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PASSIVE VOICE
TENSE/VERB FORM ACTIVE VOICE PASSIVE VOICE
Simple present keeps is kept
Present continuous is keeping is being kept
Simple past kept was kept
Past continuous was keeping was being kept
Present perfect has/have kept has/have been kept
Past perfect had kept had been kept
Future will keep will be kept
Conditional would keep would be kept
Perfect conditional would have kept would have been kept
Present infinitive to keep to be kept
Perfect infinitive to have kept to have been kept
Present participle/ gerundPerfect participle keepinghaving kept being kepthaving been kept
*THE PASSIVE IS FORMED WITH THE DIFFERENT TENSES OF THE VERB TO BE FOLLOWED BY A PAST PARTICIPLE

 

FORM

ACTIVE     SUBJECT    VERB    OBJECT 

PASSIVE   NEW SUBJECT   PASSIVE FORM

ACTIVE     SOMEONE HAS STOLEN MY CAR 
PASSIVE   MY CAR HAS BEEN STOLEN

 

MAIN USES OF THE PASSIVE VOICE

 

a)   When the person doing the action (the agent) is not known, or when it is unnecessary to mention the agent. For example:  

               MY CAR’S BEEN STOLEN!            MILK IS OFTEN SOLD IN CARTONS.

b)   To emphasise the action or event rather than the agent. For example:   

         LETTERS ARE COLLECTED FROM THE BOXES, TAKEN TO THE SORTING OFFICE, SORTED

        AND THEN SENT TO THE CORRECT PART OF THE COUNTRY.

c)   To avoid using you and one when making an impersonal statement. For example:

                      TAKING PHOTOGRAPHS IN THE MUSEUM IS FORBIDDEN.

                      CHILDREN ARE NOT ALLOWED IN THE BAR.

     d) VERBS WITH TWO OBJECTS

GIVE     SEND   SHOW     LEND   PAY   PROMISE    REFUSE    TELL   OFFER

These verbs are followed by two objects, which usually refer to a person and a thing.

She gave her sister the car.

Her sister was given the car.          The car was given to her sister.

 

       *Most often in such cases the person becomes the subject of the passive verb.

          Write passive sentences:

a)  They have just sent me a whole lot of information.

b)  She lent you ten thousand pounds last year.

c)  They showed us all the different ways of making whisky.

 

    e) SENTENCES WITH OBJECTS COMPLEMENTS.

   CONSIDER      ELECT   REGARD     SEE      CALL       MAKE

Direct object followed by an ‘object complement’ A noun or adjective which describes the object.

 

Queen Victoria considered him a genius.        He was considered a genius (by Queen Victoria)

       Write passive sentences:

a)  They elected him president.

b)  They regarded him as an expert.

c)  They saw him as a sort of clown.

d)  She called him stupid.

e)  He made the room beautiful.

 

 

 

 

f)  SENTENCES WITH CLAUSE OBJECTS AND VERBS WITH OBJECT + INFINITIVE

 

We need to be sure of our facts when we say:  He was a spy in the World War II .If we are not sure of our facts, we can

express caution by saying:

It is said (that) he was a spy in World War II.  / He was said to be a spy in World War II.

We can express caution in three ways, with:

 

a)     It(+ passive + that-clause)

AGREE      BELIEVE       CONSIDER       DECIDE      HOPE     KNOW       SAY

People believed that witches communicated with the devil.

It was believed that witches communicated with the devil.

(Also possible: That witches communicated with the devil was widely believed)

b)   There (+passive+to be)

ALLEGE    BELIEVE   FEAR   KNOW   REPORT     SAY    SUPPOSE    THINK

There is plenty of oil off our own coast.

There is said to be plenty of oil off our own coast.

c)  Subject (not it)(+passive +to-infinitive)

 ALLEGE    BELIEVE   CONSIDER   KNOW   SAY

Jane knows all there is to know about chimpanzees.

Jane is said to know all there is to know about chimpanzees.

    Write passive sentences:

a)   Everybody knows that Peter has connections with drug dealers.

b)   People believe that the Queen is very rich.

c)   Many people say that she is the best soprano in the world.

d)   Most people think that the government behaved irresponsibly.

e)   Several newspapers report that Maradona is retiring next year.

f)   They found that most of the pipes had rusted.

g)   Many political commentators expect that the Prime Minister will call a general election.

h)   The hospital reports that both mother and daughter are in good health.

i)    Nobody can deny that Induraín is one of the greatest cyclists.

j)    The people know that the president is very ill.

k)   There are thousands of people waiting to renew their work permit. (say)

l)    There is a lot of coal in the Antartic. (think)

4. VERB + PREPOSITION.

We’ve listened to this CD hundreds of times.        This CD has been listened to hundreds of times.

   Write passive sentences: 

  1. They will send for you when the boss arrives.
  2. This is what we asked for.
  3. She thinks highly of the new worker.
  4. He threw away the old clothes.

  COMPLETE THE CHART

Tense Subject Verb to be Past participle
Present simplePresent continuous

……………………………….

Past simple

Past continuous

………………………………..

Future simple

Future perfect

Dinner……………………………….

A stolen car

The thief

The room

The decision

Your offer

……………………………….

………………………………..is being

has been

was

………………………………..

had been

will be

will have been

…………………………(capture)……………………………(study)
Going toModals (Present)

           (Past)

His carThis machine

The box

………………………………can…………………………

shouldn’t ……………………………

 

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