Verb Tenses In General

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Verb Tenses In General

Verb Tenses In English

Verb Tenses In General-Haydi başlayalım

A)-SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

1-General statements of fact

Bu tense doğa olayları, bilimsel bulgular, sınıflandırmalar, genellemeler ve atasözleri-deyimler gibi her zaman geçerliliği olan olay ve durumları ifade etmek için kullanılır.

¨The earth revolves around the sun.

¨An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

2-Habitual daily activities

Her zaman alşkanlık haline getirilmiş eylemler ve beceriler ile her gün, her hafta ,her ay her yıl gibi zamanlarda tekrar eden olayları ifade etmek için kullanılır.

¨The workers work for ten hours every day.

¨I always lock the door to my flat before going to bed.

3- A present state of affairs

       Belirli olayların şu anki durumunu göstermek için de kullanılır

¨My family lives in Polatlı.

¨Professor Demirezen lectures at Hacettepe University.

¨I speak two languages fluently.

4-Future schedules/timetables

     Belirli bir çizelge yada plana (örneğin, ders programları; uçak, gemi, tren, otobüs tarifeleri;sinema, tiyatro gibi etkinliklerin başlama ve bitiş saatleri; gezi programları)uygun olarak, SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE gelecek zamanda meydana gelecek bir olayı anlatmak için kullanılır.

¨The plane leaves at 8 :00 a.m. tomorrow.

¨Her school begins next Friday.

¨Midas’ın Kulakları starts at 8:00 tonight.

 5-A future situation (In adverbial clauses of time)

      After, before, by the time, when, until/till, as soon as, once, immediately, as long as gibi bağlaçlarla kurulmuş zaman bildiren yan cümleciklerde gelecek zaman bildirmek için bu zaman kullanılır.

¨As soon as his contact terminates, he will leave the firm.

¨I will wait for him until he comes to his office.

¨Before the research team starts to collect data next month, they will prepare feasibility report.

6-A past activity or event in newspaper headlines

      Gerçekte geçmiş zamanda olmuş bir eylem yada durum gazette başlıklarında bu tense ile ifade edilir.

¨Galatasaray beats Leeds United.

¨Thousands of people lose their lives in the earthquake yesterday.

Aynı şekilde, aslında geçmiş zamanda anlatılmış bir olay yada hikaye bu tense ile anlatılabilir.

e.g. The man leaves his house and goes to his work. At the work, he discusses with his friends…

7-Criticism or appraisal of artistic work

SPT bir sanat eseri üzerinde yapılan olumlu yada olumsuz eleştirilerde kullanılır.

¨ Thomas Hardy usually depicts woman characters as victims.

¨ Picasso’s works reflect the beauty of nature.

 

TIME EXPRESSIONS IN SIMPLE PRESENT

every day / week / year / Friday

Example Sentences:

  • We go to work every day.
  • She plays tennis every week.
  • We visit our uncle in London every year.
  • They meet at a cafe every Sunday.
  • I pay my bills every month.

 

on Mondays, at the weekend ,etc

Example Sentences:

  • I don’t work on Sundays.
  • My wife cleans the house at the weekend.
  • Tom and I play chess on Mondays.

 

in the afternoons, morning etc.

Example Sentences:

  • She gets up late on Monday mornings.
  • We have lunch at 2 in the afternoon.
  • I try not to eat anything at night.
  • Sally doesn’t work in the evening.
  • He plays tennis in the evening.
  • He gets up early in the morning.

 

in winter / spring, etc.

Example Sentences:

  • We wear warm clothes in winter.
  • She goes swimming in summer.
  • The trees lose their leaves in spring.

 

once a day / twice a week ,etc.

  • We go to the cinema once a week.
  • My father calls me twice a week.
  • I go to my hometown twice a year.
  • She brushes her teeth three times a day.
  • He goes to the hospital twice a month
  • He earns four hundreds Dollars a week.

 

Frequency Adverbs  (always , sometimes …)

  • She always listens to classical music.
  • I usually go to cinema at weekends.
  • They often visit us.
  • She sometimes writes me a letter.
  • I rarely smoke.
  • I never drink alcohol.

 

8-Non-progressive fiiller  ile ( ANLAMI ŞİMDİKİ/CONTINUOUS OLAN ANCAK SIMPLE PRESENT İLE KULLANILAN FİİLLER)

 

COMMON NONPREGRESSİVE  VERBS

Mental state know ,realize, understand recognize believe ,feel ,suppose ,think imagine ,doubt remember ,forget want ,need ,prefer ,mean
Emotional state                   ( duygular) love, like ,appreciate hate dislike,

 

fear , envy mind , care
possession       ( mülkiyet) possess have own belong to
Sense ( duyu) perceptions taste , smell, hear , feel see  
Other existing states                 ( durumu) seem , look ,appear cost , owe

weigh

be , exist consist of , contain , include

Those verbs in bold type can be used both progressively and non-progressively.

B) PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

1-An activity in progress right now

Konuşma sırasında devam eden olyları  anlatmak için kullanılaır.

¨I can’t come with you because I am working on a project right now.

¨The director cannot see you because he is having an important meeting at the moment.

2- A general activity that takes place over a period of time.

Konuşmanın geçtiği anda o eylemi yapmıyor olsak bile osıralarda yapmakta olduğumuz işleri anlatırız. Genellikle şu zaman zarfları kullanılır: nowadays, these days, this term, this quarter, this semester, this year, this month…etc.

¨Teenagers are eating humburgers nowadays.

¨What are you doing to improve your  language skills.

3-Future arrangements (plans)

Önceden plnladığımız ve kesin olarak yapmayı düşündüğümüz işleri ifade etmek için kullanılır.

¨I have decided to learn Chinese, so I am starting a course next Friday.

¨We are introducing the new product next week.

¨I am going to Paris for a holiday next month.

4-An attitude of annoyance

Şikayet yada kızgınlık belirtmek için bu tense constantly always, continually,perpetually, forever gibi zarflar ile birlikte kullanılır.

¨You are continually coming to work late.You will be dismissed.

¨My brother is always leaving his dirty socks on the floor.

C)-SIMPLE PAST TENSE

-An action which began and ended at a particular time in the past

Geçmişte belli bir zamanda olmuş bitmiş (tamamlanmış) eylemleri ifade etmek için kullanılır.
¨I saw him on the street yesterday.

2-An activity that took place regularly in the past

Geçmişte düzenli aralıklarla olmuş eylemleri anlatmak içn de kullanılır.Bu yönüyle USED TO gibi kullanılır ama bu kullanıma nadir rastlanır.

¨We met every week to work on the book about rare species.

¨Being close friends we wrote to each other every week.

3-In reported speech and wish clauses

¨He said he loved his wife and didn’t want a divorce.(reported speech)

¨We all wish our economic condition were better.

D) PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE

1-An activity that was in progress at a particular time in the past

Geçmişte belli bir anda devam etmekte olan olayları anlatmak için kullanılır

¨She was reading a book when I came home.

2-An event or activity that was planned but not fulfilled in the past(also with was/were going to)

Geçmişte tasarlanmış ama yapılamamışolan eylemleri anlatmak için kullanılır

¨She was writing the homework on the computer ,but the electricity went off.

3-Koşul cümlelerinde (koşul ,tercih , dilek bildirmek için )kullanılır.

¨I wish I were climbing the Mount Everest with my friends right now.

E) PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

1-An activity or action that happened at an unspecific time before now

İçinde bulunduğumuz anın öncesinde olmuş ancak zamanı tam olarak bilinmayen eylemleri ifade eder. Önemli olan eylemin zamanı değil sonucudur.

¨The firm has coined a trademark for its new product.

¨The success of tourism has damaged the natural beauty of south.

2-An action that happened repeatedly before now

Bu kullanımda genellikle henüz tamamlanmamış bir dönem ifade eden today, this morning ,this week , this month…etc.

¨It has snowed three times so far this winter.

¨This subject has been examined by many different authors.

3-An action that began in the past and continues up to the present(often used with for and since)

Perfect tense’lerin kullanılmasıda iki temel neden vardır:1-sonuç(kullanılan eylem belli bir sonuca işaret eder) 2-süreç(eylem belli bir süreç içinde gerçekleşir) Kısca bu tense belli bir noktada başlamış ve halen devam eden eylemleri ifade eder.

¨Mr Öztürk has been the president of our company for 8 months.

4-An action that recently occurred

Kısa bir sure once tamamlanmış eylemleri ifade etmekiçin kullanılır.

¨He has just returned from holiday.

¨Since I have just eaten a huge ,sandwich, Ido not feel hungry.

5-An action to be completed in the future, in adverbial clauses

Zarf cümleciklerinde gelecekte tamamlanmış olacağı vugulanan eylemleri ifade eder.

¨If you have typed all the letters , you may leave early today.

¨As soon as the store has been cleaned thoroughly, we will bring new furniture for decoration

F) PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE

1-An activity that began in the past and continues up to the present

Present perfec’ten farklı olarak bu zaman ,yapılan eylemin sürekliliğini de ön plana çıkarır.

¨The Palestinian –Israeli conflict has been going on for many years.

2-Ageneral action lately in progress (no specific time is mentioned)

Bu kullanımda da eylemin sürekliklik göstermesi önemlidir.Recently ,lately, all day , all week, all year…vb. Zaman zarfları kullanılır.

¨I have been teaching all day ,so I feel exhausted.

G) PAST PERFECT TENSE

1-An action that occurred before another activity in the past

Geçmişte yapılan iki eylemden ,önce olanı yada geçmişte belli bir noktadan önce gerçekleşen

Eylemleri ifade etmek için kullanılır.

¨I had never witnessed such a violent crime until Isaw one in England.

2-An action that was expected to occur in the past

Geçmişte belli bir noktadan önce olmuş ancak etkileri onoktada devam eden eylemlerin ifade edilmesinde kullanılır.

¨When I went to my hometown fifteen years later, I found it greatly changed. New buildings had been built; streets had been reorganized.

3-Ayrıca bu tense, reported speech ve koşul cümlelerinde (conditional sentences) kullanılır.

¨One of my friends told me that the teacher had given certain assignments to each student.

(reported speech)

¨The politician wished he hadn’t voted for the new president.( a conditional sentence)

 

H) –PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSE

1-An activity that was in progress before another activity in the past

Geçmişte belli bir zamandan yada eylemden önce gerçekleşen olayı sürekliliğini vugulamak için kullanılır.

¨Before I foond this precious painting, I had been looking for it for almost seven years.

2-In reported speech

Dolaylı anlatımda past progressive ve present perfect progressive yerine past perfect progressive kullanılr.

¨She criticized him that she had been waiting for him for an hour.(“I have been waiting for you for an hour.”)

¨They explained that he had been driving very fast when the accident occurred.(“He was driving very fast.”)

I) –FUTURE (Be Going To)

1-Expressing a prediction

Gelecekte meydana gelme olasılığı bulunan bir olaydan yada geleceğe yönelik bir tahminden söz ediliyorsa “BE GOING TO” kullanılır.Bu yönüyle “will” in kullanımına benzer.Ancak çok yakın gelecekte  olma  olasılığı yüksek olan tahminlerde “BE GOING TO” kullanılır .

¨According to the weather forecast, the southern parts of Europe are going to be snowy tomorrow.

 

2- Expressing a future plan or intent

Önceden tasarlanmış eylemleri ifade ederken kullanılır.Bu kullanımıyla “be going to” ve “present continuous tense” birbinin yerine kullanılabilir

The military forces of the US are moving eastwards. They are going to attack Iraq again.

J)-  FUTURE (WILL)
1- Expressing a prediction

Geleceğe yönelik bir tahminden söz ediliyorsa “will” kullanılabilir.Bu kullanımı ile “be going to” ya benzer.

¨According to the weather forecast, the southern parts of Europe will be snowy tomorrow.

2- Expressing willingness/unwillingness or making a decision at the time of speaking

Konuşma anında alınan kararlar yada henüz öğrenilen bir konudaki isteklilik veya isteksizlik”will” ile ifade edilir.

¨A: Your brother needs help for his homework.

B:  I won’t help him.

¨A: Ineed some sugar for my coffee.

B: O.K. I will go and get some for you.

K)-  FUTURE PROGRESSIVE

1 –An activity that will be in progress at aparticular time in the future.

Gelecekte belli bir anda devam etmekte olacak eylemleri ifade etmek için kullanılır.

¨ I won’t be seeing you tomorrow because I will be having an important interview with CNN.

1- An activity that will occur at an unspecified time in the future

Tam olarak ne zaman olcağı bilinmeyen ancak gelecekte olacak eylemleri ifade etmek için bu tense kullanılır.

¨Don’t worry she will be visiting you soon.

¨Our company will be distributing its product all over the world in the future.

3- A future activity that already been decided

Gelecek için tasarlanan eylemlerin ifade edilmesinde kullanılır.

¨Right after the lecture, I will be meeting the director.

¨As soon as the weather clears up, we will be heading for Ankara.

4- Polite requests

Kibar bir şekilde soru sorarken kullanılır.

¨Will you be attending the conference?

¨Will you be bringing your car with you?

L) FUTURE PERFECT

1An activity that will be completed before another activity in the future

Gelecekte belli bir olay yada andan once tamamlanmış olacak eylemler bu tense ile ifade edilir.

¨By the time the battle is over,many innocent people will have been died.

¨All of the repair work will have been completed by Friday.

M) – FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

!-Emphasizing the duration of an activity that will be in progress before another activity in the future

Gelecekte belli bir olay yada andan once tamamlanacak eylemin gösterdiği devamlılık bu tense ile ifade edilir.

¨By next year, the good relations between the two nations will have been going on for twenty years.

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