Participles

                                                           PARTICIPLES

 

A. The Present Participle/ ING participle

 

Etken yapılı bir cümlenin diğerine bağlanmasında kullanılır. İki cümle eş zamanlı olmalıdır. Yerine göre aşağıdaki anlamlara gelir:

  1. …dığı zaman

1.a She saw me. She turned pale.

1.b When she saw me, she turned pale.

1.c Seeing me, she turned pale

 

  1. … iken

2.a          Ayşe cooked dinner. She listened to the radio.

2.b          While she was cooking dinner, she listened to the radio.

2.c          (While) Cooking dinner, she listened to the radio.

 

  1. …dığı için, …dığından dolayı, …dığına göre

3.a          He is an experienced driver. He can teach how to derive.

3.b          Since he is an experienced driver, he can teach how to derive.

3.c          (Not) Being an experienced driver, he can (not) teach how to derive.

 

  1. …erek/arak

4.a          Ali used a ruler. He measured the length of the table.

4.b          Using a ruler, he measured the length of the table.

4.c          Ali, using a ruler, measured the length of the table.

 

*Bunların dışında –ING participle’ı neden sonuç ilişkisine dayalı şu tür cümlelerde “ve” anlamında çokça kullanılır:

Food prices have risen sharply and made life difficult.

Food prices have risen sharply, which has made life difficult.

Food prices have risen sharply, making life difficult.

 

*Sit, stand, lie, be gibi fiilleri izleyen yer bildiren zarflarından sonra –ING participle’ı yine “and” anlamı verir.

She stood by the window and watched the passers-by.

She stood by the window, watching the passers-by.

 

*Bazı “when cümleleri” kısaltılırken participle’dan önce “when” haricinde “on” ya da “upon” kullanılabilir:

When he reached the top of the hill, he felt so tired.

On reaching the top of the hill, he felt so tired.

Upon arriving home(=When I arrived home), I wrote down everything.

 

*After, before ve zaman bildiren since cümlelerindeki fiiller –ING le kısaltılabilir:

He left the house after he had breafast .

He left the house after having breafast .

 

 

 

 

* Farklı öznesi olan participle cümlesinin öznesi önceden konmalıdır:

1.a          Since there was nobody in the building, I felt uneasy.

There being nobody in the building, I felt uneasy.

1.b          As it was sunny, we decided to go on a picnic.

It being sunny, we decided to go on a picnic.

 

B) Past Participle/ -ED

Edilgen yapılı bir cümleyi diğeri ile birleştirirken kullanılır. Duruma göre zarf bağlacı kaldırılabilir. Neden bildiren bağlaçlar kaldırılmak zorundadır.

 

  1. TIME (…ince, …dığı zaman, … …e kadar, …ir.. mez)

1.a          When he was questioned at the police station, the suspect admitted his guilt.

(When) questioned at the police station, the suspect admitted his guilt.

1.b          Don’t open the test booklet until you are told to do so.

Don’t open the test booklet until told to do so.

 

  1. REASON

2.a          As he was exhausted, he lay on the ground.

Exhausted, he lay on the ground.

 

  1. CONDITION (…şayet ise, … mediği takdirde)

Anlamsal ilişki açıksa if cümleden çıkarılabilir:

3.a          If it is kept in the fridge, the medicine will be effective for a week.

If  kept in the fridge, the medicine will be effective for a week.

Kept in the fridge, the medicine will be effective for a week.

3.b          He won’t resign unless he is forced to do so.

He won’t resign unless forced to do so.

 

  1. CONTRAST (… dığı halde)

Zıtlığın anlaşılabildiği durumda bağlaç düşebilir.

Though he was warned, he didn’t take care.

Though warned, he didn’t take care.

 

  1. MANNER (…dığı gibi, …miş gibi)

As+ V3 sadece  …..dığı anlamındaki kısaltmalarda görülür:

5.a          She won the race as it was expected.

She won the race as expected.

5.b          She asked as if she were interested in the subject.

She asked as if interested in the subject.

 

  1. COMPARISION (-den daha iyi/kötü/yararlı..)

 

Her performance was much better than it was expected.

Her performance was much better than  expected.

 

C) PERFECT PARTICIPLE

Ard arda yapılmış eylemlerden önce bitmiş olanı perfect participle şekline dönüştürülür.

 

1.a          After he (had) finished his homework, Ali watched TV.

Having finished his homework, Ali watched TV.

1.b          Because she had lost her money, Aynur had to borrow some.

Having lost her money, Aynur had to borrow some.

 

*Past perfect veya present perfect’i içeren zarf cümleleri perfect participle ile kısaltılabilir:

2.a          When she has typed her thesis, Ayşe will submit it to her supervisor.

Having typed her thesis, Ayşe will submit it to her supervisor.

2.b          When she had typed her thesis, Ayşe submitted it to her supervisor.

Having typed her thesis, Ayşe submitted it to her supervisor.

 

* Edilgen bir yapıyı içeren perfect participle cümlesinde “having been” atılarak iyice kısaltılabilir:

As he had been dismissed from his job, Kemal was in need of money.

Having been dismissed from his job, Kemal was in need of money.

Dismissed from his job, Kemal was in need of money.

 

 

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