THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD (ALM)

English: Repartition map of the languages over...
English: Repartition map of the languages over the world (version blank of key). See File:Languages world map.svg for full description. Esperanto: Mapo de la etendo de la lingvoj en la mondo (senpriskriba versio) Français : Carte de la répartition des langues dans le monde (version vierge de légende) (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

 THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD (ALM)

  1. Learning Theory: Learning is based on the principles of Behaviourism. (Mim-mem approach). Habit Formation is essential. Rules are induced from examples. Explicit grammar rules are not given. Learning is inductive.

Habit formation is actualised by means of repetitions and other mechanical drills.

    1. Language Theory: Language is based on descriptive linguistics. Every language is seen as its own unique system. The system is comprised of several different levels. (i.e. phonological, morphological, and syntactic). There is a natural order of skills. 1. Listening, 2. Speaking, 3. Reading, 4. Writing. Everyday speech and oral skills are important. Perfect pronunciation is required. Language is primarily for Oral Communication.
    2. Culture: Culture consists of everyday behaviour, and lifestyle of the target language community. Culture is presented in dialogues.
    3. Teacher’s Role: T is like an orchestra leader. S/he directs and controls the language behaviour of the students. T is a good model of the target language, especially for pronunciation and other oral skills. The differences between Sts’ L1 and L2 should be known by the teacher.
    4. Students’ Role: Sts are imitators of the teacher as perfect model of the target language or the native speakers in the audio recordings.
    5. Interactions: T-St, ST- ST. Interactions are mostly initiated by the teacher.
    6. Vocabulary Teaching: Meaning is taught directly. L1 is prohibited because it may cause bad habit formations. Vocabulary is introduced through dialogues.
    7. Grammar Teaching: Explicit rules are not provided. Students induce the rules through examples and drills. Students acquire grammar by being exposed to patterns through mechanical drills.
    8. Materials: Dialogues
    9. Syllabus: Grammar points and sentence patterns in structural syllabus.
    10. Role of L1: L1 is not allowed in the classroom. It may cause interference and bad habit formation in L2.
    11. Evaluation: Discrete-point tests are used. Each item (question) should focus on only one point of the language at a time. E.g. distinguishing between words in a minimal pair. Appropriate verb form in a sentence.
    12. Goals and Objectives: to enable students to speak and write in the target language. To make students able to use the target language automatically without stopping to think. To form new habits in the target language.
    13. Error Correction: Errors are corrected by the teacher since errors may cause bad habit formation.
    14. Sts’ Feelings: There are no principles related to Sts’ feelings.
    15. Techniques:

                       Dialogue Memorisation                      

                      Minimal pairs:(for teaching pronunciation)                    

                      Complete the dialogue

                      Grammar Games

                      Mechanical Drills

            • a) Repetition drill
            • b) Chain Drill
            • c) Single- slot Substitution Drill (T gives one cue to be substituted)
            • d) Multiple-slot Substitution Drill (T gives more than one cue to be substitute

17..Skills: Listening and speaking are emphasised. There is a natural order of skills. 1. Listening 2. Speaking 3. Reading 4. Writing  

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