Wish clause ile ilgilenmeden önce wish yüklemini tanımak gerek. WISH “istemek” ve “iyi dilekte bulunmak” anlamlarına gelir.
wish to do
- I wish to see the manager. (=I want/would like to see the manager)
- I wish to make a complaint. (=Bir şikayette bulunmak istiyorum)
wish + SB + ST ðvery rare
- He wished me luck (=He said “Good luck”)
- I wish you a happy Christmas.
wish for = no hope of getting [chiefly in exclamation] istemek, ancak alma ümidi yok.
- How he wished for a good map with this lack of facility! (Bu olanak yetersizliğiyle nasıl bir harita bekliyorki)
WISH + SENTENCE (WISH CLAUSE’LAR)
Temel olarak wish’ten sonra gelen cümle gerçek zamanının bir derece past’ı olarak söylenir.
||a) I wish SB would ð Karşıdakinden bir istekte bulunur. “will” “would” olmuş.
I wish you would come and see me more often. (=I hope you will come and see me more often)
The phone has been ringing for 5 minutes I wish somebody would answer it.
NOTE: Would sadece “actions” ve “changes” ile birlikte kullanılır. Dolayısıyla:
I wish Sarah would come.
I wish Sarah were here now.(I wish Sarah would be here now) [YANLIŞ]
|b) I wish ST would ð Geleceğe ait temenni. “will” “would” olmuş.
It’s raining and I want to go out, but not in the rain. I wish it would stop raining and the sun would come out. (Keşke yağmur dursa ve güneş çıksa)
||I wish+Sentence (Simple Past) Unreal durumlardır. Mana present yapı past olur.
It rains a lot here I wish it didn’t rain so much.(But it rains)
I wish I didn’t have to work. (But I have to work)
Marry wishes she were as hardworking as Bob. (But she is not)
Do you ever wish you could fly?
I wish I could play the guitar. (=If only I could play the guitar.)
||I wish + Sentence (Past Perfect) Unreal durumdur. Mana past yapı past perfect olur.
I wish I had known that Gary was ill. I would have gone to see him. (But I didn’t know.)
I feel sick. I wish I hadn’t eaten so much cake yesterday. (But I ate too much cake.)
Do you wish you had studied language instead of science?
|1. Future Possibility
emir, rica, istek cümleleri
|2. Present Unreal
Could + v1
|3. Past Unreal
[could have V3] 
|would have V3
could have V3
might have V3
|4. Mixed Type
||would have V3
could have V3
might have V3
- If she has enough money, she will buy a car. (present)
- If she had enough money, she would buy a car. (unreal present)
- If she had had enough money, she would have bought a car.(past)
Mixed: Her zaman Type 2 ile Type 3 arasında olur.
- If we had built a subway system 10 years ago, the traffic would not be so bad today. [Type III + Type II]
- If I had passed my exam last year, I would not have to follow this course now.
- If she were your real friend she would have helped you yesterday.
NOTE: Zaman ipucu hep bulunur.
Inverted Forms (Devrik Yapılar)
||Should you want to see me, you will wait some. (=If you want to see me, you will wait some.)
||Were I to meet him again, I would tell him the truth. (=If I were to meet him again, …)
Were she my sister, I wouldnt let her go out alone at midnight. (=If she were my sister, …)
||Had I studied hard last year, I could have passed all my exams. (=If I had studied hard last year, …)
||Had I worked hard last year, I would be 4th grade now. (=If I had worked hard last year, …)
||Were she your friend, she would have helped when thay laughed at you. (If she were your friend,…)
Implied Variations: (İma Edilmiş Olanlar)
- I would ask (if I were you)
- I would go by sea. (if I were her)
- I would have helped you yesterday, but I had to finish my project. (=If I had not had to finish my project I would have helped you yesterday.)
- He would have come to the meeting, but he got sick. (=If he had not been sick, he would have come to the meeting.)
- He could have joined us, but he did not get your invitation in time.(=If he had gotten your invitation in time, he could have joined us.)
- My parents lent me the money. Otherwise, I couldn’t have afforded the trip. (=If my parents had not lent me the money, I couldn’t have afforded the trip.)
- I’d better write it down, otherwise I’ll forget it. (=If I don’t write it down, I’ll forget it.)
Purpose in the if-part of the sentence ð if…to be to V1 : Amaç belirtir.
- A student must study hard if he is to succeed.
- New measures are necessary if inflation is to be brought under control.
- New jobs must be created if poverty is to be
Less possibility in the if-part of the sentence ðif…should, if…happen to, if…should happen to : Olayın gerçekleşme ihtimalinin düşük olduğunu ima eder.
- If you should arrive earlier than me let him stay in my room.
- If you happen to pass a post office, could you post this letter for me?
- If you should happen to pass a post office, could you post this letter for me?
ALTERNATIVE USAGES (ALTERNATİF KULLANIMLAR)
If you have finished your homework, we will watch television. [present perfect]
If you are looking for Tom, you will find him upstairs. [present continuous]
If you eat all your dinner you can have a chocolate.[modal]
If the ice is thick, we can walk across. [modal]
If it is foggy tonight, the plane may be late. [modal]
If you are tired, sit down. [command,advice]
you should sit down [advice]
you had better sit down [advice]
why don’t you sit down? [suggestion]
If you are not too busy, would you help me with them? [request]
|typical behaviour, automatic, habitual or natural events: gerek insan, gerek makina vs. için tipik davranış. Burada “if” “when” gibidir.
If you press this button, the light goes on.
If you argue with him, he gets angry.
If he comes, I go.
If you boil water it evaporates.
I am going by bus if I were going by car I would offer you a lift. (past continuous)
If you wrote to him, he might answer. (possible request)
If I knew his address, I could write to him. (ability)
If you wrote to him, he would answer.(certain)
If I were on holiday now, I would be skiing.
You were going too fast. If you had been going more slowly, you would have been able to stop. (past perfect continuous)
If you had asked him, he might have helped you .(possibility)
he could have helped you.(ability)
If anlamıyla If’in yerine kullanılabilen koşullu ifadeler.
- Imperative sentences (emir cümleleri)
- Fail to pay the bill and electricity will cut off. (=If you fail to pay…)
- Tell me what to hand and I’ll bring it to you. (=If you tell me what to hand…)
- Imagine (that) (Farzet…)
- Imagine (that) we were in Chicago, we could watch Michael Jordan.
- suppose/ supposing/assuming (that) (Farzet…)
- Suppose/supposing (that) we miss the last bus, what shall we do?
- what if/say (Diyelim ki…)
- What if / Say your father sees you with a cigarette in your hand? (What will you do then?)
- What if / Say we were to run out of petrol half way home? (What would we do?)
- whether…or not (…-sen de…-mesen de)
- You’ll have to live with this problem, whether you like it or not.
- even if (…-e bile olsa)
- He will continue to have grand ideas and loft ideals even if he faces too many hardships.
- as/so long as (…tığı müddetçe…)
- I will remember and appreciate your favour as/so long as I live.
- You won’t fail your exams so/as long as you study regularly.
- unless (…-medikçe….)
- If it doesn’t rain, I’ll go and do shopping. (=Unless it rains, …)
- If the government doesn’t offer a higher salary, there will be a strike. (=Unless the government offers a higher salary,…)
Ancak aşağıda unless ve if…not aynı anlamı vermez.
- We will be surprised if he doesn’t finish the race. (Burada unless kullanılmaz)
- I couldn’t have arrived school on time unless I had caught the 8.00 bus.
- I couldn’t have arrived school on time if I had not caught the 8.00 bus.
Aynı anlamda without ile de koşul cümlesi yapılır. Ancak Without kendisinden sonra isim alır.
- I couldn’t have done it without
- provided/providing (that) (…şartıyla…)
- You can borrow my book provided/providing you give it back to me by Sunday.
- pasifle başlayan bazı cümleler
- Given the necessary chemicals, he’ll prepare the solution you need. (=If he is given necessary chemicals, …)
- If it weren’t for, if it hadn’t been for, but for + N
|If it weren’t for
|if it hadn’t been for
- If it weren’t for your help, I would be a poor man now. (=But for your help, …)
- If it weren’t for farmers, we would starve.(=But for farmers, …)
- If it hadn’t been for your support, I couldn’t have achieved such successs.(But for your support, …)
- But for continuous rain, Istanbul would be facing a water problem. (=If it weren’t for continuous rain, …)
- But for losing the Vienna War, Ottoman Empire could have conquered the whole Europe. (=But it hadn’t been for, …)
If clause’ların if-part’ında will veya would kullnılmaz. Aşağıdaki durumlar hariç:
- İf cümleciği ana cümlede yapılan eylemin bir sonucu ise.
- Open a window if it will help you to sleep. or …if it helps you to sleep.
- I’ll be angry if it turns out that you are wrong. [burada kullanılamaz]
- kibar isteklerde:
- If you will take your seats, ladies and gentlemen, we can begin the meeting.
- If you would take your seats, ladies and gentlemen, we can begin the meeting.
 Wish clause’larda If only=I wish.
 Wish clause’larda tüm was’lar were olurlar.
 Wish cümlesinde “CAN” “COULD” modalına dönüşür.
 Cesur Öztürk TYPE-3 durumunda could have + V3 kullanılması mümkün diyorsa da örnek bir cümle vermemiş. Ben de bir yerde karşılaşmadım.
 Eğer başarılı olması hedefleniyorsa öğrenci çok çalışmalı
 .Enflasyonun kontrol altına alınması hedefleniyorsa yeni önlemler alınmalı)
 Her zaman Type 1 ile kullanılırlar.
 Type 0 olarak da bilinir.
 Faturayı bir ödeyeme elektrikler hemen kesilir.
 Bana ne vereceğimi söyle hemen sana getireyim.
 İllaki or not ile birlikte. Whether aynı zamanda isim cümlesidir.
She looks so busy, I don’t know whether she can come.
 Zannedildiğinin aksine her zaman “if… not” anlamında kullanılmaz.
 8:00 otobüsünü yakalamadığım müddetçe okula vaktinde varamazdım. Geçmişte erken varabilmenin koşulu.
 8:00 otobüsünü yakalamasaydım okula vaktinde varamazdım. Ama yakaladım ve vaktinde ulaştım.
 Provided ile yapılan koşul cümlesine benzer ve sadece bu anlamlara gelebilecek yüklemlerle kullanılabilir.
 Bu durumda “WOULD” “WILL” modalından daha kibardır.