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Relative Clause  ( Adjective Clause)   (Sıfat Cümleciği)

            Clause: İçinde bir özne ve bir yüklem barındıran şey bir clause’dır. Bu clause ya bir bağımsız cümle (independent clause) olur veya yan cümle (dependent clause) olur. Bağımsız cümleler ana cümlelerdir (main clause). Yan cümleler ana cümlede gördükleri fonksiyona göre isimlendirilirler:

  • The people who came to my party had a good time. (ismi niteliyor, sıfat yan cümleciği)
  • We had a good time since the organisation was a well-designed one. (zarf cümleciği)
  • That the organisation was a well-organised one made us happy. (isim cümleciği)

Relative Pronoun: Relative clause başlarında yer alan which, who, whom, that zamirleri

NOTE: What bir relative pronoun değildir. Bu konuda göreceğimiz when, where, why ve whereby ise relative adverb’tür.

Altın Kurallar

1) Relative clause içinde nitelenen ismin kendisi veya onu kasteden bir zamir yer almaz..

  • The movie which we saw last night was great. (not The movie which we saw it last night was great.)
  • The movie whose subject / the subject of which was complicated couldn’t take my interest. (not The movie which its subject was complicated couldn’t take my interest)

2) Relative clause isimden sonra gelir ve nitelemiş olduğu isimden ayrılmaz. (Non-defining relative clause hariç.)

  • The movie which we saw last night was great. (not The movie was great which we saw last night.)

3) Eğer bir relative pronoun’dan sonra cümle geliyorsa o relative pronoun atılabilir.

  • The movie (that) we saw last night was great. (=The movie we saw last night was great.)

4) Ancak relative pronoun’dan sonra yüklem geliyorsa atamayız.

  • The people who came to my party had a good time. (not The people came to my party had a good time)

5) Preposition’dan sonra who, that veya Æ gelmez. which veya whom gelir.

6) Whose’dan sonra bir isim gelir.

7) Non-defining relative cause iki virgül arasına alınır. Bu tür cümlelerde that kullanılmaz.

8) Which insan olmayanlar için kullanılır.

Relative Clause in Details

Sıfat cümlecikleri (adjective clause) bir ismi tanımlamalarına (defining) veya isim hakkında fazladan malumat vermelerine göre ikiye (non-defining) ayrılır. Tanımlayıcı olmayan sıfat yan-cümlecikler (non-defining relative clause) daha çok özel isimleri veya iyelik ifadeleri (my, his, Ahmet’s vs.) veya gösterme sıfatları (this, that vs.) ile tanımlanmış isimlerden sonra kullanılırlar.

Yapısal olarak iki virgül ile niteledikleri isimden ve cümlenin kalanından ayrılmaları (1), virgülden sonra that almamaları (2) ve cümle içinde zaman zaman taşınabilmeleri (3)  yönleriyle tanımlayıcı sıfat yan-cümleciklerinden (defining relative clause) ayrılırlar. Oluşturduğu anlam farkı için aşağıdaki cümleleri inceleyiniz:

  • My wife who is 27 years old is very smart.[2] (I live in Saudi Arabia. I have more than one wife.)
  • My wife, who is 27 years old, is very smart.[3] (I have only one wife.)

 

1. ÖZNE KONUMUNDAKİ RELATIVE PRONOUN

Defining Relative Clause

N who

that

V
  1. a) İnsanlar için [N + who/that + V] (whom ve Æ)

I thanked the women. She helped me.

§  I thanked the women who

that

helped me.
N which

that

V
  1. b) İnsan olmayanlar için [N + which/that + V] (Æ olmaz)

The book is mine. It is on the table.

§  The book which

that

is on the table is mine..

Non-Defining Relative Clause

N , who V
  1. a) İnsanlar için [N+, who + V] (whom , that ve Æ olmaz)

My brother Jim is a doctor. He lives in London.

§  My brother Jim, who lives in London, is a doctor.
N , which V
  1. b) İnsan olmayanlar için [N+, which + V] (that ve Æ olmaz)

These drugs must be withdrawn from sale. They are used to treat stomach ulcer.

§  These drugs, which are used to treat stomach ulcer, must be withdrawn.

2. NESNE KONUMUNDAKİ RELATIVE PRONOUN (YÜKLEM SONRASI)

Defining Relative Clause
N whom

who

that

Æ

S
  1. a) İnsanlar için [N + whom/who/that/Æ + Sentence] (hepsi olur)

The man was Mr. Jones. I saw him.

§  The man whom

who

that

Ø

I saw was Mr. Jones..
N which

that

Æ

S
  1. b) İnsan olmayanlar için [N + which/that/Æ + Sentence] (hepsi olur)

The movie was not very good. We saw it last night.

§  The movie which

that

Ø

we saw last night was not very good..

Non-Defining Relative Clause

  1. a) İnsanlar için [N, + whom/who/Æ + Sentence] (that olmaz)
N , whom

who

Æ

S

This morning, I met Diana. I hadn’t seen her for ages.

§  This morning I met Diana, whom

who

Ø

I hadn’t seen for ages.
N , whom

Æ

S
  1. b) İnsan olmayanlar için [N, + which/Æ + Sentence] (that olmaz)

We stayed at Grand Hotel. Ann recommended it to us.

§  We stayed at Grand Hotel, which

Ø

Ann recommended us.

3. NESNE KONUMUNDAKİ RELATIVE PRONOUN (PREPOSITION SONRASI)

Defining Relative Clause

  1. a) İnsanlar için

Preposition başa alınırsa sadece ‘whom’ kullanılır[4]. [N + prep + whom + Sentence]

N prep whom S

She is the woman. I told you about her.

  • She is the woman about whom I told you.

Preposition yerinde bırakılırsa ‘whom, who, that, Ø’ kullanılır. [N+whom/who/that/Æ+Sentence…+prep]

  • She is the woman whom / who / that / Ø I told you about.
  1. b) İnsan olmayanlar için

Preposition başa alınırsa sadece ‘which’ kullanılır. [N + prep + which + Sentence]

N prep which S

The mosaic is good. We are looking at it.

  • The mosaic at which we are looking is good.

Preposition yerinde bırakılırsa ‘which, that, Ø’ kullanılır. [N+whom/who/that/Æ+Sentence…+prep]

  • The mosaic which / that / Ø we are looking at is good.

Non-Defining Relative Clause

N , prep whom S
  1. a) İnsanlar için

Preposition başa alınırsa sadece ‘whom’ kullanılır. [N, + prep + whom + Sentence]

My professor got married last week. All female students fell in love with him.

  • My professor, with whom all female students fell in love, got married last week.

Preposition yerinde bırakılırsa ‘whom, who veya Ø’ kullanılır. [N,+whom/who/Æ+Sentence…+prep]

  • My professor, whom/who/Ø all female students fell in love with, got married last week.
N , prep which S
  1. b) İnsan olmayanlar için

Preposition başa alınırsa sadece ‘which’ kullanılır. [N + prep + which + Sentence]

My house is worth over 15000 dollars. He proposed 10000 dollars for it.

  • My house, for which he proposed 10000 dollars, is worth over 15000 dollars.

Preposition yerinde bırakılırsa ‘which, veya Ø’ kullanılır. [N+which/Æ+Sentence…+prep]

My house is worth over 15000 dollars. He proposed 10000 dollars for it.

  • My house, which / Æ he proposed 10000 dollars for, is worth over 15000 dollars.

[5]4) WHOSE: whose + noun

  1. a) İnsanlar için: özneyse [N+whose+N+V] , nesneyse [N+whose+N+Sentence]

I know the man. His bicycle was stolen.

  • I know the man whose bicycle was stolen.

The student writes well. I read her composition.

  • The student whose composition I read writes well.
  1. b) İnsan olmayanlar için: özneyse [N+whose+N+V] , nesneyse [N+whose+N+Sentence]

Mr. Catt has a painting. Its value is inestimable.

§  Mr. Catt has a painting whose value

the value of which

is inestimable.

NOTE: the painting’s value = the value of the painting olduğundan, sahiplik belirtmek amacıyla ‘whose+N’ yerine ‘N+of which’ kullanılmıştır.

5) WHEN: Zaman belirten bir isimden sonra kullanılır.

  1. a) N+when+sentence

I will never forget the day. I met you (on) that day / then.

  • I will never forget the day when we first met. (not…when we first met on.)
N when

that

Æ

prep+which

S
  1. b) N+prep[6] +which+sentence
  • I will never forget the day on which we first met.
  1. c) N+which/that/Ø+sentence
  • I will never forget the day that / Ø we first met.

NOTE: ‘which’ preposition nitelenen isme göre değişir: the year in which, the night at which etc.

I have to submit this report by someday. Do you know that day?

  • Do you know the day by which I have to submit this report?

6) WHERE Yer belirten bir isimden sonra kullanılır.

N where

prep+which

S

The building is very old. He lives there / in that building.

  • The building where / in which he lives is very old. [7]
  • The building which / that / Ø he lives in is very old.[8]
N which

That

Æ

S (with prep)

I will go to Sweden. My daughter lives in that country / there.

  • I will go to Sweden, where / in which my daughter lives.
  • I will go to Sweden, which / Ø my daughter lives in.

NOTE: ‘where’ ile ‘which’ birbirleriyle karıştırılmamalıdır. WHERE ancak içinde bulunmak anlamında bir mekan için kullanılırken, WHICH mekan bir cisim veya bir nesne olarak düşünüldüğünde kullanılır. Dolayısıyla “wherethere için, “which” it veya them için kullanılır.[9]

The house belongs to my uncle. We had a party there.

  • The house where we had the party belongs to my Uncle Kenneth.

The house cost over $200,000. My uncle bought it.

  • The house which my Uncle Kenneth bought cost over $200,000.

Do you know the park  ¾¾¾¾  has a fountain?[10]                     a) which        b) where

Do you know the place ¾¾¾¾ I’d like to see?[11]                       a) which        b) where

Do you know the park ¾¾¾¾ I can find a fountain?[12]             a) which        b) where

Do you know the place ¾¾¾¾ they let me cook some fish?[13]  a) which        b) where

NOTE: ‘where’ aynı zamanda position, situation, case, instance, point, level, stage[14] gibi isimlerden sonra kullanılır. Where yerine duruma göre in/on/at which getirilebilir.

  • She is now in a position in which / where she is fully authorized to choose the personnel.
  • We are confronted with a situation in which / where urgent action is vital to avert a war.
  • He has long past the stage at which / where his misbehavior could be tolerated.
  • Technology has brought us to a point at which / where we can sit in our homes and order goods as far as the United States.
N whereby

by which

through which

by means of which

S

7) WHEREBY: (by which, ) (kendisi vasıtasıyla, sayesinde)

I found a formula.I can solve the problem by this formula.

  • I found a formula whereby / by which I can solve the problem.[15]

NOTE: “by means of which” ve “through which” de whereby veya by which yerine kullanılır

  • The government is to end the system by means of which / through which formers make more from leaving land unplanted than from growing wheat.[16]

8)  WHY: neden anlamına gelen reason isminden sonra kullanılır.

  • I didn’t get a pay rise, but this was not the reason why / for which / that I left the company.
  • The reason why / for which / that I’m late is bad weather conditions.
The reason why

for which

that

S

NOTE: Buradaki that yerine which kullanılamaz.

 

9) Tüm Cümleyi Kasteden WHICH

Bazen virgülden sonra yazılan which tüm cümleyi niteleyebilir. Aynı ifadenin alternatifleri de aşağıda verilmiştir.

  • The book won’t be published until next year, which is disappointing.

= The book won’t be published until next year. This/that is disappointing.

= The book won’t be published until next year, and this/that is disappointing.

= That the book won’t be published until next year is disappointing.

 

That that

Zaman zaman iki that yan yana gelebilmektedir. Aslında buradaki that’lerin ilki çoğulu those olan ve cümleden atılamayacak olan bir zamirdir.

  • The bread my mother makes is much better than that (that) you buy at a store.

(=The bread my mother makes is much better than the bread (that) you buy at a store.

  • We sometimes fear that (that) we don’t understand.

(=We sometimes fear the thing (that) we don’t understand.

  • His handwriting is like that (= the handwriting) of a much younger child.
  • Our children are luckier than those (=the children) who live in rural areas.

NOTE: Buralardaki that veya those yerine this veya these kullanılamaz.

 

 

, quantifier OF WHOM

WHICH

WHOSE

superlative

sıralama sayıları

the noun

Quantifiers, superlatives and nouns with Relative Pronouns

 

Bu yapılar virgüle niteledikleri isimden ayrıldıktan sonra of preposition’u ile relative pronouna bağlanırlar. Bu tür yapılarda who veya that kullanılamaz.

 

N , some of which

whom

whose

  1. a) quantifier

We have two typists. Both of them are quite efficient.

  • We have two typists, both of whom are quite efficient.

He has written five novels. All of them have been translated into several foreign language.

  • He has written five novels, all of which have been translated into several foreign languages.

The teacher was praised by the director. Most of his students were successful.

  • The teacher, most of whose students were successful was praised by the director.
  1. b) superlative / ordinal numbers

He has three daughters. The second of them is very smart.

  • He has three daughters, the second of whom is very smart.

There are many lakes in Turkey. The largest of them is Lake Van.

  • There are many lakes in Turkey, the largest of which is Lake Van.
  1. c) noun

Aslında daha önce de gecen sahiplik durumundan başka bir şey değildir[17]. Sadece cansızların sahipliğinde söz konusudur ve alternatifi whose ile yapılır.

The house will be repaired. The roof of the house has been damaged.

  • The house, the roof of which / whose roof has been damaged, will be repaired.

The agreement will end the long running dispute between the two countries. The details of the agreement will be released tomorrow.

  • The agreement, the details of which / whose details will be released tomorrow, will end the long running dispute between the two countries.

REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES

Sıfat cümleciklerde indirgeme ancak who, which, that zamirlerinde ve kendilerinden sonar yüklem gelme durumunda söz konusudur. Relative clause’un ana cümle ile eş zamanlı olup olmaması indirgeme biçimini etkiler.

  1. a) zamirden sonra TO BE, eş zamanlı
who

which + TO BE

that

ikisi de gider
  • Man who is talking to John is from Korea.
  • (=Man talking to John is from Korea.)
  • The ideas which are presented in that book are
  • (=The ideas presented in that book are good.)
  • Ann is the woman who is responsible for that error.
  • (=Ann is the woman responsible for that error.)
who

which + VERB

that

Ving
  1. b) zamirden sonra VERB, eş zamanlı
  • English has an alphabet which consists of 26 letters.
  • English has an alphabet consisting of 26 letters.
  • Anyone who wants to come is
  • Anyone wanting to come is welcome.
  • Students who does not work hard cannot pass the UDS exam.
  • Students not working hard cannot pass the his exam.
who

which + VERBönce

that

having V3
  1. c) zamirden sonra VERB, relative clause daha önce gerçekleştiyse
  • Ann who has seen the film before wants to go to the theatre.
  • Ann having seen the film before wants to go to the theatre.
  • His family, who had gone to Bodrum last summer, decided to go to Hawaii this summer.
  • His family, having gone to Bodrum last summer, decided to go to Hawaii this summer.

ANCAK pasiflerde zamir ve TO BE atılmaya devam edilir. HAVING BEEN V3 zorunlu değildir.

  • The method which was not used in Turkey last year will be utilized next year.
  • The method not used in Turkey last year will be utilized next year.

NOTE: Non-defining relative clause eğer bir özneyi nitelemekteyse, indirgemeden sonra bu clause cümle başına çekilebilir.

  • Bodrum, which is popular holiday resort, attracts many tourists.
  • Bodrum, popular holiday resort, attracts many tourists.
  • Popular holiday resort, Bodrum attracts many tourists.
  • Bodrum, which attracts many tourists every year, is an important holiday resort.
  • Bodrum, attracting many tourists every year, is an important holiday resort.
  • Attracting many tourists every year, Bodrum an important holiday resort.
  1. d) the first/best/only

Eğer sıfat cümlecik ile nitelenen isim daha önceden bir superlative sıfat, bir sıralama sayısı veya the only ile nitelenmişse indirgeme to V1 şeklinde yapılır.

  • The first athlete who finishes the race gets the prize.
  • The first athlete to finish the race gets the prize.
  • Madama Crue is the only woman scientist who win the Nobel Prize.
  • Madama Crue is the only woman scientist to win the Nobel Prize.
  • She was the largest ship which was built here last year.
  • She was the largest ship (to be) built here last year.
  1. e) with some modals

Bunlar da TO V1 olarak indirgenirler.

  • That was a good method that could be
  • That was a good method to be
  • He has a lot of responsibilities that he must fulfil.
  • He has a lot of responsibilities to fulfil.

 

[1] ADJECTIVE CLAUSE da denir.

[2]  27 yaşındaki karım çok akıllıdır.

[3] Karım, kendisi 27 yaşındadır, çok akıllıdır. VEYA  Kendisi 27 yaşında olan karım çok akıllıdır.

[4] Bu relative clause için geçerli bir kuraldır. Yoksa noun clause cümlesinde prepositiondan sonra who gelmiştir:

  • There is a list of who has been invited on the table.

[5] Bu noktadan sonra yapıca virgülden başka bir farklılık göstermeyeceğinden relative clause “defining” ve “nondefining” olarak ayrılarak gösterilmeyecektir.

[6] Zamana uygun preposition kullanılır: günler için on, yıllar için in vs

[7] Uygun prep ile where yerine prep+which kullanılabilir.

[8] Prep cümle içinde kullanılırsa which, that veya boşluk (Ø) kullanılabilir.

[9] Ayirt etmek icin: (1) Cümleyi iki ayrı cümle haline getirin. Relative clause olacak cümlede there veya prep+it/them oluyorsa where gelir. (2) nitelenen ismin yerine başka bir nesne yerlestirin (orn dolmakalem) hala anlamli ise which gelir. (3) boşlukta mekan prepositoun’u +which katabiliyorsanız where gelir.

[10] Do you know the park? It has a fountain.

[11] Do you know the park? I’d like to see it.

[12] Do you know the park? I can find a fountain in that place / there.

[13] Do you know the place? They let me cook some fish at that place / there

[14] stage zaman da belirtebileceginden bazen when ile de kullanilir.

[15] (Kendisi vasıtasıyla) problemi çözebileceğim bir formül buldum.

[16] Hükümet (kendisi vasıtasıyla) çiftçilerin buğday yetiştirmek yerine toprağı nadasa bırakarak para kazandığı sisteme son vermeli.

[17] Bkz 4. WHOSE

perizathoca

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