READING STUDY 2

LANGUAGE AND VOCABULARY SECTION (33 pts.)

 

LANGUAGE SECTION (1 pt. each; 27 pts.)

 

Although it was a Sunday morning, Carolyn ____(1)_____ work ____(2)_____ she could prepare her

 

annual report. When she went into the study, she glanced at the two pieces of mail that ____(3)_____

 

on her desk for more than a week now. Then she saw the phone. The message light on her answering

 

machine ____(4)_____, but she decided she ____(5)_____ until later to listen to the messages.

 

____(6)_____ all day long, Carolyn felt ____(7)_____ to cook herself a meal at the end of the day, so

 

she ordered some Italian food. When the doorbell ____(8)_____ about an hour later, she ran to the

 

door, ____(9)_____ the pizza that she ____(10)_____. However, instead of the pizza boy, there was a

 

group of her friends at the door with a cake and presents in their hands. One of them said, “I know we

 

____(11)_____ have informed you earlier in the week that we were coming, but we ____(12)_____

 

leave you a message just this morning.” Carolyn was confused. She asked, “What message?” Her

 

friends answered, “You ____(13)_____ about it! Today is your birthday!” Carolyn said, “I’m so

 

absent-minded! I forgot ____(14)_____ my messages on the answering machine! Well, don’t just

 

stand there! Come on in! Let’s have a party, ____(15)_____?”

 

 

1. a) was able to 2. a) in order to
b) used to b) so that
c) should c) in case
d) had to d) so as not to
4. a) had blinked 5. a) would be waiting
b) blinked b) could have waited
c) was blinking c) would wait
d) have been blinking d) could be waiting
7. a) so tired 8. a) rang
b) tired enough b) had rung
c) very tired c) was ringing
d) too tired d) had been ringing
10. a) was ordering 11. a) can’t
b) had ordered b) must
c) would order c) needn’t
d) was ordered d) should
13. a) didn’t need to forget 14. a) to check
b) could forget b) checking
c) wouldn’t have forgotten c) checked
d) must have forgotten d) to have checked

 

  1. a) have lied
    1. were lying
    2. lied
    3. had been lying

 

  1. a) Being
    1. Having worked
    2. Working
    3. Having been worked

 

  1. a) which was expected
    1. expected
    2. which she expected
    3. expecting

 

  1. a) could
    1. managed
    2. were able to
    3. succeeded in

 

  1. a) won’t we
    1. could we
    2. shall we
    3. should we

 

Today, the population of Planet Earth is more than 5.5 billion, and by the year 2020,  it wil

 

____(16)_____ 8 billion. Of course, ____(17a)_____ the population gets, ____(17b)_____ the strain

 

on the world’s resources. The reason for this is that in the year 2020 our living conditions will be

 

____(18)_____ they are today as there will not be any more water on  the earth’s  surface.

 

_____(19)_____, we have to work ____(20)_____ to stop population growth, but since we cannot

 

stop it completely, we should either limit the number of children per family to two or ____(21)_____

 

the idea of outbreaks of major wars and diseases, ____(22)_____ most probably ____(23)_____ the

 

Earth to come to an end.

 

16. a) have been reaching 17. a) the highest…. greater 18. a) much worse than
b) have to reach b) the higher… the greater b) as badly as
c) have reached c) higher… the greatest c) the worst
d) be reaching d) higher… greater d) much more badly than
19. a) Nevertheless 20. a) too hard 21. a) be used to
b) On the other hand b) hard b) get used to
c) In contrast c) hardly c) used to
d) Therefore d) as hard d) to be used to
22. a) will 23. a) make
b) they will b) lead to
c) so that they will c) result
d) which will d) cause

 

Last June, Martha wanted ____(24)_____, but she wishes she ____(25)_____ it, because if she

 

____(26a)_____ those builders, her jewelry ____(26b)_____. Later, she found out that the builders

 

were arrested and were reported ____(27)_____ several houses in the district.

 

24. a) to have her house redecorated 25. a) would never attempt
b) her house to redecorate b) never attempted
c) to have her house redecorate c) had never attempted
d) her house to have been redecorated d) never attempts
26. a) didn’t hire … wouldn’t steal 27. a) to burgle
b) hadn’t hired … wouldn’t have stolen b) to have burgled
c) didn’t hire… wouldn’t be stolen c) to have been burgled
d) hadn’t hired … wouldn’t have been stolen d) to be burgling

 

 

VOCABULARY SECTION (1 pt. each; 6 pts.)

 

  1. Dan wasn’t fit enough, so after a while he couldn’t ________ the other swimmers and fel behind.

 

  1. a) come up with b) come up against c) keep up with            d) cut down on

 

 

  1. After her ________ speech during the elections, Joanna was chosen the chairperson for the Student Council because her messages were kind and caring.

 

  1. a) blatant b) remarkable c) incriminating           d) hostile

 

 

  1. Bob’s teacher thought that his composition was ________ as it lacked an introduction and a conclusion.

 

  1. a) controversial b) sufficient c) qualified                    d) inadequate

 

 

  1. When the old man came round after the serious accident, he couldn’t ________ how it al happened.

 

  1. a) re-sit b) revise c) recall                            d) recover

 

 

  1. The music business is a highly ________ field where success depends on talent and popularity.

 

  1. a) fake b) failing c) apparent                     d) competitive

 

 

  1. Davidson, who is a billionaire now, can still ________ remember the first day he came to New York as a homeless unemployed teenager.

 

  1. a) closely b) gently c) commonly                 d) vividly

 

READING SECTION (37 pts.)

 

LOGICAL SEQUENCE (1 pt. each; 5 pts.)

 

 

  1. The discussions lasted longer than usual despite the fact that _____________.

 

  1. the delegates couldn’t reach an agreement on any of the issues
  2. the issue held at the meeting was the most important of all
  3. less than half of the delegates attended the sessions
  4. the delegates had to announce that their decision would be delayed

 

 

  1. The next generation is going to have serious lung problems unless ____________.

 

  1. their parents carry on smoking heavily
  2. effective measures are taken to discourage young people from smoking
  3. their parents fail to set good examples to their children
  4. they have difficulty leading healthy lives

 

 

  1. The number of deaths in traffic accidents is not climbing anymore. On the contrary, it _________.

 

  1. has started to decline
  2. is increasing
  3. is not rising
  4. has stopped decreasing

 

 

  1. Fears of one kind or another are almost universal in early childhood. Fear is, of course, a normal response to real danger. However, __________________.

 

  1. it plays an important role in the development of children’s personalities
  2. children should be allowed to express their fear freely
  3. little children can be as intensely afraid of imaginary danger as of real danger
  4. it may be observed in the behavioral patterns of children older than three

 

 

  1. Economists have long known that people are an important part of the wealth of a nation. Obviously, the productive capacity of human beings is what really contributes to a nation’s wealth. Therefore, __________________.

 

  1. drastic measures are needed to prevent a rapid increase in the population
  2. it is essential that every nation should invest in its people
  3. different sectors such as industry and banking determine the prosperity of a nation
  4. nations find it difficult to increase the productive capacity of their people

 

Text I.

 

Read the text below and answer the questions that follow. (2 pts. each; 16 pts.)

 

HELP FOR THE RICH BUT NOT FOR THE POOR

 

  • I am not sure about the ethics of this — its basic method is deceit — but one day last week I carried out an experiment at Charing Cross Station in London. It was a repeat of something done in the 1950s by an American sociologist. For an hour he had stood begging in Grand Central Station in New York, dressed as what he called a ‘hobo’, a homeless person, and for the following hour he did the same thing, but posing as a businessman, dressed in a suit and tie. What, he asked, would be the difference in response?

 

  • To do this is quite difficult, even if it is only an act. It is a conscious stripping away of one’s own dignity. I arrived at the station at about midday, wearing old jeans, several layers of T-shirts and jerseys and an anorak. I was unshaven. I took my bag with the other clothes to the left-luggage office. Other people deposited their luggage and received a ticket. They handed over no money. They would pay on collection. When I reached the head of the queue, the woman made me pay the £2 there and then, and insisted on going through everything in the bag before accepting it. I felt dirty and resentful.

 

  • The usual anonymity of the station had disappeared. Even standing there, doing nothing, I had somehow become abnormal, the object of a cold, evaluating stare from the other passengers, barely suppressed expressions of contempt on their faces, perhaps in the expectation of a bad smell. What I was planning to do was an offense. I didn’t want to be arrested, so I moved out of the station. I stood by the corner of a cafe and started to beg. The shame of it made me start out with the wrong phrase, inviting an answer in the negative. “Excuse me, you haven’t got any change, have you?” “No,” they said, not breaking step or in a tight, confused silence. So I turned to the affirmative. “Could you give me some change, please? Have you got some money you could give me?”

 

  • With rejection after rejection, the humiliation does not diminish. The sense of one’s own uselessness is cumulative. From the inside, begging does not feel predatory, exploitative or threatening, but quite quickly out of pure self-interest, you start to examine the crowd, to try and pick out the most likely candidates. Self-made people, who have worked to remove themselves from poverty, are useless. Heavily made-up women make no response at all. Old people on day trips to London are greatly surprised when I approach them, with shock and confusion on their faces. What you are looking for, I realize, is educated middle-class people with progressive opinions.

 

  • A delicate, curly-haired man in his 40s, wearing a white raincoat, came up the street, reading a book as he walked. Did he have any change? He looked me carefully in the eye. “What’s the problem?” he said. “Just short of cash, really,” I said. “Mm,” he said, and gave me a pound. Two other men of the same type gave me 50p each, jangling the change in their pockets as they searched for the right-shaped coin. My hour was nearly up. A man who looked like a builder but said he used to be “on the beg” himself insisted on giving me 21 pence even though I told him to keep it. “Go on,” he said fiercely, “take it.”

 

  • In the Charing Cross men’s toilet, I changed into my suit and tie, had a shave and then went upstairs to ask the people in the station for money. I explained that I had arrived there, stupidly, without any money, cheque book, credit cards, anything, and I needed a ticket to get down to Sussex. Could they, did they think, just give me 50 pence towards it? Really stupid, so embarrassing. I could see myself making a sort of grin of apology. This trick worked a dream. Within twenty minutes I had £3.50. Old ladies happily dug into their purses for me. One of them said, “I must say you are a very optimistic young man.” A charming man explained how he’d been in the same situation himself once. A man from Sussex got change from a bookstall so he could help me out.

 

  • Out of every three people I asked, one gave me money. It was a matter for conversation and sympathy. I was taking money at the rate of £10.50 an hour. But it felt like theft and after twenty minutes I stopped. The point had been made. It was the same result as the sociologist had found in the 1950s.

 

  • What can one conclude? Most importantly, that people are not mean. They are prepared, on the whole, to give to a stranger. The natural sense of charity is alive. But strangely, that readiness to give is not related to the need. The need of the homeless person is infinitely more urgent than that of the man without a ticket but people respond as if the opposite were the case. The only substantial difference between them is in what they look like.

 

  1. When he decided to carry out the experiment, the writer __________.

 

  1. did not know about the previous experiment
  2. adopted a new approach
  3. thought it would take two days to complete it
  4. felt uncomfortable about what he had to do

 

 

  1. His first negative experience was when __________.

 

  1. he was overcharged for a service
  2. people looked at him with suspicion
  3. he went to collect his belongings
  4. a woman employee treated him differently from others

 

 

  1. In para. 3, ‘contempt’ probably means __________.

 

  1. admiration
  2. disrespect
  3. surprise
  4. fear

 

 

  1. The writer’s initial attempts were unsuccessful because __________.

 

  1. he stood in the wrong place
  2. people felt threatened by his behavior
  3. people were surprised by what he said
  4. he asked the question in the wrong way

 

 

  1. The people who the writer decided that would help were __________.

 

  1. self-made people who had worked hard to become rich
  2. heavily made-up women
  3. educated middle-class people with progressive opinions
  4. old people on day trips to London

 

 

  1. When he had put on his suit and a tie, the writer __________.

 

  1. used a different story about his situation
  2. decided to approach a different set of people
  3. had difficulty talking to people
  4. did not receive any sympathy from people

 

 

  1. The writer concluded that __________.

 

  1. the concept of charity does not exist any more
  2. beggars receive the treatment they deserve
  3. people will give money if someone is dressed in a suitable way
  4. the greater the need, the more money people are willing to give

 

 

  1. In para. 8 ‘that’ refers to the _________.

 

  1. case
  2. personality
  3. urgency
  4. need

 

Text II.

 

Read the text below and answer the questions that follow. (2 pts. each; 16 pts.)

 

A NEW WEAPON AGAINST EBOLA

 

  • Scientists don’t know very much about the ebola virus that has caused a great amount of damage since 1976, most recently in Uganda this autumn. But they have long known the disease’s most powerful weapon: its speed. Flulike symptoms, such as sneezing and coughing, appear a week after infection and, in some outbreaks, 80 to 90 percent of victims die a week or two later. The virus spreads so easily—a handshake will do it. Even though scientists responded with unparalleled alacrity to the Uganda outbreak, the disease kills so swiftly that it had already covered its tracks.

 

  • Once inside a cell, the ebola virus replicates rapidly until the cell bursts, flooding the bloodstream with new viruses that seek out yet more cells. It prefers cells that line the blood vessels, which accounts for the strange bleeding from nose, eyes and gums. A normal healthy immune system could develop resistance in perhaps three weeks, but most ebola victims don’t have that much time.

 

  • There may be a way of buying that time. Scientists have now succeeded in stimulating the immune system of macaque monkeys so that they develop an immunity to the disease. This vaccine, reported this week in the British scientific journal Nature, may with a bit of luck eventually work in humans. “We’ve learned that it’s possible to protect against ebola by vaccinating an animal that’s quite similar to humans,” says co-author Gary J. Nabel, a virologist at the National Institute of Health in Bethesda, Maryland. “Does that tell us it will work in humans? No, not yet, but it tells us we’re on the right track.”

 

  • An ebola vaccine is an especially tricky thing to develop because the virus is extremely deadly. Researchers had to go down to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta to use their containment lab, which was built (at a cost of more than $1,000 per square foot) especially to accommodate the most dangerous pathogens. To prevent transmission, air is continually sucked out of the room and filtered just in case a speck of virus wafts up from a test tube. And the common virologist’s trick of using a killed or weakened virus was out of the question for ebola. Instead, researchers resorted to clever engineering. They took a bit of DNA from a harmless bacterium and modified it to produce the same molecule that ebola releases into the bloodstream –a long protein connected to a bit of sugar, called a glycoprotein. They also placed the glycoproteins onto a cold virus whose ability to reproduce had been removed. They administered this cocktail to the monkeys in gradually increasing doses until they began producing a high-enough level of immune response. Then came the ultimate test: they exposed eight monkeys to a live ebola virus. Within a week the entire control group was dead; the vaccinated four were still alive six months later.

 

  • The next step is to administer the vaccine in gradually increasing doses to humans to make sure it is safe and does stimulate an immune response. More ambitious tests would determine if the

 

vaccine truly protects against ebola. Scientists would pick a high-risk area and inoculate residents—most likely nurses and other hospital workers in central Africa—and wait for another outbreak. If all goes well, a human vaccine could be readied in five years. Some researchers even talk about a “hyperimmune serum” that would deliver antibodies to combat the disease after infection occurs, much like a tetanus shot.

 

  • Much, however, could go wrong: the vaccine might not work in humans or at high exposure to ebola; it might have negative side effects or even prove toxic. For this reason, scientists are still trying to figure out one of the disease’s central mysteries: where it comes from. Most suspect it’s an animal, but which one? Monkeys and other primates, such as humans, die quickly from ebola, which rules them out. Some bats survive inoculation, but none has been found carrying the virus in the wild. One theory holds that the prime source may be a plant virus. “It seems like there’s some very unconventional carrier”, says the CDC’s James Le Duc.

 

  • For now, the best weapon is the boy Scout’s motto: be prepared. In Uganda, scientists and doctors are training hospital staff to take precautions against infection. They’ve even asked Ugandans to abandon their custom of washing their dead at funerals: big social gatherings are ground zero for an ebola epidemic. For a disease of such terrifying power, it’s best not to count on finding a magic bullet.

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true according to the text?

 

  1. Sneezing and coughing are known to be two of the symptoms of the ebola disease.
  2. The ebola virus spreads so easily that shaking hands would cause someone to catch it.
  3. The ebola virus has spread in an uncontrollable way for more than a quarter of a century.
  4. The period between the appearance of symptoms and the death of the victim may be as short as one week.

 

  1. In para. 1, ‘alacrity’ probably means _____________.

 

  1. ignorance
  2. speed
  3. difficulty
  4. similarity

 

 

  1. The ebola virus _________________.

 

  1. replicates by eating the cells in the human body
  2. causes the victim’s ears to bleed
  3. spreads so rapidly that the immune system doesn’t have time to respond
  4. mainly spreads among the cells that are not near the blood vessels

 

 

  1. In para. 3, ‘they’ refers to ___________.

 

  1. macaque monkeys
  2. ebola victims
  3. scientists
  4. the systems

 

 

  1. Experiments to develop a vaccination for ebola have been carried out ___________.

 

  1. on animals which do not resemble humans
  2. by sucking all the air from the laboratories
  3. in laboratories where the air is frequently filtered
  4. by using killed or weakened viruses

 

 

  1. In order to produce the ebola vaccine, __________________.

 

  1. molecules were taken from an ebola virus
  2. a DNA sample of a harmless bacterium was changed
  3. glycoproteins were combined with a cold virus that could reproduce
  4. a cocktail called a glycoprotein was used

 

 

  1. The ebola vaccine __________________.

 

  1. will be ready in five years
  2. might be tested by inoculating people after the outbreak of the disease
  3. does not have any negative effects unless too much exposure to the virus occurs
  4. might poison the patients

 

 

  1. Which of the following hasn’t been ruled out yet as the source of ebola?

 

  1. monkeys
  2. plants
  3. bats
  4. humans

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *