THE DIRECT METHOD (DM)


 

THE DIRECT METHOD (DM)

 


 

DM was born as a reaction to GTM because GTM cannot prepare learners for real life language situations in which oral communication is the media.

  1. Learning Theory: Inductive learning is essential. There is a direct relation between form and meaning. L2 learning is similar to L1 acquisition. There is a direct exposure to the target language. Exposure of Long chunks in the target language. Learning occurs naturally.
  2. Language Theory: Language is for oral use. Each language is unique. There is a direct relation between form and meaning. No other language should interfere when learning a language.
  3. Culture: Not only art or literature, but also other aspects of culture (namely, life style, customs, traditions, institutions, food, daily habits, history, geography, etc.) Should be taken into consideration. Daily speech is important.
  4. Teacher’s Role: The teacher usually directs the interactions but he/she is not as dominant as in GTM. Sometimes acts like a partner of the students.
  5. Students’ Role: Sts are active participants. Sometimes pair works take place. Even the teacher takes roles in activities.
  6. Interactions: T- st and St – st interactions often occur.
  7. Vocabulary Teaching: Pictures, realia, examples, sample sentences are used to teach vocabulary. Use of L1 is not allowed. There is a direct relation between form and meaning.
  8. Grammar Teaching: Grammar is taught inductively. Examples and drills are given and students are expected to discover and acquire the rules. Drills like chain drill, yes question, no question, or question are used to help students induce the rule.
  9. Materials: Reading passages (for topics), Dialogues (for situation), plays (for situations) are used.
  10. Syllabus: Situational and topical syllabuses are used.
  11. Role of L1: L1 is not permitted.
  12. Evaluation: Sts’ ability to use the language is tested. Not about language, the language itself.
  13. Goals and Objectives: Teaching Sts how to communicate in the target language. Teaching of thinking in the target language.
  14. Error Correction: Sts’ self correction.
  15. Sts’ Feelings: There is no information dealing with this issue.
  16. Techniques: Reading aloud, Question and answer exercise, self correction, conversation practice, fill-in-the-blank exercise, dictation, drawing (for listening comprehension), and paragraph writing.
  17. Skills: Speaking, listening, reading and writing are important skills. Especially speaking and listening are emphasised. Vocabulary is over grammar.2016-09-10

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