Prepositions

  1. THE MEANINGS OF PREPOSITIONS

Aşağıdaki tablo en genel preposition anlamlarını vermektedir. Her anlam için bir örnek verilmiştir.

About
1. On the subject of:  This is a story about elephants. ( hakkında)
2. Approximately:  He is about ten years old. ( yaklaşık)

Above
1. Higher than; over:  The plane flew above the clouds.( daha yüksek)
2. Earlier on a page:  There is a heading above each diagram.( sayfada önce gelen)

Across
1. From one side to the other:  We walked across the field.( bir taraftan diğerine-hareket)
2. On the other side of:  There is a store across the street.(karşı taraftda –durum)

After
1. Later in time:  after ten o’clock; after lunch (sonar)
2. Later in a series:  Q comes after P in the alphabet.(ardından)
3. In pursuit of:  The dog ran after the cat.(peşinden)

Against
1. In opposition to:  Theft is against the law.( karşı tarafta)
2. Touching; supported by:  I leaned my bicycle against the wall.( değerek durmak)

Along
1. Following the length of:  We walked along the road.( boyunca-yol boyunca)

Among
1. Within a group:  The money was shared among three people.(kalabalığın arasında)

NOTE: Resmi İngilizce’de, AMONG genellikle sadece ikiden fazla kişi veya nesne söz konusu olduğunda kullanılır. BETWEEN ise iki kişi veya şey için kullanılır.

Around
1. Circling something:  We walked around the block.(etrafında)
2. Surrounding:  There is a fence around the garden.(çevreleyen)
3. In different parts of:  I looked around the house for the keys.(her tarafa)
4. In the other direction:  We turned around and went back home.(ters yönde)
5. Approximately:  He is around six feet tall.( yaklaşık)

At
1. A specific location:  at 23 Chestnut Street; at the park( kesin bellli bir yer)
2. A point in time:  at 5 o’clock; at Christmas ( belli bir saat)
3. A condition:  at peace; at war; at rest ( durumda)
4. An activity:  at work; at school; at play( etkinlikte)
5. Towards:  Look at someone; wave at someone( o yana doğru)

NOTE: Hususi bir yer veya zamanda bir an kastedildiğinde genellikle AT kullanılır. Belirgin bir cadde veya bir gün kastedildiğinde genellikle ON kullanılır. Yer bir bölge olarak kullanılıyorsa veya zaman birimi bir gün daha genişse genellikle IN kullanılır.
e.g. at Christmas; on Christmas day; in the Christmas holidays

Before
1. Earlier in time:  before two o’clock; before Christmas ( zamanda önce)
2. Earlier in a series:  S comes before T in the alphabet.( sırada önce)

Behind
1. At the back of:  The little girl hid behind her mother. ( arkasında)
2. Late:  I am behind in my work.( geç durumda)
3. Cause; origin:  Who was behind that idea? ( temeli,orjinali)

Below
1. Lower than; under:  below freezing; below sea level ( seviye olarak aşağıda)
2. Later on a page:  Footnotes are provided below the text. (sayfada daha sonra)

Beneath
1. Lower than; below:  beneath the earth( altında)

Beside
1. Next to; at the side of:  I sit beside her in class.( yanyana)

Besides
1. Also; as well as:  We study other languages besides English.( aynı derecede)

NOTE: BESIDE ve BESIDES arasındaki farka dikkat ediniz. Beside ile genellikle fiziksel mekan /yer kastedilir.

Between
1. An intermediate location:  Toronto lies between Montreal and Vancouver.( ortada bir yer)
2. An intermediate time:  between Christmas and New Year’s Day( ortada bir zaman)
3. Intermediate in a series:  B comes between A and C in the alphabet.( ortada bir sıra)
4. An intermediate amount:  between five and ten people( ortada miktar)
5. Within a group of two:  The money was shared between two people.( iki kişilik grubun içinde)

Beyond
1. Farther than:  The mountains lie beyond the horizon.( daha uzakda)
2. Further than; exceeding:  That was beyond my expectations.( daha ilerde)

But
1. Except:  I have read all but the last chapter.( hariç)

Note: But is used more often as a conjunction than as a preposition.

By
1. Near:  a house by the sea ( yanında)
2. Past:  He waved as he drove by the house. ( geçip)
3. Not later than:  Try to finish the work by next week.( belli zamandan önce)
4. In units of:  cheaper by the dozen; sold by weight ( birim halinde)
5. Through the means of:  travel by plane; written by him ( vasıtasıyla)

NOTE: By genellikle edilgen çatıda (Passive Voice) kullanılır..

Concerning
1. Connected with; about:  He studies everything concerning trees.( ilgili)

Despite
1. In spite of:  We walked downtown despite the rain.( ragmen)

Down
1. To a lower position:  The ball rolled down the hill.( aşağı)
2. Further along:  He lives down the street.( boyunca ileriye)

During
1. Throughout a period:  She works during the day.( belli bir zaman dilimi boyunca)
2. Sometime within a period:  An accident occurred during the night.( bır zaman dilimi esnasında)

Except
1. Not including:  I have visited everyone except him.( hariç)

For
1. Duration of time:  We walked for two hours.( zaman süresi)
2. Distance:  I walked for five kilometers. ( mesafe)
3. Purpose:  I bought this jacket for you.(amaç)
4. In the direction of:  She left for New York.(yön)
5. In favor of:  We are for the proposal.( taraf olmak)
6. Considering:  The boy is clever for his age. ( göre)

From
1. Place of origin:  We left from Boston; he comes from Mexico ( asıl memleket)
2. Start of a period of time:  from now on; from yesterday until today ( zaman dilimi başlangıcı)
3. Start of a range:  From 20 to 30 people were present.( silisile başlangıcı)

  1. Cause:  He suffers from nervousness.( sebeb)
    5. Source:  I first heard the story from you. ( kaynak)

    In
    1. Place thought of as an area:  in London; in Europe ( bölge olarak Kabul edilen yer)
    2. Within a location:  in the room; in the building ( lokasyonun içinde)
    3. Large units of time:  That happened in March, in 1992.( zaman birimleri )
    4. Within a certain time:  I will return in an hour. ( belli bir zaman içinde)
    5. By means of:  write in pencil; speak in English ( aracıyla,vasıtasıyla)
    6. Condition:  in doubt; in a hurry; in secret (durum)
    7. A member of:  He is in the orchestra; in the navy (bir gruba üye)
    8. Wearing:  the boy in the blue shirt ( giyiyor olmak)
    9. With reference to:  lacking in ideas; rich in oil ( gönderme)( fikirden yoksun,petrolden zengin)

    Inside
    1. Within:  They are inside the house.(içine)

    Into
    1. To the inside of:  We stepped into the room.( hareket-içine doğru)
    2. Change of condition:  The boy changed into a man.( durumun değişmesi)

    Like
    1. Resembling:  That looks like him ( benzeme-gibi).
    2. Appearing possible:  It looks like rain. ( muhtemel benzerlik)
    3. Be in a suitable mood for:  I feel like going swimming. ( öyle gibi hissetmek)

    Minus
    1. Less:  Three minus two equals one. ( eksik-daha az)

    Near
    1. Close to:  near the school; near the ocean( yakında)

    Of
    1. Location:  east of here; the middle of the road( yer )
    2. Possession:  a friend of mine; the sound of music (aitlik)
    3. Part of a group:  one of us; a member of the team ( grubun parçası)
    4. Measurement:  a cup of milk; two meters of snow ( ölçü)

    Off
    1. Not on; away from:  Please keep off the grass. ( uzakta-kapalı)
    2. At some distance from:  There are islands off the coast.( bir yerden biraz mesafede)

    On
    1. Touching the surface of:  on the table; on the wall ( yüzeye değerek üstünde)
    2. A certain day:  That happened on Sunday, on the 6th of June. ( belli bir gün)
    3. A certain street:  on South Street ( belli bir cadde)
    4. About:  a book on engineering ( hakkında)
    5. A state or condition:  on strike; on fire; on holiday ( bir durum ya da hal)
    6. By means of:  live on a pension; shown on television( vasıtasıyla-)

    Onto
    1. To a position on:  The child climbed onto the table.( hareket-üzerine koymak)

    Opposite
    1. Facing:  The library is opposite the fire station.( karşısında)

    Out of
    1. To the outside of:  She went out of the room. ( hareket-dışarıya doğru)
    2. From among:  We won two games out of three.( bir gruptan bir kısmı)
    3. Motive:  We spoke to them out of politeness.( güdü)
    4. Material:  The bridge is made out of steel.( malzeme)
    5. Beyond:  out of control; out of danger ( dışı-olmaksızın) ( kontrolsüz-tehlikesiz)

    Outside
    1. On the outer side of:  outside the house ( dışarısı)
    2. Beyond the limits of:  outside my experience ( haricinde,ötesinde)

    Over
    1. Above; higher than:  There are cupboards over the sink.( yüksek-yukarısında)
    2. Covering:  We spread an extra blanket over the bed.( üstünü kaplar şekilde)
    3. Across:  I jumped over a puddle.( karşı taraf)9
    4. More than:  It cost over ten dollars; it took over an hour( daha fazla
    5. During:  I saw him several times over the past week.( boyunca-sırasında)
    6. By means of:  We made plans over the telephone.( vasıtasıyla)

    Past
    1. Up to and beyond:  I walked past the house.( önünden geçerek)
    2. After (in time):  It was past 2 o’clock; half past two ( sonra-saatlerde geçe)
    3. Beyond:  past belief( ötesinde)

    Per
    1. For each:  60 kilometers per hour; price per liter ( her biri)

    Plus
    1. With the addition of:  Six plus four equals ten.( ekleyerek-toplama)

    Since
    1. From a specific time in the past:  I had been waiting since two o’clock.( Geçmişte belli bir zamandan beri)
    2. From a past time until now:  I have been waiting here since noon.( geçmişte bellli bir zamandan bu yana)

    Note: Because of its meaning, the preposition since is usually used in combination with a perfect tense. It should be noted that the preposition for can also be used with a perfect tense. However, when used with reference to time, for is usually followed by a phrase referring to a period of time; whereas since is usually followed by a phrase referring to a specific time.
    e.g. I have known him for six months.( 6 aydır tanıyorum)
    I have known him since January. ( ocaktan bu yana tanıyorum)
    In the first example, for is followed by six months, which refers to a period of time. In the second example, since is followed by January, which refers to a specific time.

( since: belli bir tarihten  bu yana geçen süreyi ifade ederken perfect tense de kullanılır. For ise sadece geçmiş olan zaman dilimini anlatır)

Through
1. Across; from end to end of:  the main road through town ( karşıya,bir şeyin içinden geçerek)
2. For the whole of a period:  I slept through the night.( tüm zaman dillimi boyunca)
3. By means of:  Skill improves through practice.( vasıtasıyla)

Throughout
1. In every part of:  throughout the world  ( her bir bölüm)
2. For the whole of a period:  throughout the winter ( zaman diliminin tamamı)

Till
Note: Till can be used instead of until. However, at the beginning of a sentence, until is usually used.( till kelimesi until yerine de kullanılır ancak cümle başındaysa genellikle until kullanılır)

To
1. In the direction of:  Turn to the right.( o yönde) ( saga dön)
2. Destination:  I am going to Rome.( gidilecek yeri söylerken)
3. Until:  from Monday to Friday; five minutes to ten ( -e kadar)
4. Compared with:  They prefer hockey to soccer.( kıyas yaparken)
5. With indirect object:  Please give it to me.( dolaylı nesne)
6. As part of infinitive:  I like to ski; he wants to help.( mastar,fiil kökü olarak)
7. In order to:  We went to the store to buy soap.( amaç söylerken)

Toward (or Towards)
1. In the direction of:  We walked toward the center of town. ( o yöne doğru)
2. Near; just before (time):  It rained towards evening.  ( o zamana doğru, )

Under
1. Beneath:  under the desk; under the trees ( altında)
2. Less than:  Under 100 people were present.( daha az)
3. In circumstances of:  under repair; under way; under discussion ( o şartlarda,koşulda)

Underneath
1. Below, under:  underneath the carpet( seviye olarak aşağı)

Until
1. Up to a certain time:  She will stay until Friday; until 5 p.m.( -e kadar-zaman)

Upon
Note: On and upon have similar meanings. Upon may be used in certain expressions, as in once upon a time, and following certain verbs, as in to rely upon someone.( on ve upon aynı anlama sahip ama upon kullanılan belli ifadeler var)

Up
1. To a higher place:  We went up the stairs. (daha yüksek bir yere)
2. In a higher place:  She lives up the hill.( daha yüksek bir yerde)

Up to
1. As far as:  up to now; I have read up to page 100.( o miktara kadar)
2. Depending on:  The decision is up to you.( Bu karar sana bağlı, -e bağlı)
3. As good as; ready for:  His work is up to standard.( o derece iyi)

Versus
1. Against (sports, legal):  The next game is England versus Australia.( karşı karşıya)

Via
1. By way of:  He went to Los Angeles via San Francisco.( o vasıtayla)

With
1. Accompanying:  He came with her; I have my keys with me.( birlikte)
2. Having; containing:  Here is a book with a map of the island.( içinde dahil olarak)
3. By means of; using:  I repaired the shoes with glue.( vasıtasıyla- ayakkabıları yapıştırıcı vasıtasıyla tamir ettim)
4. Manner:  with pleasure; with ease; with difficulty ( tutum – memnuniyetle, kolaylıkla,zorlukla)
5. Because of:  We were paralyzed with fear.( o yüzden- korkudan dona kaldık)

Within
1. Inside of:  within twenty minutes; within one kilometer  (  bir şeyin içinde)

Without
1. Not having:  Do not leave without your coat; without money ( olmaksızın- parasız, montsuz)

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