The Blog

Reported Speech

Special Introductory Verbs
Introductory verb

 

Direct Speech

 

Reported Speech
agree + to-inf

demand

offer

promise

refuse

threaten

claim

“Yes, I’ll come with you.”

“Tell me everything!”

“Would you like me to carry it?”

“I’ll study more.”

“No, I won’t come with you.”

“Behave yourself or I’ll punish you.”

I heard her say that.”

 

He agreed to come with me.

He demanded to be told everything.

He offered to carry it.

He promised to study more.

He refused to come with me.

He threatened to punish me if I didn’t behave myself.

He claimed to have heard her say that.

 

advise + sb + to-inf

allow

ask

beg

command

encourage

forbid

instruct

 

invite sb

order

permit

remind

urge

warn

want

“You should take a coat.”

“You can use my phone.”

“Please, put it away.”

“Please, please help me.”

“Fire!”

“Go ahead, phone her.”

“You mustn’t eat sweets.”

“Insert your card and wait for the machine to open.”

 

“Would you like to come to my house?’

“Sit down immediately.”

“You may speak now.”

“Don’t forget to pay the bill.”

“Finish your work.”

“Don’t touch that switch.”

“I’d like you to go out.”

He advised me to take a coat.

He allowed me to use his phone.

He asked me to put it away.

He begged me to help him.

He commanded the soldiers to fire.

He encouraged me to phone her.

He forbade me to eat sweets.

He instructed me to insert my card and wait for the machine to open.

He invited me to go to his house.

He ordered me to sit down immediately.

He permitted me to speak.

He reminded me to pay the bill.

He urged me to finish my work.

He warned me not to touch that switch.

He wanted me to go out

 

accuse sb of + -ing fom

apologise for

admit (to)

boast about

complain to sb about

deny

insist on

suggest

 

“You broke the vase.”

“I’m sorry I upset you.”

“Yes, I lied to her.”

“I am better than you.”

“You never tidy up.”

“No, I didn’t steal the car.”

“You must wear warm clothes.”

“Let’s go to the theatre.”

 

He accused me of breaking the vase.

He apologised for upsetting/having upset me.

He admitted (to) lying/having lied to her.

He boasted about being better than me.

He complained to me about my never tidying up.

He denied stealing I having stolen the car.

He insisted on me / my wearing warm clothes.

He suggested going to the theatre

agree + that-clause

boast

claim

complain

deny

exclaim

explain

inform sb

promise

suggest

 

“Yes, that is a beautiful hat.”

“I’m a brilliant dentist.”

“I know the answer.”

“You never listen to me.”

“I’ve never spoken to her.”

“It’s wonderful!”

“It’s an easy recipe to follow.”

“You will be called for an interview.”

“I won’t lie to you again.”

“You ought to take the other road.”

 

He agreed that it was a beautiful hat

He boasted that he was a brilliant dentist

He claimed that he knew the answer.

He complained that I never listened to him.

He denied that he had ever spoken to her.

He exclaimed that it was wonderful.

He explained that it was an easy recipe to follow.

He informed me that I would be called for an interview.

He promised that he wouldn’t lie to me again.

He suggested that I take the other road.

explain to sb + how

 

“This is how you make it”

 

He explained to me how to make it
wonder where/what why/how + clause

 

(when the subject of the introductory verb is not the same as the subject in the reported question)

 

 

He asked himself, “How can she reach the top?”

He asked himself, “Where is Joan?”

He asked himself, “Why is she crying?”

He asked himself, “What is she doing?”

 

 

He wondered how she could reach the top.

He wondered where Joan was.

He wondered why she was crying.

He wondered what she was doing.

 

wonder + whether +    to-inf or clause

wonder where/what/ how + to-inf

(when the subject of the infinitive is the same as the subject of the verb)

 

He asked himself, “Shall I buy that car?”

He asked himself, “Where am I going?”

He asked himself, “What should I tell her?

He asked himself, “How can I fix it?”

 

He wondered whether to buy that car.

He wondered whether he should buy that car.

He wondered where he was going.

He wondered what he should tell her.

He wondered how to fix it.

  • Turn the following text into Direct Speech.

Daniel asked the bank manager for a loan. The bank manager asked him exactly what he wanted the money for. Daniel explained that he wanted to set up his own cleaning business. The bank manager agreed that it was a good idea but urged him to be very careful before investing a lot of money. Daniel admitted that he’d never had his own business before. The bank manager apologised for being unable to promise Daniel a loan immediately. He suggested that Daniel write a business plan and come back in a  week. Daniel agreed to return the following Thursday. …”I  was wondering if it was possible for me apply for a loan,” Daniel said to the bank manager…

A   (Suggested answer)

“You must tell me exactly what you want the money for,” said the manager. “I want to set up my own cleaning business,” Daniel explained. “Yes, that sounds like a good idea. But you have to be very careful before you invest a lot of money,” said the manager. “Yes, I know,” said Daniel. “And it’s true that I’ve never had my own business before.” “I’m sorry, I can’t promise you a loan immediately,” said the manager. “Why don’t you write a business plan and come back in a week?” “OK, I’d be happy to come back next Thursday,” said Daniel.

 

 

There are three types of Reported Speech: statements, questions and commands/requests/ suggestions

Statements

  • Reported statements are usually introduced with say or That is optional in the reported sentence.

Inverted commas are omitted in Reported Speech.

“He is rich,” Ann said.          —► Ann said (that) he was rich.

  • Personal pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to context.
    “I  like your car,” he said to Mary.    —► He told Mary that he liked her
  • Tenses change as follows:
Direct Speech Reported Speech
Present Simple

Present Cont.

Past Simple

Past Cont.

Future Simple

Future Cont.

Present Perfect

Present Perf. Con

“She works hard,” he said.

“She is working hard,” he said.

“She worked hard,” he said.

“She was working hard,” he said.

“She will work hard,” he said.

“She will be working hard,” he said.

“She has worked hard,” he said.

“She has been working hard,” he said.

He said (that) she worked hard.

He said (that) she was working hard.

He said (that) she had worked hard.

He said (that) she had been working hard.

He said (that) she would work hard.

He said (that) she would be working hard.

He said (that) she had worked hard.

He said (that) she had been working hard.

  • Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous do not change in Reported Speech.
  • Past Simple changes to Past Perfect or remains the When the reported sentence contains a time clause, the tenses of the time clause remain unchanged. “She came round to my house while I was doing my shopping,” he said.

—► He said (that) she had come/came round to his house while he was doing his shopping.

  • If the reported sentence is out of date, the tenses change, but if it is up to date, the tenses can remain the same.

“She called last week,” he said. —►  He said (that) she had called the week before, (speech reported after she had called – out of date)

He is seeing the dentist tonight,” she said. —► She said he is seeing the dentist tonight, (speech reported before he sees the dentist – up to date)

Tenses do not change in Reported Speech when:

  • the reporting verb (said, told etc) is in the Present, Future or Present Perfect.

“I can’t drive,” he says. —►He says (that) he can’t drive.

  • the speaker expresses general truths, permanent states or conditions.

“The sun rises in the East,” the teacher said. —► The teacher said (that) the sun rises in the East.

  • the reported sentence deals with conditionals type 2 type 3, wishes or unreal past.
    “I wish I was flying to Brazil,” he said. —► He said (that) he wished he was flying to Brazil.
  • the speaker is reporting something immediately after it was said (up to date).
    “The food is delicious,” he said. —► He said (that) the food is delicious, (up to date)

Note: If the speaker expresses something which is believed to be true, the tenses may change or remain the same.

 “She likes seafood,” he said. —►He said (that) she likes/liked seafood.

However, if the speaker expresses something which is believed to be untrue, the tenses change.

“India is a rich country,” he said. —► He said (that) India was a rich country.

  • Time words can change or remain the same depending on the time reference
Direct Speech Reported Speech
tonight, today, this week/month/year

now

now that

“yesterday, last night/week/month/year

tomorrow, next week/month/year

two days/months/years etc ago

 

—►that night, that day, that week/month/year

—►then, at that time, at once, immediately

—►since

—►the day before, the previous night/week/month/year

—►the following day/the day after, the following/next week/month/year

—►two days/months/years etc before

 

“The report is due in next week,” the lecturer said. —► The lecturer said (that) the report was due in the fol­lowing week, (out-of-date reporting) “I went to a party last night,” she said. —►She said (that) she went to a party last night (up-to-date reporting)

  • Certain words change depending on the context : this / these —►that / those , here —►there , come —►go

He isn’t coming to the meeting , “ She said. —►She said he wasn’t going to the meeting.

  • Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech using special introductory verbs.
  1. “Don’t go near the bull.” …………………….She warned me not to go near the bull……………………..
  2. “What a brilliant idea!” ……………………………………………………………………………….…….
  3. “I’ll definitely take you to the park tomorrow.” …………………………………………..…….………….
  4. “Let’s have the wedding in the spring.” ………………………………………………..…………………
  5. “Please, please don’t tell my father what happened.”…………………………………..……………….
  6. “You are always late.” …………………………………………………….……………………………..
  7. “I’m sorry I wasn’t there when you needed me.” ………………………………………………………….
  8. “You switched the reports, didn’t you?” …………………………………..………………………………
  9. “No, I won’t lend you the money.” …………………………………………..……………………………
  10. “You can’t go to the party tonight.”…………………………………………..……………………………
  11. “Shall I hang out the washing?” ……………………………………………………..…………………..
  12. “Don’t forget to send Mum a birthday card.”…………………………………..……………………….
  13. “This is how you switch on the machine.” ………………………………………………………………
  14. “I’m the best tennis player in the club.” ……………………………………….……………………..
  15. “Go ahead, propose to her.” ……………………………………………………….………………….

B    Answer:

           2.   She exclaimed that it was a brilliant idea.

3.     She promised to take me to the park the next day.

4.     She suggested having the wedding in the spring.

5.     She begged me not to tell her father what had happened.

6.     She complained that I was always late.

7.     She apologised for not being/having been there when I needed her.

8.     She accused me of switching/having switched the reports.

9.     She refused to lend me the money.

10.     She forbade me to go to the party that night.

11.     She offered to hang out the washing.

12.     She reminded me to send Mum a birthday card.

13.     She explained to me how to switch on the machine.

14.     She boasted that she was the best tennis player in the club.

15.     She encouraged me to propose to her.

 

perizathoca

İngilizce Öğretmeni

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published.