Adverbial Clause

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

 

A) TIME

 

  1. Süreklilik ifade eden eylemlerde while/as/when aynı şekilde kullanılabilir.

As/while/when I was walking along the street, I saw her.

  1. Since ifadesindeki fiil genelde Simple Past iken temel cümle present perfect ya da Pres. Perfect Cont. Olur. Since cümlesindeki eylem devam ediyorsa her ikisi de Present Perfect olur.

I have been quite happy since I have lived in the dormitory.

  1. Zaman bildiren bazı bağlaçlardan önce “henüz, tam” anlamında JUST gelebilir.

The telephone rang just as I entered/was entering the house.

I had some milk just before I went to bed.

He abondened the office just when they really needed him.

 

B) PLACE

 

Everywhere I go= Wherever I go

 

C) REASON

 

  1. In view of the fact that=owing to the fact that=on the grounds that=inasmuch as=since

 

  1. Türkçe’de “bakımından, açısından veya ….dığı için” anlamına gelen IN THAT bağlacı kendinden önce gelen temel cümleye bir açıklama eklemek amacıyla genellikle benzerlik ya da farklılık ifade eden (alike, differ, invalid) kelimelerden sonra kullanılır.

In that yerine because kullanılabilir fakat because’un bir olayın nedenini açıkladığı cümlelerde in that kullanılamaz.

The prices are higher because the demand is higher.

Buying a large box is advantagous in that/because it is more economical than a small one.

 

  1. D) CONCESSIVE CONTRAST (unexpected result)

 

  1. Although/though/even though’dan sonra gelen temel cümlede nevertheless ve still kullanılabilir. Ama but veya however kullanılamaz.

Although he is the richest person in the city, he nevertheless/still economizes on everything.

 

  1. Though iki durumda although ve even though’dan ayrılır:
  2. i) adjective+though kalıbı içinde;

Poor though he is, he is happy

  1. ii) genellikle cümle sonunda nevertheless anlamında;

He is poor. He is happy, though.

He played well. He lost the game, though.

 

  1. adj/adv/verb+as+noun phrase

Hard as he tried, he was unable to solve it.

Try as he might, he couldn’t go there.

Strange as it may seem, I have never drink coke.

 

  1. Zıtlık bildiren ….mekle birlikte anlamına gelen while’ın yerine although kullanılabilir. Ancak her zaman although’un yerine while kullanılmaz. Özellikle beklenmeyen sonuç için although/though/even though kullanılır.

While I admit that there are problems, I don’t agree that they can’t be solved.

Although (not while) whales have no external ears, their hearing is excellent.

 

 

 

  1. However, no matter where/how/when/what.., regardless of the fact that de zıtlık bildirir. However’dan sonra yerine göre sıfat/zarf+cümle ya da doğrudan tüm cümle gelebilir.

However ingenious a teacher he is, he must also study hard.

However diligently he may work, he can’t finish it.

 

E) DIRECT CONTRAST(while/whereas)

 

Temel ve yan cümlenin öznelerinin farklı olduğu zıtlık bildiren ifadeler iki şekilde karşımıza çıkar:

  1. i) Temel ve zarf cümlesinde zıt kelimeler kullanılır.

While/whereas Ali is lazy, Veli is diligent.

 

  1. ii) Temel cümle olumlu/olumsuz iken yan cümlenin olumsuz/olumlu olmasıyla.

While/whereas some substances conduct electricity, others don’t.

 

F) RESULT

 

  1. So+ adjective + that, so+adverb+that

He is so stingy/So stingy is he that he has never controbuted to a charity.

 

  1. So ve that arasına ek kelimeler girebilir: so+ adj+a(n)+ noun+that

He made so serious mistakesin the composition he wrote that I shocked.

He is so a stingy person that he has never conrobuted to acharity.

 

  1. Much, little, few, many gibi miktar bildiren sözcükler so….that kalıbında, a lot of ise such….that kalıbında kullanılır.

There is so much/so little sugar in this tea that I can’t drink it.

She has so many/so few friends that I am very pleased.

He has such a lot of friends that I am very pleased.

Such an eloquent speaker is he that he can impress everybody.

 

  1. Sayılabilir çoğul isimler ve sayılamayan isimler such….that kalıbı içinde a/an almazlar.

He cooks such delicious food that you can’t help eating.

It was such a nightmare that I prefer to forget about it.

 

  1. Aynı anlamda cümle üç kalıpla da kurulabilir:

She is so courageous that we can’t help admiring her.

She is so courageous a girl that we can’t help admiring her.

She is such a courageous girl that we can’t help admiring her.

 

G) PURPOSE

  1. So that ve in order that cümleleri genellikle kipler ve simple present ile kullanılır.

He should keep the milk in the fridge so that it won’t spoil.

He kept the milk in the fridge so that it wouldn’t spoil.

Eğer so that cümleciğinde simple past tense kullanılmışsa bu sonuç gösterir artık:

He kept the milk in the fridge, so that it didn’t spoil.

He got up late, so that he missed the lecture.

 

  1. Lest’in anlamı “….ır diye”dir.

I was worried lest the car should break down.

 

H) PROPORTION /DEGREE

 

  1. The more…. the more …… kalıbı.
  2. As…(so) kalıbı

As the boy grow older, (so) his understanding developed.

  1. In so far as/ansofar as: …..dığı ölçüde

We are living in less danger insofar as the danger of war is less.

 

I) CONDITION

Provided that= Providing

Only if cümle başında devrik yapı alır.

Only if you study hard can you be successful.

 

K) COMPARISION

Just as……….., (so)………..

 

Conjunctions that are Often Confused:

 

1) AS:

  1. i) in the way that, …dığı gibi, ii) time (while, iken), iii) degree, proportion(…dıkça)
  2. iv) reason

 

2) WHILE

  1. i) iken…, ii) whereas: ….e karşın, iii) although: ….mekle birlikte

 

3) JUST AS

  1. i) time: tam …iken, tam….dığı zaman, ii) manner: tam ..dığı gibi

 

 

 

 

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