
eg: He said: ”I drink milk regularly.” -> He said that he drank milk regularly.
wish clause – I wish you were here. I wish you gave me a ring. I wish you took the bag.
It´s high time – It´s high time we went. It´s about time I finished this work.
conditional II – If she saw Tim, she would warn him. If I knew it, I would call you.
PAST PARTICIPLE (V3) used in:
adjective – V3 +noun – broken arm, stolen jewels, written notes, long forgotten story
perfect tenses – present / past / future perfect – have / had / will have + V3
I have already written the essay. The boat had sunk before they woke up.
They will have eaten it up by dinner time .
conditional III – If + had +V3 , subject would have +V3.
– If they had seen it, they would have written a report.
reported speech – have + V3 / past simple -> had + V3
She said: “I have eaten the cake.” She said that she HAD eaten the cake.
Being / Having + V3 – Having ridden for 10 miles I felt exhausted. I did that without being seen.
perfect gerund – Verb + being +V3 – I like being treated politely.
modals + have + V3 – about past actions –
She ….. have told the news last weekend. (should, shouldn’t, might, needn’t, could, couldn’t, must)
needn’t have + V3 shouldn’t have + V3 might have + V3 can have + V3
should have + V3 could have + V3 must have + V3 can’t have + V3
The secret police must have done it. (100% yes) The secret police can’t have done it. (100% no)
The secret police needn’t have done it. (no need) The secret police shouldn’t have done it.
The secret police could have done it. The secret police might have done it. (probably, possibly)
The secret police can have done it. The secret police should have done it.
passive – is/was / have been / will be / is going to be + V3 ,,, is/was/were BEING +V3
Cars are often stolen at night. He was bitten by a wolf. It has been torn.
They will be broken soon. It will be taken out. They will be thrown away.
It is going to be risen later. The cake is going to be eaten this evening. It is being taken now.
The report has to be written. Kids should be taken to bed. Fruit can be eaten during breaks.
Causative – have something done I am having my car repaired.
He will not have the house painted. I won‘t have this house turned into a mess.
Seemed to have + V3 – She seemed to have been anxious.
Happened to have + V3 – They happened to have flown there before.
Pretended to have + V3 – I pretended to have read the report.
Appeared to have + V3 – He appeared to have been drunk.
Passive – are/is v3 + TO HAVE + V3
is believed , considered, found, known, reported, said, supposed, thought, understood to HAVE V3
– He is said to have flown to Africa. – She is supposed to have written this story.
– She is understood to have left her family. – They are believed to have taken it.
perfect passive – was/had been + V3 + V-ing – The boy was seen entering the house.
was to have been … + V3 – The room was to have been painted, but it isn’t.
verb + BEING + V 3 – He likes being shaken. This horse hates being ridden on hot days.
Be made / forced TO V – He was made to have supervised visits.