Gerunds Infinitives

GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

 

  1. GERUNDS

Türkçe’de isim fiil dediğimiz bu yapılar cümlede özne, nesne, tümleç ve açıklayıcı olarak bulunabilir.

 

A. As a subject

Critisizing other people are very easy.

Not graduating from a university is a disadvantage.

 

B. As an object

Nesne olarak isim fiil alan fiiller çoktur.

I finished studying.

Ancak şu deyimsel ifadeler önemlidir: “No point in, worth, no use, no good, busy”

He’s busy writing book.

It is no good waiting for it.

 

C. As subject compliment: Tümleç

Pleasure/ Hobby/ Job/ Responsibility/ Pastime/ Occupation

My greatest pleasure is sitting here.

 

D. Açıklayıcı olarak- Appositive

His job, working as a teacher, is very demanding.

 

E. Object of a preposition

Ali is fond of reading.

He complained about my coming so late.

 

F. İyelik biçiminden sonra

Your insisting on my staying is meaningless.

 

  1. The + Ving+ of…

The opening of the bridge eased the traffic here.

 

II- INFINITIVES-MASTARLAR

Mastarlar ad,sıfat ve zarf gibi kullanılabilen yapılardır.

 

A. Ad gibi kullanılan mastarlar

  1. Subject of a sentence

To acquire a skill entails constant practice.

Acquiring a skill entails constant practice.

 

Bu mastar boş özneyle kullanılır: It entails constant practice to acquire a skill. Gerund’ların bu kullanımı çok enderdir.

 

  1. Object of a sentence

I don’t care to see that film.

 

Kimi fiiller noun + to infinitive alırlar: advise, allow, believe, persuade, urge, want

 

  1. Tümleç: subject compliment

Aim, purpose, mission, ambition, challenge gibi isimler be+ to inf. alırlar.

Our aim is to resolve the conflict.

 

  1. Açıklayıcı olarak kullanımı (bir ad öbeğinden sonra)

Her desire to succeed was very strong.

 

B. Mastarın Sıfat Olarak Kullanılması

Sıralama sıfatlarıyla, the only ile, superlative’lerle, modalların kısaltılmış haliyle

  1. The first, the second gibi sıra bildiren sıfatlarla kurulan cümleler.

The first man who was arrested yesterday was my friend.

The first man to be arrested yesterday was my friend.

  1. The only sıfatıyla başlayan ad öbekleri içeren cümleler.

Ali was the only student who was accepted for master.

Ali was the only student to be accepted for master.

  1. Kip modalları kısaltılarak oluşturulan cümleler.

The topics which will be discussed tomorrow are ready.

The topics which to be discussed tomorrow are ready.

 

  1. Sıfatların en üstünlük derecesi kullanılarak oluşturulan cümleler.

This is the most expensive car which has been produced.

This is the most expensive car to have been produced.

 

C. Mastarların zarf olarak(….mek için anlamında)Kullanımı

To understand the matter, you should study harder.

You should study harder to understand the matter

 

D. Anlam Değiştirmeden Hem Gerund Hem Infinitive Alan Fiiller

 

Grup1: Ya verb + Ving ya da V+noun+to infinitive alanlar: advise, allow, consider, forbid, permit, recommend

He advised seeing a doctor.

He advised me to see a doctor.

 

Grup2: Hem gerund hem infinitive’i aynen alanlar: bear, begin, cease, commence, continue, dread, neglect, stand, start.

Ancak bu fiillerin kendileri continuous halde iseler infinitive alırlar.

 

  1. Anlam Değiştirerek Hem Gerund Hem Infinitive Alan Fiiller

Remember, forget, regret, go on, mean, propose, stop, try

Remember/ forget: I won’t forget to do it.         I’ll never forget meeting her.

Regret: + to infinitive: üzüntü duymak: I regret to inform you that your father is dead.

+ gerund: pişman olmak: I regret deciding to do this.

 

Go on: + to infinitive: bir konuyu tamamlayıp başka bir konuya geçmek                                    +gerund: sürdürmek, devam ettirmek

 

Mean: +infinitive: intend to do s.t: I didin’t mean to step on your foor.

+gerund: anlamına gelmek, gerektirmek: It means getting up early.

 

Propose: +infinitive: intend: tasarlamak: We do not propose to reveal the details.

+ gerund: suggest: önermek: I propose going on.

 

Stop: +infinitive: bir şeyi yapmak için bırakmak

+ gerund: kesmek, durdurmak

 

Try: + infinitive: çaba göstermek

+gerund: denemek, önermek

 

need: + infinitive: ihtiyacı olmak

+gerund: edilgen anlam taşır

 

 

 

F. Mastar(infinitive) Alan Önemli Yapılar

  1. Be+to infinitive (future reference)
  1. arranged future: Her son is to be married soon.
  2. Gereklilik bildirmek için(must): No one is to leave this building.
  3. Yasak bildirmek için(mustn’t): we are not to make any mistake.

 

  1. Be + to infinitive (past reference): was/were+to infinitive ya da was/were + to have done
  1. Tasarlandığı halde yapılamayan eylemler için:                                                              The game was to have been played yesterday.                                                                  The judge who was to take the case suddenly become ill.
  2. Kaderinde olmak anlamında: This pretty girl was to become the wife of a presedent.
  3. Geçmişte yerine getirilmeyen bir gereklilik:

You were to do your homework (should have done)

  1. adj/adv+enough…….+ to infinitive
  2. too + adj/adv……+to infinitive

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