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THE ENGLISH VERB TENSES 1

TIKLAYIN DİREKT OLARAK İNDİRİN. MOBİL UYUMLUDUR. CEP TELEFONU VE TABLETLERDEDE AÇILABİLİR.

THE ENGLISH VERB TENSES (1)                                                                     PAGE

INTRODUCTION  ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..    2

1-THE VERB “BE” ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….   2

2- THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE …………………………………………………………………………………….   3

3- THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE ………………………………………………………………………………………………   5

4- THE SIMPLE PRESENT or THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS ……………………………………………………..    8

5-THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE ……………………………………………………………………..   13

6-THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE …………………………………………………………..   24

7-THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE …………………………………………………………..    32

8-THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE ……………………………………    41

TEST YOURSELF …………………………………………………………………………………..      53

TEST YOUR VOCABULARY  ………………………………………………………………….    61

 

 

T H E   E N G L I S H   V E R B S 

 

INTRODUCTION

WORD ORDER IN AN ENGLISH SENTENCE

(İngilizce bir cümlede sözcük dizimi)

İngilizce sözcük dizimi, Türkçe sözcük diziminden farklıdır. Türkçe bir cümlede yüklem cümlenin sonunda yer alır ve özneyi de içinde barındırır.

Ben                İngilizce         çalışırım.

Özne             Nesne            Yüklem

Subject         Object           Verb

cümlesini, “İngilizce çalışırım.” biçiminde de ifade edebiliriz ve ikinci cümlede özneyi açık olarak göremediğimiz halde, öznenin 1. tekil şahıs olduğunu yüklemdeki -m takısından anlarız.Bu durum İngilizce için geçerli değildir. Yani İngilizce bir cümlede yüklem özneyi belli etmez.Bu yüzden, cümleye özne ile başlamak zorundayız. Formüle edilmiş olarak İngilizce cümle düzeni şöyledir:

Subject            +        Verb           +   Object

Özne                          Yüklem           Nesne

“İngilizce çalışırım.” cümlesini İngilizcede “I study English.” biçiminde ifade edebiliriz.

l-     THE VERB “BE”

Sözcükleri rastgele bir araya getirerek cümle kuramayız. Cümle kurabilmemiz için mutlaka bir fiile ihtiyacımız vardır. “Be” fiili, “come, go, study, eat, become” vb. gibi asıl fiilimiz olmadığı zaman cümle kurmamızı sağlar.”Be” fiilinin şimdiki zaman ve geniş zaman biçimi aynıdır ve bu tense’lerle “am, is, are” biçiminde kullanılır.

Singular Subject Pronouns                        Plural Subject Pronouns

I am — You are — He/She/It is                 We are — You are — They are

I am always nervous before an exam, (general)

I am nervous now, because I’m taking an exam in half an hour, (now)

1-1    ‘Be’ fiilini asıl fiil olarak kullanabileceğimiz başlıca üç kalıp vardır:

  1. a) be + noun b) be + adjective              c) be + prepositional phrase

I am a teacher.                    He is tall.                             They are at home.

They are students.              The world is round.            Jane is from England.

She is a Turk.                     They are intelligent.          She is at the bus-stop.

Today is Tuesday.              It’s very hot today.              We are in the classroom.

1-2   “Be”, yardımcı fiil olarak sürerlik bildiren tense’lerle de kullanılır.

 

I am writing now./She is reading the newspaper./They are listening to music

 

 

2-     THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

2-1   FORM

Affirmative (olumlu)

 

Negative (olumsuz)

 

Interrogative (soru)

 

I am writing now.

You are reading a book.

He/She/It is eating lunch.

 

We are listening to music.

You are working hard.

They are discussing their financial problems.

 

I am not writing now.

You are not reading a book.

He/She/It is not eating lunch.

 

We are not listening to music.

You are not working hard.

They are not discussing their financial problems.

 

Am I writing now?

Are you reading a book?

Is he/she/it eating lunch?

 

Are we listening to music?

Are you working hard?

Are they discussing their financial problems?

 

 

 

 

Olumsuz soruyu iki şekilde sorabiliriz.

Am I not trying to help you?                      or

Are you not helping your mother?           or

Is she not studying English?                      or

Are we not leaving for class now?            or

Are you not watching the film?                 or

Are they not having breakfast?                 or

 

Aren’t I trying to help you?                                         Aren’t you helping your mother?                              Isn’t she studying English?

Aren’t we leaving for class now?

Aren’t you watching the film?                              Aren’t they having breakfast ?

 

 

2-2   SPELLING OF  -ING

Sonu -e ile biten fuller

 

write

admire

hope

hide

 

writing

admiring

hoping

hiding

 

shave

amaze

dine

ride

 

shaving

amazing

dining

riding

 

Sonu -e ile bilen fiillere -ing takısı eklenirken –e

düşer. *

 

Sonu bir sesli harf +bir sessiz harfle biten fiiller

 

TEK HECELİ FİİLLER Bu gruba giren tek hece­li fiillerde. sondaki sessiz harf çift yazılır.

 

stop

beg

sit

 

stopping

begging

sitting

 

run

rub

set

 

running

rubbing

setting

 

İKİ HECELİ FİİLLER Vurgu l.hecedeyse  sondaki sessiz harf tek yazılır;2.hecedeyse çift yazı­lır.

 

a)   listen

happen

b)   prefer

refer

 

listening

happening

preferring

referring

 

open

ripen

begin

control

 

opening

ripening

beginning

controlling

 

Sonu -y ile biten fiiller

 

study

reply

try

 

studying

replying

trying

 

play

buy

enjoy

 

playing

buying

enjoying

 

-y ile biten fiillere -ing takısı eklenirken yazım­da değişiklik olmaz.

 

 
Sonu -ie ile biten fiiller

 

die

lie

tie

 

dying

lying

tying

 

-ie -y‘ ye dönüşür ve     -ing eklenir.

 

 
Sonu iki sessiz harfle biten fiiller

 

stand

hold

spend

 

standing

holding

spending

 

start

find

bend

 

starting

finding

bending

 

İki sessizle biten fiillere     -ing eklenirken yazımda değişiklik olmaz.

 

* Sonu -ee biçiminde biten fiiller -ing takısı alırken -e düşmez: see-seeing, agree-aareeing, free-freeing

 

 

2-3   USE OF THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

  1. a) Bu tense  ile temel   olarak  içinde  bulunduğumuz arıda yapmakta olduğumuz eylemleri  anlatırız. Zamanı pekiştirmek için ise now, right now, at the moment, at present, still gibi zaman zarflan kullanırız.

Mother is in the kitchen now. She is cooking dinner.

— Where is your sister?   —I think she is writing a letter in her room. Listen! They are talking about us. Can you hear what they are saying?

  1. b) Konuşmanın geçtiği sırada eylemi yapıyor olmasak bile, o sıralarda yapmakta olduğumuz işleri de bu tense ile anlatırız ve nowadays, these days, this term, this year, this month, this semestre, at the moment ( “şu sıralar” anlamında ) gibi zaman zarfları kullanırız.

— How many courses are you taking this term?

I’m taking five courses.

— I haven’t seen Peter recently. Have you?

— No, but I talked to him on the phone last Saturday. He is very busy these days.     He is redecorating his house by himself.

  1. c) Değişmekte olan durumları, olayları bu tense ile anlatırız.

“Everything is expensive. (Her şey pahalı.)” cümlesi, fiyatların o anki durumunu anlatır. Fakat,

“Everything is getting more and more expensive. (Her şey gittikçe pahalılaşıyor.)” ifadesi, fiyatların sürekli değiştiğini, yükseldiğini gösterir.

It is cold. ( Hava soğuk.)

It is getting colder. ( Hava gittikçe soğuyor.)

The economic situation in Turkey is very bad. (Türkiye’nin ekonomik durumu çok kötü.)

The economic situation in Turkey is getting worse. (Türkiye’nin ekonomik durumu gittikçe kötüleşiyor.)

  1. d) Bu tense’i,   tomorrow,   next  week,   next  year,   next  summer  gibi gelecek zaman     zarflarıyla, gelecekte yapmayı planladığımız eylemleri anlatmak için kullanırız.

I’m meeting Ann next Saturday.

They are giving a party next month.            She is leaving Istanbul in two days.

Örneklerde görüldüğü gibi, cümle yapı olarak şimdiki zamana, anlam olarak ise gelecek zamana

aittir. Aynı kullanım Türkçe’de de varolduğu için, bu cümleleri Türkçe’ye, gelecek zaman ya da şimdiki zaman yapısında çevirmemiz mümkündür. Son örneği Türkçe’ye şu şekilde çevirebiliriz:

İki gün sonra İstanbul’dan ayrılıyor. / İki gün sonra İstanbul’dan ayrılacak.

3-     THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

3-1   FORM

 

Affirmative ( Olumlu )
Negative ( Olumsuz )

Interrogative ( Soru )
I get up early.

You go on holiday every year.

He studies hard.

She cleans the house herself.

It stands in the corner.

We keep our promises.                      You like animals very much.              They help the people around.

 

I don’t get up early.

You don’t go on holiday every year.

He doesn’t study hard.

She doesn’t clean the house herself.

It doesn’t stand in the corner.

 

We don’t keep our promises.               You don’t like animals very much. They don’t help the people around

Do I get up early?

Do you go on holiday every year?

Does he study hard?

Does she clean the house herself?

Does it stand in the corner?

Do we keep our promises?

Do you like animals very much?

Do they help the people around?

 

 

 

Üçüncü tekil şahıs için ( he/she/it) fiil, olumlu cümlede -s takısı ahr.

He reads a lot/She buys a newspaper regularly. /The cat drinks only milk in the morning.

Olumsuz cümlede ve sorada, yani “does”    ya da “doesn’t” bulunan cümlelerde fiil daima yalındır.

He doesn’t read a lot. /She doesn’t buy a newspaper every day.               Does the cat drink milk in the morning?

“have” fiilinin üçüncü şahıs biçimi “has” dir. Ancak, soruda  ve  olumsuz cümlede   fiilin yalın hali                ” have ” kullanılır.

Do you have a bath every day?

— Yes, I do. (I have a bath every day.)

Does your son have a bath every day?

— Yes, he does. ( He has a bath every day.)

— Does your father have breakfast in the morning?

— No, he doesn’t. ( He doesn’t have breakfast in the morning.)

3-2   USE OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE

  1. a) Bu tense genelde yaptığımız işleri, alışkanlıklarımızı anlatırız  ve  always, sometimes, never, often vb. sıklık bildiren zarfların yanı sıra, every day, every month, every year, every summer gibi zaman zarflarım sıkça kullanırız.

— What time do you usually get up?

I usually get up at seven o’clock.

— Does she always get up early?

Not always. She sometimes gets up very late.

— How often do you go to the cinema?

— I go to the cinema every weekend/once a week/twice a month/three times a year etc.

— How often does your brother write to you?

  • He writes to me very often.
  1. b) Frequency Adverbs ( Sıklık bildiren zaman zarfları)

always                                                                  all the time ( hep, her zaman )

almost always/nearly always                          almost all the time, nearly all the

time (hemen hemen her zaman)

very often                                                          (çok sık)

usually                                                               generally ( genellikle )

often                                                                   frequently ( sık sık )

sometimes                                                            occasionally, from time to time

(bazen,ara sıra)

rarely                                                                 seldom ( ender, nadiren, seyrek) hardly ever                                                         almost never (hemen hemen hiç )

never                                                                  ( hiç,hiç bir zaman, asla )

Yardımcı fiil bulunmayan olumlu cümlelerde    bu    zarflar asıl    fiilden önce, yani özne ile yüklemin arasında yer alır.

She always sings in English. /I sometimes feel depressed. /They seldom go to the theatre.

Bu zarflar am, is, are  dan sonra gelir.

I sometimes go to work late. /I am sometimes late for work.

Sıklık bildiren zarfların olumsuz cümledeki yeri değişiktir. Always daima olumsuzluk eki not

dan sonra gelir.

I don’t always get up early. /She doesn’t always study very hard.                       They aren’t always late for class.

frequently, sometimes ve occasionally  olumsuzluk ekinden önce gelir.

I sometimes don’t want to be with people. /She frequently doesn’t want to study.

They sometimes aren’t ready on time. /She occasionally isn’t polite to the people around.

NOTE: Birinci tekil şahıs için bu kural geçerli değildir. Zarf, yardımcı fiil ‘am’ ile ‘not’ arasında

yer alır.

I’m sometimes not patient enough with children.

usually, generally ve often her iki durumda da kullanılır.

They usually don’t go out in the evenings. /They don’t usually go out in the evenings.                     We often don’t turn on the television. /We don’t often turn on the television.                                    They generally aren’t awake till 11a.m./They aren’t generally awake till 11a.m.

rarely, seldom, hardly ever, almost never ve never olumsuz cümlede kullanılmaz. Bu zarflar sadece olumlu cümlede kullanılır, ancak olumsuz bir anlam taşır.

I hardly ever go to the theatre.  ( Tiyatroya hemen hemen hiç gitmem.)

He almost never goes to work in his own car. (İşe kendi arabasıyla neredeyse hiç gitmez.)

I’m hardly ever nervous before an exam.  ( Sınav öncesi neredeyse hiç heyecanlanmam.)

She never comes to her appointments on time. = She is never on time for her appointments.                    ( Randevularına asla vaktinde gelmez.)

 

 

 

 

Olumlu   anlam   taşıyan sıklık   zarflarını   (usually, generally, often, frequently, sometimes

and occasionally) dilbilgisi kurallarına uygun bu kullanımlarının yanı sıra, cümlede vurguyu artırmak için, cümlenin başında da kullanabiliriz. Özellikle sometimes bu şekilde çok sık kullanılır.

 

Sometimes I get angry easily.

Occasionally I don’t need to get up early.

Usually they spend too much money on luxuries.

NOTE:  always bu şekilde cümle başında yer almaz.

Olumsuz anlam taşıyan sıklık zarflan (rarely , seldom , hardly ever, scarcely ever and never) cümlenin başına geldiği zaman cümle devrik olur.

I never eat fish.                                                Never do I eat fish.

He rarely smokes.                                           Rarely does he smoke.

You seldom make mistakes.                           Seldom do you make mistakes.

She scarcely ever visits us.                           Scarcely ever does she visit us.

ever olumlu veya olumsuz soruda kullanılır ve ‘hiç’ anlamını verir. Olumsuz cevapta ‘hiç’ demek için ‘do not everyerine ‘never’ kullanılır.

— Do you ever smoke?                             — Don’t you ever help your mother?

— No, I never smoke.                                 — Yes, I help her when I have time.

  1. c) Doğa kanunlarını, her zaman geçerliliği olan doğruları ve  genellemeleri bu tense ile ifade ederiz.

Diamond is a precious stone. /Water consists of oxygen and hydrogen.                  The world revolves round the sun. /Plants need water in order to grow.          Water boils at 100° C. /Wood floats in water but iron sinks.

  1. d) ‘What do you do?’ sorusu kişinin    neyle uğraştığını, işini sorar. Yani ‘What is your Job/occupation? sorusu ile aynı anlamdadır.

— What do you do?                                    — What does your father do?

— I’m a teacher.                                           — He is an accountant.

‘What do you do?’ sorusunu bir zaman zarfıyla kullanırsak, ‘sözü edilen zamanda ne yaparsın’

anlamına gelir.

— What do you do at the weekends?     — What does your father do in the evenings?

— I usually meet friends.                           — He reads his newspaper or watches television.

 

  1. Why don’t you…………..? kalıbı birine öneri getirirken kullanılır.

— I have a headache.                                  —We have nothing to eat at home.

— Why don’t you take a tablet?                — Why don’t we go out for dinner?

NOTE:     “Why don’t you get up early in the mornings?

I can’t, because I usually go to bed late.” ifadesinde, “Why don’t you ……….?

gerçek bir soru özelliği taşır ve kişi yanıt verilmesini bekler. Ancak:

“I’m too tired.

Why don’t you lie down and rest?” ifadesinde, “Why don’t you ……….?” yapı

olarak soru olmasına karşın, kendisi bir yanıttır ve öneri getirir.

 

 

  1. f) Sinema, tiyatro gibi etkinliklerin başlama ve bitiş saatlerini, ders programlarını ya da uçak, tren, otobüs tarifelerini belirtirken, geniş zamanı gelecek zaman anlamıyla kullanabiliriz.

The buses start at 6 a.m. and stop at 12 p.m. every day. (simple present)

The train to Ankara leaves at 9 a.m. tomorrow and arrives there at 6 p.m.     (future)

Our classes usually begin at 9 and finish at 12. (simple present)

My class begins at 9 tomorrow and finishes at 12. (future)

4-  THE SIMPLE PRESENT or THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

Şimdi bu iki tense’i karşılaştıralım.

  1. a) Konuşmanın geçtiği anda ya da o sıralarda yapmakta olduğumuz işleri Present Continuous ile (I am doing) ; genelde yaptığımız işleri, alışkanlıklarımızı ise Simple Present ile (I do ) anlatırız demiştik.

Father is in his room now. He is resting. (now)

Father always rests in his room in the afternoon. (simple present)

I want to concentrate on my studies. That’s why I’m not playing volleyball this year.

I usually play volleyball at the weekend. I don’t play on weekdays.

  1. b) Bazı fiiller sürerlik bildiren tense’lerle (I am doing, I was doing, I have been doing. etc.) kullanılmazlar. Bu fiiller, konuşma sırasında bizzat yapılmakta olan bir eylem (action) bildirmezler, durum ifade ederler.

“I’m writing now.” ifadesinde, write fiili bir eylem bildirir. Yani benim şu anda yapmakta olduğum bir işi ifade eder.

“I know English.” ifadesinde ise know fiili bir eylem bildirmez. Yani, kişinin yapmakta olduğu bir işi değil,statik bir durum bildirir.

Durum bildiren fiillerin şimdiki zaman ve geniş zaman için kullanımları aynıdır.

When I get up in the morning, I want to drink something immediately.              (simple present)

I’m very thirsty. I want to drink something. (now)

People need money in order to live. ( simple present)

 I need some money. Can you lend me some? ( now )

 

 

 

 

 

PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS) TENSE’LERLE KULLANILMAYAN FİİLLER

1-

 

DÜŞÜNMEYE İLİŞKİN FİİLLER ( MENTAL STATE )

 

think *

suppose

believe

imagine

 

realize

notice

recognize

know

 

understand

feel

doubt

remember

 

forget

want

need

prefer

 

mean

 

 

 

 

2-

 

DUYGU BELİRTEN FİİLLER (EMOTIONAL STATE)

 

love

hate

like

 

dislike

appreciate

detest

 

loathe

fear

envy

 

mind

care

desire

 

wish

forgive

 

 

3-

 

SAHİPLİK BİLDİREN FİİLLER ( POSSESSION )

 

 

possess                   have *                    own

 

belong

 

4-

 

DUYU FİİLLERİ ( SENSE PERCEPTIONS )

 

 

see *                          hear                           smell*

 

taste *                       feel *

 

5-

 

DİĞER DURUM BİLDİREN FİİLLER

 

 

look *

seem

appear*

 

 

owe

cost

weigh *

 

 

be *

exist

advise

 

 

promise

refuse

contain

 

 

consist of

include

sound

 

*Yanında yıldız olan fiiller, farklı bir anlamı taşıdıkları zaman, sürerlik bildiren tense’lerle kullanılırlar.

 

NONPROGRESSIVE ( DURUM BİLDİREN)   or   PROGRESSIVE ( EYLEM BİLDİREN )

think    ‘sanmak, zannetmek’    anlamındaysa progressive tense’lerle kullanılmaz; ‘düşünmek’ anlamındaysa kullanılır.

I think she is a student.

I think they will visit us next week.

I’m thinking about going abroad next year.

She isn’t, listening to the lesson now. She is thinking about her family.

 

see   ‘görmek’ anlamındaysa ‘ -ing’ almaz; ‘görüşmek ‘ anlamındaysa ‘ -ing ‘ alır.

Right now, I’m looking out of the window. I see a lot of cars in the street and lots of people.

The doctor is seeing his patient now.

The manager is seeing one of the applicants now.

 

smell ‘kokmak’ anlamındaysa ‘ -ing’ almaz; ‘koklamak’ anlamındaysa ‘ -ing’ alır.

 

This perfume smells very nice.

These flowers smell awful. I can’t keep them in the kitchen.                                       Look! Mother is smelling the flowers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

have *     sahiplik bildiriyorsa, progressive tense’lerle kullanılmaz. Ancak, başka bir sözcükle birleşip eylem bildiriyorsa kullanılır.

Sorry, I can’t lend you any money, because I don’t have much now.               She has two brothers.

She is having breakfast now:

Father can’t come to the phone. He is having a bath right now.

taste   Bir nesnenin tadından söz ediyorsak ‘-ing’ almaz: ‘tadına bakmak’ anlamındaysa alır.

This soup tastes awful. I can’t eat it. (Çorbanın tadı berbat.) The dinner looks bad but tastes delicious.

(Yemeğin görüntüsü kötü ama tadı güzel.)

What are you doing here in the kitchen?         I’m tasting the meal.

feel      Bir   nesnenin   bize   verdiği   duyguyu   ifade   ediyorsa   ya   da   ‘sezinlemek,   ummak’ anlamındaysa  ‘-ing’  almaz.

This pillow feels very hard. (=This pillow is very hard. /Bu yastık çok sert.)

I feel something bad will happen.                                                                           (Kötü bir şeylerin olacağını hissediyorum/sezinliyorum.)

‘hissetmek’ anlamındaysa ‘ -ing ‘  alabilir.

I feel better today, = I’m feeling better today. ( Bugün kendimi iyi hissediyorum. )

look     ‘gibi görünmek’ anlamındaysa ‘ -ing ‘  almaz; ‘bakmak’  anlamındaysa   ‘ -ing ‘  alır.

You look ill. You’d better go home and take a rest. That ladder doesn’t look safe.

Why are you looking out of the window? Is there something interesting?

I’m looking at you carefully but I don’t understand what you are trying to do.

 

* Sahiplik bildiren ‘have, has’ ‘ have got, has got ‘ biçiminde de kullanılır.

 

I have two sisters.

I don’t have any brothers.

She has a car.

She doesn’t have a bike.

Do you have any nephews?

Yes, I do.

No, I don’t.

Does she have a boat?

Yes, she does.

No, she doesn’t.

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

I have got two sisters.

I haven’t got any brothers.

She has got a car.

She hasn’t got a bike.

Have you got any nephews?

Yes, I have.

No, I haven’t.

Has she got a boat?

Yes, she has.

No, she hasn’t.

 

appear  ‘gibi görünmek’ anlamındaysa ‘-ing’ almaz:  ‘ortaya çıkmak’ anlamındaysa ‘-ing ‘ alır.

The teacher appears to be in a bad mood today.        She appears to be bored with the film.

Look! Ali is appearing from where he has hidden.

weigh    Bir nesnenin ağırlığını söylerken  ‘-ing’  almaz; ‘tartmak’  anlamındaysa  ‘-ing’  alır.

The baby is getting fatter. She weighs six kilograms. The butcher is weighing the meat now.

be         ‘be’   fiilinin present biçiminin am, is, are   olduğunu ve ‘şimdiki zaman’  ve ‘geniş zaman’ için aynı biçimde kullanıldığım daha önce ifade etmiştik.

I am hungry. I want to eat something.  (now)

When I am very tense, I prefer to have a walk to relax.    (general)

‘be’    fiili, konuşmanın geçtiği sırada bir değişimi vurguluyorsa, bazı sıfatlarla Şimdiki Zaman yapısıyla  ( am/is/are being) kullanılır.

‘You are very rude.’  (Çok kabasın.)   ifadesi kişinin genelde kaba biri olduğunu belirtir.

‘You are being rude.’ (Kabalaşıyorsun.)    ifadesi ise kişinin konuşma sırasında kaba davrandığını belirtir. ‘Kabalık’ genel bir özelliği olmayabilir.

  1. c) ‘live’ fiili ile sürekli oturduğumuz yeri ifade ediyorsak, geniş zaman kullanılır.

— Where do you live?                                        — Where do your parents live?

— I live in Istanbul.                                             — They live in Germany.

Ancak, geçici olarak ikamet ettiğimiz yeri şimdiki zamanla belirtiriz.

I moved to Istanbul only two weeks ago, and I’m living with my relatives for the time being.

 

 

EXERCISE   1    :     Use either the Simple Present or the Present Progressive                                                 of the verbs given in parentheses.

  • Many qualified nurses (leave) …………………… the profession these days because of the terrible working conditions.
  • This week we (sell) …………………… these scarves for five pounds, although we (normally, charge) …………………… six pounds fifty for each.
  • I (never, hear) …………………… the telephone ring when I (be) …………………… in the attic.
  • Jack is lucky. He (listen) …………………… to Brahms’s music live at the Albert Hall at this very moment while we (sit) …………………… here in the office listening to the BBC orchestra on the radio.
  • The dinner is nearly ready. Mum (taste) …………………… the soup now. Normally we (wait) …………………… for Dad to arrive home, but we (eat) …………………… early today because we (go) …………………… to the theatre tonight.
  • Look! The waiter (wear) …………………… a stained shirt and they (not, collect)…………………… the dirty plates. No wonder few people (come) …………………… here any more.
  • Today, three Scottish villages (mourn) …………………… the death of seven local men at sea.
  • As a rule, I (wash) …………………… my car on Sunday at my mother’s house, but today I (take) …………………… it to the car wash machine as I (not, have)…………………… time to wash it myself.
  • Every year many people (move) …………………… from the North of England to the prosperous South.
  • This powdered pudding is strawberry flavour, but actually, it (not, taste) …………………… fruity at all.
  • A: I (always, see) …………………… Brian eating junk food like sweets and nuts. …………….. he (ever, not, eat) …………….. anything healthy, such as fruit or vegetables?

B: No. In addition, he (not, get) …………………… any exercise either.

  • The globe (get) …………………… warmer and warmer, which (raise) …………………… the sea-level.
  • The blood pressure of a healthy person (vary) …………………… with exercise and emotional stress.
  • Lasers (emit) …………………… a narrow, intense beam of light in a single direction.
  • Every year, I (fill) ………………. a few little bags with lavender and (put)…………………… them in the drawers where I (keep) …………………… my linen because it (smell) …………………… so nice.
  • The grief we (experience) …………………… at this sad moment is indescribable.
  • What lovely quality this baby outfit is! It (feel) …………………… nice and thick.
  • Fresh strawberries (always, taste) …………………… good here. They (remind) …………………… me of home.
  • This week British Airways (send) …………………… thousands of people a voucher worth 20% off any flight to Europe.
  • A: What is that strange noise on the telephone line?

B: Sorry, Mum. I (use) …………………… the Internet.

  • Generally speaking, traffic (cause) …………………… pollution and the constant increase in traffic day by day (cause) …………………. more and more air pollution.
  • Paul (think) …………………… joining the European Union will lead to disaster, but I (not, agree) …………………… with him.
  • Leeds United (usually, play) …………………… in a white football strip, but today they (play) …………………… in green because their opponents’ strip is white.
  • A: You (look) …………………… very worried. I (hope) ………………….. nothing bad has happened!

B: Well, I’ve broken Grandma’s favourite cup, and now I (think)………………….. about how to explain it to her.

  • My mother (not, like) …………………. anybody else in her kitchen while she (cook)…………….
  • Don’t worry about your dog. The veterinary surgeon (feel) …………………… his legs to check that nothing is broken.
  • The restaurant is full of workmen. They (redecorate) ……………………
  • A: Where is Sandra?

B: She (smell) …………………… every perfume in the shop, but in fact, she (not, have)…………………… enough money for any of them.

A:  Oh, that’s typical of her! Whenever we (go) …………………… to the shops, she (try) …………………… on countless clothes, and then, (leave) …………………… without buying anything.

  • It’s not fair! While I (work) …………………… here in rainy England, Kate and Richard (lie) …………………… on the beach in sunny South-Africa.
  • The National Health Service (not, provide) …………………… the necessary level of care at the moment due to the flu epidemic.

 

5-    THE  SIMPLE  PAST TENSE

 

  • FORM

 

Affirmative ( olumlu ) Negative (olumsuz) Interrogative (soru)
 

I studied English.                You worked hard.

He/She came late.

It rained heavily yesterday.

We enjoyed the party. You helped a lot.                 They got up early.

 

 

I didn’t study English.                   You didn’t work hard.                 He/She didn’t come late.                    It didn’t rain heavily yesterday.

We didn’t enjoy the party. You didn’t help a lot.              They didn’t get up early.

 

 

 

 

Did I study English?

Did you work hard?

Did he/she come late?

Did it rain heavily yesterday?

Did we enjoy the party?                     Did you help a lot?                           Did they get up early?

 

Olumlu cümlede, fiillerin past tense biçimi, olumsuz cümlede ve soruda ise fiillerin yalın hali kullanılır.

 

I stayed in İzmir for five years.

She didn’t study hard enough to pass the exam.

Did you stay home yesterday?

Kısa cevapta did ve  didn’t kullanılır.

Did you go to the cinema last week?                                                                                  Yes, we did.  ( Yes,we went to the cinema last week. )

Did you visit your friends yesterday?

No, I didn’t. (I didn’t visit my friends yesterday. )

 

 

 

5-2    Bu tense’i  geçmişte yaptığımız eylemleri, olayları ve durumları anlatırken kullanırız. Yesterday, last night, last week, last summer, half an hour ago, ten days ago, two years ago vb. bu tense ile sıkça kullandığımız zaman zarflarıdır.

I became a teacher eight years ago.

Where did you go on holiday last summer?

He didn’t play football last Sunday because he was ill.

She left the country a few months ago.

5-3    Düzenli ( regular ) fiillerin past biçimi.fiilin yalın haline “-ed ” eklenerek elde edilir.

Present                 :    want             stay              study          shave
Past                      :    wanted         stayed          studied        shaved

5-4    “be” fiilinin past biçimi “was, were” biçimindedir.

I lived in a village when I was a child.

She was late for work yesterday, so her boss was angry with her.

We were at home last night.

5-5    Düzenli fiillerin “- ed” takısını almasıyla ilgili yazım kuralları şöyledir:

  1. I) Çoğu düzenli fiil -ed alır.

talk – talked                          govern – governed              roar – roared
walk – walked                      seem – seemed                    roam – roamed

  1. II) Bir sessiz+bir sesli+bir sessiz harften oluşan kısa fiillerde, sondaki sessiz harf çift yazılır.

grab – grabbed                      stop – stopped                     beg – begged
ban – banned                        slim – slimmed                   rob – robbed

III) Sonu –e ile bitenler sadece –d takısı alır.

gaze – gazed                         stare – stared                      like – liked
smile – smiled                      hate – hated                        save – saved

  1. IV) Sonu bir sessiz harf+y ile bitenlerde – y, – i olur, ondan sonra – ed

try – tried                              cry – cried                           apply – applied
dry – dried                            fry – fried                              study – studied

y   den önce bir sesli harf varsa yazımda değişildik olmaz.

play – played                        delay – delayed                   betray – betrayed
pray – prayed                       decay – decayed                  spray – sprayed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5-6    Düzensiz (irregular ) fiillerin past biçimi ise tabloda görüldüğü gibidir.

AN    ALPHABETICAL LIST   OF IRREGULAR    VERBS

 

SIMPLE

FORM

 

 

SIMPLE

PAST

 

 

PAST

PARTICIPLE

 

 

SIMPLE

FORM

 

 

SIMPLE

PAST

 

 

PAST

PARTICIPLE

 

arise

 

arose

 

arisen

 

fling

 

flung

 

flung

 

be

 

was, were

 

been

 

fly

 

flew

 

flown

 

bear

 

bore

 

borne/ born

 

forbid

 

forbade

 

forbidden

 

beat

 

beat

 

b eaten /beat

 

forecast

 

forecast

 

forecast

 

become

 

became

 

become

 

forget

 

forgot

 

forgotten

 

begin

 

began

 

begun

 

forgive

 

forgave

 

forgiven

 

bend

 

bent

 

bent

 

forsake

 

forsook

 

forsaken

 

bet

 

bet

 

bet*

 

freeze

 

froze

 

frozen

 

bid

 

bid

 

bid

 

get

 

got

 

gotten

 

bind

 

bound

 

bound

 

give

 

gave

 

given

 

bite

 

bit

 

bitten

 

go

 

went

 

gone

 

bleed

 

bled

 

bled

 

grind

 

ground

 

ground

 

blow

 

blew

 

blown

 

grow

 

grew

 

grown

 

break

 

broke

 

broken

 

hang

 

hung

 

hung

 

breed

 

bred

 

bred

 

have

 

had

 

had

 

bring

 

brought

 

brought

 

hear

 

heard

 

heard

 

broadcast

 

broadcast

 

broad cast

 

hide

 

hid

 

hidden

 

build

 

built

 

built

 

hit

 

hit

 

hit

 

burst

 

burst

 

burst

 

hold

 

held

 

held

 

buy

 

bought

 

bought

 

hurt

 

hurt

 

hurt

 

cast

 

cast

 

cast

 

keep

 

kept

 

kept

 

catch

 

caught

 

caught

 

know

 

knew

 

known

 

choose

 

chose

 

chosen

 

lay

 

laid

 

laid

 

cling

 

clung

 

clung

 

lead

 

led

 

led

 

come

 

came

 

come

 

leave

 

left

 

left

 

cost

 

cost

 

cost

 

lend

 

lent

 

lent

 

creep

 

crept

 

crept

 

let

 

let

 

let

 

cut

 

cut

 

cut

 

lie

 

lay

 

lain

 

deal

 

dealt

 

dealt

 

light

 

lit/lighted

 

lit/lighted

 

dig

 

dug

 

dug

 

lose

 

lost

 

lost

 

do

 

did

 

done

 

make

 

made

 

made

 

draw

 

drew

 

drawn

 

mean

 

meant

 

meant

 

eat

 

ate

 

eaten

 

meet

 

met

 

met

 

fall

 

fell

 

fallen

 

mislay

 

mislaid

 

mislaid

 

feed

 

fed

 

fed

 

mistake

 

mistook

 

mistaken

 

feel

 

felt

 

felt

 

pay

 

paid

 

paid

 

fight

 

fought

 

fought

 

put

 

put

 

put

 

find

 

found

 

found

 

quit

 

quit

 

quit *

 

fit

 

fit

 

fit*

 

read

 

read

 

read

 

flee

 

fled

 

fled

 

rid

 

rid

 

rid

 

 

 

 

 

 

SIMPLE

FORM

 

 

SIMPLE

PAST

 

 

PAST

PARTICIPLE

 

 

SIMPLE

FORM

 

 

SIMPLE

PAST

 

 

PAST

PARTICIPLE

 

ride

 

rode

 

ridden

 

stand

 

stood

 

stood

 

ring

 

rang

 

rung

 

steal

 

stole

 

stolen

 

rise

 

rose

 

risen

 

stick

 

stuck

 

stuck

 

run

 

ran

 

run

 

sting

 

stung

 

stung

 

say

 

said

 

said

 

stink

 

stank/stunk

 

stunk

 

see

 

saw

 

seen

 

strive

 

strove

 

striven

 

seek

 

sought

 

sought

 

strike

 

struck

 

struck/ stricken

 

sell

 

sold

 

sold

 

string

 

strung

 

strung

 

send

 

sent

 

sent

 

swear

 

swore

 

sworn

 

set

 

set

 

set

 

sweep

 

swept

 

swept

 

shake

 

shook

 

shaken

 

swim

 

swam

 

swum

 

shed shine

 

shed shone/shined

 

shed shone/shined

 

swing take

 

swung took

 

swung taken

 

shoot

 

shot

 

shot

 

teach

 

taught

 

taught

 

show

 

showed

 

shown/ showed

 

tear

 

tore

 

torn

 

shrink

 

shrank/shrunk

 

shrunk

 

tell

 

told

 

told

 

shut

 

shut

 

shut

 

think

 

thought

 

thought

 

sing

 

sang

 

sung

 

throw

 

threw

 

thrown

 

sit

 

sat

 

sat

 

thrust

 

thrust

 

thrust

 

sleep

 

slept

 

slept

 

understand

 

understood

 

understood

 

slide

 

slid

 

slid

 

undertake

 

undertook

 

undertaken

 

slit

 

slit

 

slit

 

upset

 

upset

 

upset

 

speak

 

spoke

 

spoken

 

wear

 

wore

 

worn

 

speed

 

sped/speeded

 

sped/speeded

 

weave

 

wove

 

woven

 

spend

 

spent

 

spent

 

weep

 

wept

 

wept

 

spin

 

spun/span

 

spun

 

win

 

won

 

won

 

spit

 

spit/spat

 

spit/spat

 

wind

 

wound

 

wound

 

split

 

split

 

split

 

withdraw

 

withdrew

 

withdrawn

 

spread

 

spread

 

spread

 

wring

 

wrung

 

wrung

 

spring

 

sprang/sprung

 

sprung

 

write

 

wrote

 

written

 

*    Bu fiiller için American English ve British English arasındaki farklılıklara dikkat ediniz.

 

American

 

British

 

 

bet – bet bet

fit -fit -fit

get – got – gotten

quit – quit – quit

bet – bet – bet   or   bet betted- betted

fit -fitted -fitted

get – got – got

quit – quitted – quitted

 

American English’de düzenli olan bazı fiiller British English’de düzensizdir.

American:   burn-burned, dream-dreamed, kneel-kneeled, lean-leaned, smell smelled, spill-spilled, etc.

 

British:    bum-burnt, dream-dreamt, kneel-knelt, lean-leant, smell-smelt, spill-spilt.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5-7   CONFUSING VERBS

 

a) raise, raised, raised (transitive)

The supermarket raised its prices twice last week.

 

b) rise, rose, risen (intransitive)Prices rose three times last week.

 

c) arouse, aroused, aroused (transitive)

The man’s peculiar behaviour aroused the police’s suspicion.

 

d) arise, arose, arisen (intransitive)

Their suspicion arose because of the man’s peculiar behaviour.

 

e) set, set, set (transitive)

We set the chair at the head of the table.

 

f)   sit, sat, sat (intransitive)

My father sat at the head of the table

g) lay, laid, laid (transitive)

We laid the carpet after we’d painted the walls.

 

h) lie,* lay, lain (intransitive)

I lay on the sofa after dinner and went to sleep.

 

i)   bind, bound, bound (tie up)

He bound the dog to the fence with a long rope.

 

j)  bound, bounded, bounded (1. border   2. jump)

Luxembourg is bounded by Belgium,           Germany and France.

The dog was bounding across the field.

 

k) find, found, found

I found your pen on top of the fridge

l)   found, founded, founded (establish)

Mao Tse-Tung founded the People’s Republic of China.

 

m) grind, ground, ground (crush, into powder)

In the past people ground wheat into Hour using large stones.

 

n) ground, grounded, grounded (compel to stay on the around)

The authorities grounded the plane for safety checks.

 

o) wind, wound, wound (twist, turn)

He wound the string into a tight ball.

 

p) wound, wounded, wounded (injure)

The gun shots wounded several people.

 

q) fall, fell, fallen

She fell as she was getting off the bus

r)  fell, felled, felled (cut down)

They felled the tree because it was getting too big.

 

s)  see, saw, seen

They saw an accident, while driving to work.

 

t)  saw, sawed, sawed/sawn (cut with a saw)He sawed the wood into equal lengths.

 

u) hang, hung, hung (suspend something)

They hung a flag from the window for Republic Day.

 

v) hang, hanged, hanged (kill someone by hanging)

The leader of the Pakistani military coup, General Zia ul-Huq, hanged the President, Bhutto, in 1979

 

* Lie “yalan söylemek” anlamındaysa, düzenli bir fiildir: She lied to us about her coming late.

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE   2    :    Choose the correct word in parentheses.

1-   Elif proudly (laid/lay) her new Buldan tablecloth over the dining room table.

2-   On our last summer holiday, we (laid/lay) in the sun most of the time and only (saw/sawed) a few of the tourist attractions.

3-   The Chairman (set/sat) the display desk at the entrance to the hall.

4-   The Chairman’s family (set/sat) in the front row during his speech.

5-   The genuine 16th century Ottoman tiles (arose/aroused) the interest of several buyers in the auction room.

6-   Last year, wages (rose/raised) thirty percent on average.

7-   The kidnappers (bounded/bound) the millionaire’s arms and legs together.

8-   As he had not written the directions clearly, Mark (found/founded) the craft shop after about an hour.

9-   Richard Cadbury (found/founded) Cadbury’s chocolate factory in the early 1800s. Cadbury’s chocolate remains a favourite of many today.

10- I have an old fashioned alarm clock. On weekdays, I (wound/wind) it up before I go to bed.

11- I (wound/wounded) my alarm clock up and went to bed.

12- A bullet (wound/wounded) a security guard during the robbery.

13- After their second crash this year, serious doubts (arose/aroused) about the safety of Korean Airlines.

14- A rabbit ran in front of us during our walk and the dog (bound/bounded) after it.

15- Despite objections, the council (fell/felled) the ancient oak tree in the playground because it was dangerous.

16- Sheila (saw/sawed) a lovely carpet in the sale last week and bought it for her living room.

17- The carpenter (saw/sawed) the bottom off Sheila’s living room door, so now it opens easily over her new carpet.

18- Up until the 20th century, the courts in this state (hang/hanged) convicted murderers. Now they kill them by lethal injection.

19- Since it was so warm and sunny yesterday, I (hung/hanged) some of the flower baskets out.

20- Sarah’s son is over enthusiastic. He sometimes (raises/rises) his hand in class when he doesn’t know the answer.

21- Engineers (ground/grounded) the hot-air balloon and cancelled the transatlantic attempt as it had a serious leak.

22- For the dinner party I gave last Saturday, I (ground/grounded) my black pepper freshly from peppercorns.

23- Sometimes, when an airplane has a serious fault, the authorities (grind/ground) it until the problem is resolved.

24- The butcher (rose/raised) his eyebrows in surprise when he heard the news.

25- Sir Isaac Newton had his ideas about gravity after an apple from the tree (fell/felled) on his head.

 

 

EXERCISE     :    Complete the sentences with the Simple Past forms of the irregular verbs in the list. Use each verb only once.

fly                               give                            keep

lead                            light                           mean,

shoot                          swing                         thrust

undertake                  upset                          weave

weep                           win                             wring

1-     Because of his skill and judgement, Steve Bull……………..his team to victory.

2-     Caesar’s enemies……………..their knives into his back.

3-    Jenny placed some seeds on the bird table in her garden. Soon after, two robins

…………….. down and Jenny watched them happily.

4-     The Viking warrior …………….. the axe over his head and let out a horrible scream   before he rushed towards the enemy.

5-     It is quite cold for October, isn’t it? We……………..the gas central heating boiler    yesterday.

6-     After the death of her husband, Jane …………….. the responsibility for the driving

school and ran it herself.

7-     Perhaps I wasn’t very polite, but I …………….. every word of my complaint.

8-     Skilled craftsmen …………….. this cloth and then applied wax to create the batik

pattern.

9-     Because one of Manchester United’s players, David Beckham, got a red card, the Brazilian team gained advantage and …………….. the match.

10-   First she used a wet mop on the floor to get the dirt off.  Afterwards, she……………..

the mop out well and went over it again.

11-  Everybody wonders how the mountaineers …………….. alive for days in such harsh

conditions until the rescue team reached them.

12- When Sarah telephoned me about the accident yesterday, it …………….. me so much

that I couldn’t speak.

13-  My mother …………….. me a lovely necklace on my birthday.

14- An envious young man …………….. the famous musician, John Lennon, dead outside

his apartment.

15- When Judy won the competition last year, she …………….. with joy. Tears of joy

rolled down her face.

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE   4    :    Complete the sentences with the Simple Past forms of the irregular verbs in the list. Use each verb only once.

 

bear

flee

lend

slide

teach

build

hide

put

steal

withdraw

dig

hold

seek

throw

swim

 

 

1-     After the end of World War II, the Latvian war criminal Konrad Kalis …………….. to

Australia, where he became an Australian citizen.

2-     Norman Wisdom, the famous film comedian, …………….. all the hardships of his

childhood well and didn’t let the harsh treatment by others depress him.

3-     In 1983, the Wilsons sold their house in the city centre and …………….. a new one on

a plot of land in the countryside.

4-     Last Wednesday, some workmen from the council …………….. up the road in front of

our house in order to lay some new gas pipes.

5-     For many years during the Second World War, Anne Frank and her family …………….. in the back rooms of an office building. Unfortunately, the Nazis

discovered them in 1944.

6-     Our chairman resigned on Friday and yesterday we …………….. an election for a new

one.

7-     I …………….. Paul my tent last summer. He returned it yesterday with a bent pole

and a tear in the canvas.

8-     I …………….. the key under the door mat this morning, so you can let yourself in.

9-    After the manager left, they …………….. someone with similar experience but settled

for a less qualified candidate in the end.

10- On last year’s skiing holiday. I lost my balance and…………….. down the hill for

about ten minutes. I stopped when I hit a tree.

11- The young man …………….. money even from his own mother to pay for drugs.

12- Last Saturday. I …………….. two miles and received a badge from the swimming club.

13- Cadbury’s chocolate company …………….. their sponsorship, which was worth about

one million pounds per year, from the club last week and the club are looking for a new sponsor.

14- At John’s party on Saturday, his friends …………….. him into the swimming pool.

15-  My mother …………….. me how to knit when I was twelve.

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE   5    :    Complete the sentences with the Simple Past forms of the irregular verbs in the list. Use each verb only once.

 

burst

shrink

fling

bend

lie

see

break

mislay

freeze

cast

bleed

bite

forsake

choose

fit

 

 

1-     It was only a shaving cut, but it …………quite a lot and left a stain on his shirt collar.

2-     Yesterday, I hit the side of the car wing mirror on the garage wall and the mirror …………….. into several pieces.

3-     He …………….. himself into the chair with such force that it collapsed.

4-     She …………….. a promising career in computer technology in order to study rug

weaving.

5-     Yesterday, we took our course books to the park, but most of the time we ……………..

on the grass in the sunshine.

6-     We bought three chickens at the market and …………….. two of them to use later.

7-    Yesterday, my husband …………….. his glasses, so, because I’m short-sighted as

well, he borrowed mine until he found his.

8-     At midnight on New Year’s Eve, we went to the town’s centre and …………….. lots of

wonderful fireworks.

9-     My mother …………….. my favourite jumper the last time she washed it. Now it looks

like a child’s jumper.

10-   We…………….. one of the poles on the tent during our holiday. Now our tent looks

crooked.

11-   In a boxing match last year, Mike Tyson …………….. part of his opponent’s ear off,

which shows what a barbaric sport it is.

12-   I …………….. two of the balloons I was blowing up for the party last night.

13-  Andrew Lloyd Webber …………….. Michael Crawford as the Phantom of the Opera in

his musical of the same name.

14-   Of all the flats we were shown, we …………….. the one closest to the city centre,

15-   Luckily, Sally’s new wardrobe…………….. perfectly into the space next to her bed.

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE   6    :    Complete the sentences with the Simple Past forms of the irregular verbs in the list. Use each verb only once.

quit                          shed                 swear

breed                       catch               cling

draw                        pay                   rid

ring                          split                 strive

creep                       Sight                string

1-     My great uncle …………….. in the First World War and won a medal.

2-     He …………….. his job last Friday because he didn’t get a management position.

3-     This morning, a lorry ……………. its load on the approach to the roundabout, which

caused a traffic jam.

4-     Julia …………….. that she wouldn’t tell anyone about my secret.

5-     He retired from horse racing at the age of thirty-five and …………….. horses Instead.

6-     Last Wednesday, the police …………….. the murderer as he was trying to leave the

country in disguise.

7-     The passengers of the small boat…………….. to the side of the life-raft until the

Coast Guard rescued them.

8-     My nephew Edward prepared a birthday card for his mother himself. He……………..

a rabbit on the outside and a tree on the inside.

9-     My company …………….. us before Christmas instead of on the last Friday in the

month.

10-   My sister…………….. herself of her fear by visiting a psychotherapist.

11-   I…………….. the doorbell at your house last night, but you didn’t answer. I assumed

that you were out.

12-  After six more registers, the director …………….. the class into two because it had    .

become too crowded.

13-  At the weekend, an expert …………….. our violin for us. Now it sounds quite good.

14-  Jack …………….. hard to win the race, but in the end. he came second.

15-   By the time we got there, the play had already started, so we …………….. into the

theatre quietly so as not to disturb the audience.

 

EXERCISE   7   : Complete the sentences with the Simple Past forms of the verbs in the list. Some of the verbs are regular and some are irregular. Use each verb only once.

 

spend

eat

lose

pass

wash

 

climb

grow

maintain

shut

wear

 

drive

injure

mistake

borrow

worry

 

1-     Last night, I …………….. the whole evening about where rny son was, and learnt later

that he was safe at his friend’s house,

2-     Yesterday, I …………….. sixty pounds on a new pair of boots. This morning, I am

regretting it.

3-     On Thursday, I felt ill. so I …………….. the shop much earlier than usual and went

home.

4-     The court found him guilty, but right up to his death, his wife …………….. that he

was innocent.

5-     Somewhere during our trip, I …………….. my passport.

6-     At her wedding. Diana …………….. a cream silk gown embroidered with small, cream

beads.

7-     Yesterday, my baby daughter …………….. up the stairs.  Of course, 1 was right

behind her in case she fell.

8-     We …………….. a lot of Turkish food at the party. My husband was pleased as he

misses Turkey a lot.

9-     During the icy weather last week, my aunt slipped on some ice and …………….. her

leg.

10-   Last summer, we …………….. all the way from Germany to Turkey, which was an

exhausting trip.

11-   Lucy shed all her hair during her treatment for cancer, but fortunately, it……………..

back even thicker than before.

12-   I …………….. the one hundred lira note for a five million lira note and tried to pay the

taxi driver with it.

13-   i …………….. the dry cleaner’s yesterday, but still forgot to pick up your suit.

14-   My car looks great today because 1 …………….. and polished it last night.

15-   I …………….. fifty pounds from my brother, but now he doesn’t want it back, which is.

very nice.

EMPHATIC “DO”

Simple Present ve Simple Past tense’lerle. normalde, olumlu cümlede “do/does, did” kullanılmaz. Ancak vurguyu artırmak için bu yardımcı fiilleri olumlu cümlede kullanabiliriz. Bu durumda her iki tense ile de asıl fiil yalın haliyle kullanılır.

Your brother doesn’t like fish, does he? Yes, he does like fish.

You don’t help your mother with the housework, do you?                Yes, I do help my mother whenever I have time.

You didn’t go to school yesterday, did you? Yes, I did go to school yesterday.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6-     THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE                           6-1   FORM

 

Affirmative

 

 

Negative

 

Interrogative
I was working.                                      You were studying.                      He/She/It was eating lunch.

We were laughing.                 You were talking.               They were arguing.

 

I wasn’t working.                                 You weren’t studying.                  He/She/It wasn’t eating lunch.

We weren’t laughing.         You weren’t talking.             They weren’t arguing.

 

Was I working?

Were you studying?

Was he/she/it eating lunch?

Were we laughing? Were you talking?     Were they arguing?

 

 

Where were you living this time last year?         I was living in İzmir.

What were you doing at 9 p.m. last night?

I was watching television.                                                

6-2 USE OF THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

  1. a) Bu tense’i, geçmişte belli bir noktada yapmakta olduğumuz eylemleri anlatırken kullanırız. This time last year, this time last winter, at this hour yesterday, yesterday at 3 o’clock                    bu tense ile sık kullanılan zarflardır.

This time last summer, I was lying on the beach in Bodrum, but now I’m working hard to finish this project

What were you doing at noon last Saturday?                        I was playing football with friends.

  1. b) Past Continuous (I was doing) ile Past Tense (I did) arasındaki kullanım farkına dikkat ediniz.

Eğer, geçmişte tamamladığımız bir eylemden sözediyorsak Simple Past Tense kullanırız. (Önemli olan belli bir zamanda ‘Neyapıyordum?” değil, “Neyaptım?”dır. )

What did you do last night?

I watched television first, then studied English.

Eğer, geçmişte tamamladığımız bir eylemi değil de, sözü edilen zamanda yapmakta olduğumuz işi anlatıyorsak, Past Continuous Tense kullanılır. (Önemli olan “Ne yaptım?” değil, “Ne yapıyordum?” dur. )

What were your parents doing when you got home last night?                 They were waiting for me to eat dinner with them.

 

  1. c) Sürerlilik bildiren    tense’Ierle    kullanılmayan    fiiller    (non-progressive    verbs),    Past Continuous Tense ile de kullanılmazlar.

I already knew the news about him.

( Ben onunla ilgili haberi zaten biliyordum.)

She thought that I would go to the party as well.

( Partiye benim de gideceğimi zannediyordu.)

The flowers looked nice yesterday, but now they are fading.

  1. d) Geçmişteki alışkanlıklarımızı ya da sık sık yaptığımız eylemleri Simple Past Tense ile

anlatırız.

 

I went to the cinema very often when I was at university.

 

cümlesini Türkçe’ye iki şekilde çevirebiliriz.

“Üniversitedeyken sinemaya çok sık giderdim.” ya da “Üniversitedeyken sinemaya çok sık gidiyordum,” (Bu cümledeki “gidiyordum” ifadesi ilk anda Past Continuous Tense gibi görünse de, geçmişte belli bir noktada, devam etmekte olan bir eylemi değil de, genelde olan bir eylemi anlattığı için Simple Past Tense kullanmamız gerekir.)

When he was young, he played football in the school team.                    ( general in the past)

When I saw him yesterday, he was playing football.               (a specific point in the past)

  1. e) Geçmişte bir eylemi, başlangıç ve bitiş zamanını belirterek anlatıyorsak, Past Continuous Tense kullanırız. (Bu tür cümlelerde Simple Past Tense kullanmak da mümkündür.)

I was watching a film on television from nine until eleven last night.                           He was working as an accountant from 1985 to 1989.

  1. f) WHEN and WHILE    SENTENCES

Past Continuous Tense “when” ve “while” cümlelerinde çok sık kullanılan bir tense’dir. Geçmişte devam etmekte olan bir eylem sırasında bir başka eylem olmuşsa, bu durumu şu cümlelerle ifade ederiz.

I was eating dinner when the guests arrived.

( Konuklar geldiğinde yemek yiyordum.)                 I hurt my leg while I was playing football.              ( Futbol oynarken bacağımı incittim. )

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WHEN

 

 

I-       “When” ile kurulmuş bir zarf cümleciği (adverbial clause), genellikle temel cümledeki (main clause) eylemin devam etmekte olduğu zamanı açıklar. “Bir eylem olduğunda bir başka eylem oluyordu” biçiminde bir anlam taşır.Bu nedenle “when” in bağlı bulunduğu cümlede Simple Past, temel cümlede ise Past Continuous kullanılır.

 

 

        When he came,                    I was studying. ( O geldiğinde ben ders çalışıyordum.)

adverbial                                   main

clause                                            clause

 

 

He came

 

past                                                                            now                                             future

I was reading

 

 

I was reading when he came.                   When I went out, it was raining.

They were arguing when I entered the room.                  (Ben içeri girdiğimde, tartışıyorlardı.)

 

                When   +   Simple Past   ,   Past Continuous

 

 

II-      “When”  arka arkaya yapılmış eylemleri anlatmak için de kullanılır. Bu durumda her iki cümlenin de tense’i Simple Past‘dır.

When he arrived, we went into the cinema.

( First he came. Then we entered the cinema.)             (O gelince, sinemaya girdik.)

When he left work, he got on a bus and went home.

When the teacher asked a question, I raised my hand to answer it.

 

 

                When   +   Simple Past   ,   Simple   Past

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WHILE

 

 

I-      “While” cümleciği genellikle, temel cümledeki eylem sırasında devam etmekte olan bir başka eylemi anlatmak için kullanılır. Bu nedenle, “while” m bağlı bulunduğu cümle Past Continuous, temel cümle ise Simple Past‘dır.

While I was studying,                   He came in. ( Ben ders çalışırken o geldi.)

adverbial                                  main

clause                                    clause

 

 

I left home

past                                                                          now                                             future

 

 

They were sleeping

I left home while my parents were sleeping.

I took a photograph while you weren’t looking.

 

                While   +   Past Continuous   ,   Simple   Past

 

II-      “While”   cümleciği, temel cümledeki eylemle aynı anda olan bir eylemi anlatmak için de kullanılır. Bu durumda her iki cümle de Simple Past Tense ile kurulur.

I sang while I washed the dishes.

( Bulaşıkları yıkarken şarkı söyledim.)

She watched me while I made the cake. ( Kek yaparken beni izledi.)

I waited outside while she had an interview.

(O görüşme yaparken ben dışarıda bekledim.)

 

                While   +   Simple  Past ,   Simple   Past

 

 

 

III-    “While” birbirine paralel devam eden iki eylemi anlatmak için de kullanılır.

While the teacher was lecturing, the students were talking among           themselves. (Öğretmen   ders   anlatırken   öğrenciler   kendi   aralarında konuşuyorlardı.)

I was studying while everybody at home was sleeping.

(Evde herkes uyurken ben ders çalışıyordum.)

 

                While   +   Past Continuous,   Past Continuous

 

 

IV-     “While” ile aynı anlamı veren bir diğer bağlaç “as” dir.

While I was coming here, 1 ran into an old friend.

As I was coming here, I ran into an old friend.

I had a look at the old magazines while / as I waited at the doctor’s.

Just as“, daha vurgulu bir anlatımdır.

The postman came just as I was leaving home.       (Tam ben evden çıkarken, postacı geldi.)                           Just as I sat down at the table, the phone rang.             (Tam masaya oturdum ki telefon çaldı.)

EXERCISE   8    :    Use either the Simple Past or the Past Continuous of the verbs in parentheses.

1-     While the hairdresser (dry) …………………… my hair, the hairdryer (blow)

……………………up. There were sparks everywhere.

2-     Tim (teach) …………………… English in Turkey this time last year, but he (return)

…………………… to Canada in January.

3-     My uncle (walk) …………………… his dog every day until it (die) ……………………

because of food poisoning last month.

4-     When I (smell) …………………… something burning and (rush) …………………… to the

kitchen, it was too late. The fire (spread) …………………… rapidly, so, instead of

trying to put it out myself, I (dash) …………………… back to the living room and

(phone) …………………… the fire brigade.

5-     While I (dust) …………………… the dining room table, I (knock) …………………… a vase

full of flowers over, but fortunately, it (not, break) …………………… .

6    This time yesterday, we (decorate) …………………… the guest room. Thankfully, it is

now ready for our guests.

 

7-     When the robber (shoot) …………………… the man, he (shake) ……………………

erratically for awhile before he  (fall) …………………… to the ground.

8-     Just as we (sit) …………………… down for a snack in the airport restaurant, they

(announce) …………………… our flight.

9-     When the fire brigade (arrive) ……………………. we (beat) ……………… back the flames.

10-  He (rip) …………………… the sleeve of the jacket while he (try) …………………… it on.

11-   I (work) …………………… all day on Saturday, so I was unable to collect the chair, but

luckily the shop (keep) …………………… it until Monday for me.

12-  The clock (stop) …………………… when the power (go) …………………… off, and,

because it is the only clock at home, I (have) …………………… no idea what the time

was when I (wake) …………………… up the next morning.

13- A: Why ………….you (take) ………………. the ball away from the boys?

B: Because they (kick) …………………… it over Mrs. Smith’s wall.

14- Janet (look) …………………… after our daughter while we (have) ……………………

dinner with our friends.

15-   She (see) …………………… the perfect chair for the dining room in a shop window as

she (walk) …………………… to the bank.

16-  Yesterday, we (run) …………………… into Jim while we (go) …………………… to the

beach. He (go) …………………… to the cinema, but, at our insistence, he (change)

…………………… his mind and (join) …………………… us.

17-  The police (burst) …………………… into the room while the criminals (exchange)

…………………… the drugs for the money. They are all in jail now.

18- When we (arrive) …………………… at the park, our friends (feed) …………………… the

ducks in the pond.

19-  He (find) …………………… the article about his grandfather by accident, when he

(research) …………………… the war for an essay.

20-   Around this time yesterday. Jack’s mother (worry) …………………… whether he was

dead or alive because she hadn’t heard anything about him after the train crash had been reported on TV.

21-  Margaret (seem) …………………… really happy at the party last night, but Peter (tell)

…………………… her something just as they (leave) ……………………. and then she

(sulk) …………………… . I wonder what the problem was!

22-   As she (pour) …………………… the tea out, she (spill) …………………… some on the

table.

23-   Mrs. Green (injure) …………………… her finger while she (cut) …………………… some

roses from the bushes in her garden.

24-  When Sheila was young, she (play) …………………… the drums in the school band.

25-  He (bang) …………………… his head on the low beam as he (go) …………………… down to the basement.

 

EXERCISE   9    :    Complete the sentences with the Simple Past or Past Continuous of the

verbs in the list. Use each word only once.

allow                        arrange            bleed

wrap                        cheat                 design

dream                      enjoy                 feed

move                        pay                    rise

sink                           step                   throw

1-     Because the wound on Simon’s leg …………….. heavily at the time, we rushed him to

hospital.

2-     When the police intervened, the opposing fans …………….. things at each other.

3-     She …………….. the flowers nicely in a vase and then placed the vase in front of the

window.

4-     The boss …………….. everyone to go home early on New Year’s Eve.

5-     Fortunately, they managed to rescue the passengers and the crew before the ship              ……………..

6-     A: Are you all right? You screamed.

B: Yes, thanks. I…………….. about vampires.

7-     I broke the little glass animal as I …………….. it up in a piece of paper.

8-     It took me some time to go and answer the phone because I …………… the baby just

then and couldn’t leave her at once.

9-     All of a sudden, a girl…………….. in front of my car, and I could barely brake in time.

10-  It took me an hour to find out he wasn’t honest, and …………….. all the time. At that

point, I refused to play any more.

11-  We …………….. £300,000 for this house, you know!

12-   He …………….. martial arts when he was younger, but he is no longer interested in

them.

13- They …………….. it in the style of a traditional farm house and I like the results.

14- The water in the river …………….. so rapidly at the time that we all thought a flood

was inevitable.

15-  We …………….. into the city to be nearer our work.

 

EXERCISE   10 :    Complete the sentences with the Simple Past or Past Continuous of the

verbs on the list. Use each word only once.

 

bake                            contain                    cost
defend                          fall                         sign
polish                          rise                          sing
sip                                kneel                      telephone
find                              attend                     worry

1-     As children, both my sister and I …………….. ballet courses, but neither of us

became a professional.

2-    We were clearing the weeds out of the pond when Sarah …………….. into the water.

3-     I couldn’t concentrate on my work while I …………….. how my daughter in hospital

was.

4-     Jes walked to Lucy’s table, …………….. down in front of her and asked her to marry

him.

5-     She …………….. her wine when he suddenly asked her to marry him.

6-     The holiday …………….. much more than expected, so we’ll have to economise for a

few months to make up for the excess.

7-     She called the doctor the minute her baby’s temperature …………….. to a critical

level.

8-    While we were cleaning grandmother’s house, she …………….. cakes for us.

9-     I wasn’t certain it was her birthday, so I …………….. her mother to ask.

10-  From the expression on his face during the exam, it was obvious that he ……………..

the questions rather difficult.

11-  When we ……………… the agreement for the flat, the landlord handed us the keys.

12-   The boxer never recovered fully from the time his opponent knocked him out while he …………….. his championship title.

13-   When I walked past his house, he …………….. his car again.

14- When we left, the rest of the family …………….. popular songs.

15-   My grandmother’s living room …………….. so much furniture that we could hardly

move inside.

 

 

 

 

7-  THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE                                       7-1 FORM

 

Affirmative

 

 

Negative

 

 

Interrogative

 

I have watched that film.               You have seen him twice. He/She/It has eaten lunch.

We have invited her.                      You have worked hard.                  They have visited us.

 

I have not watched that film.     You have not seen him twice. He/She/It has not eaten lunch.

We have not invited her.         You have not worked hard. They have not visited us.

 

Have I watched that film?           Have you seen him twice?              Has he/she/it eaten lunch?

Have we invited her?              Have you worked hard?     Have they visited us?

 

Bu  tense’i  oluşturmak  için have/has   +  past  participle   (fiillerin üçüncü hali)   kullanılır.                Have/has ve have not/has not genellikle kısaltılmış olarak kullanılır.

I’ve seen that film before. /You haven’t seen that film.

He’s seen that film twice before. /She hasn’t seen that film yet.

Olumsuz soruyu iki şekilde sorabiliriz.

  1. I) Kısaltma yapmadan:

Have you not seen that film yet? /Has she not seen that film before?

  1. II) Kısaltma yaparak:

Haven’t you seen that film yet? /Hasn’t she seen that film before?

7-2 USE OF THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

  1. a) Geçmişte yaptığımız eylemleri zaman vermeden anlatıyorsak, bu tense’i kullanırız.

She has removed all the furniture in the house. They have painted their house.

Ancak, aynı eylemleri zamanı belirterek ifade edersek, Simple Past kullanmamız gerekir.

She removed all the furniture in the house last weekend.                They painted their house a few weeks ago.

 

Geçmişte yaptığımız eylem için zaman zarfı kullanmasak bile, eğer zamanı ima ediyorsak, yine Simple Past kullanırız.

I saw that film when I was in Ankara.”    cümlesinde kesin olarak bir zaman vermesek de when I was in Ankara’  geçmişte belli bir dönemi ifade etmektedir.

I went shopping after work.    (“after work”   yine belli bir zamanı

belirtmektedir.)

I met him in İzmir. (“in İzmir” ifadesi yer belirtmesine karşın,”İzmir’de bulunduğum dönemde”  anlamını ima etmektedir.)

Present Perfect Tense ile sorulan sorulara yanıt verirken, yine bu kurallara dikkat etmeliyiz.

“Have you met his girlfriend?” sorusuna bir kaç şekilde yanıt verebiliriz.                  Yes, I have. (or No, I haven’t.)

Have you met his girlfriend?

Yes. I met her last week.  ( or I met her at Alice’s party.)

Have you seen my glasses?             Yes, I have.  ( or No, I haven’t.)

Have you seen my glasses?

Yes, I saw them on the kitchen table a few minutes ago.

  1. b) Yakın geçmişte olup sonuçları ya da etkileri içinde bulunduğumuz anda devam eden eylemler için bu tense’i kullanırız.

I have burnt myself. (I’m in pain now. — Şu anda acı çekiyorum.)                 I’ve cleaned the house. (It’s clean now.)

  1. c) Today, this morning, this week, this month, this year, this century , henüz

tamamlanmamış bir dönem ifade eden zarflarla kullanılır.

I’ve been to the cinema twice this week.

I haven’t been able to go on holiday this year. Technology has advanced greatly in this century.

This morning“, “this afternoon” ve “this evening” ifadelerini kullanırken, saat kavramına dikkat edelim.

Genellikle  saat   13.00’e  kadar  olan süre  sabah  (morning),   17.00’ye  kadar  öğleden  sonra (afternoon), 17.00-20.00  arası ise akşam (evening)  saatlerini bildirir. Bu durumda:

 

I haven’t heard the alarm this morning.

ifadesini, sabah diliminin henüz bitmemiş olduğu bir saatte, örneğin saat 11-12 gibi söyleyebiliriz. Eğer Öğleden sonraki bir saatte, örneğin saat 2’de bu sözü söylüyorsak, artık “sabah” dilimi tamamlanıp yeni bir döneme geçilmiş olduğu için, o eylem geçmişte kalmıştır. Bu durumda ise Simple Past Tense kullanmalıyız.

I haven’t heard the alarm this morning. (It’s 11a.m. now.)                       I didn’t hear the alarm this morning. (It’s 2p.m. now.)

I’ve seen Tom this afternoon. (It’s 3 p.m. now.)                    I saw Tom this afternoon. (It’s 6 p.m. now.)

This year,   this month,   this   century gibi kullanımlarda,   eğer sözü   edilen zaman dilimi tamamlanmışsa, “this” yerine “last” kullanılır.

I have worked hard this week. (The week hasn’t finished yet.)                 I worked hard last week.

They have phoned me twice this month.          They phoned me twice last month.

  1. d) Lately, recently ile kullanımı:

“Son   zamanlarda,   son   günlerde”   anlamına  gelen   lately   ve   recently,   Present   Perfect   ile kullanıldığında, yine kesin bir zaman belirtmeden, yaptığımız ya da yapmadığımız işleri anlatır.

Have you seen your parents recently?

There has been great progress in the science of medicine recently.                           There have been some changes in my house lately.

Recently“, Simple Past Tense ile de kullanılır ve “a short time ago”   anlamını verir.

They came recently. (They came a short time ago.)

She passed her exam only recently.

(She passed her exam only a short time ago.)

  1. e) Already, just ve yet ile kullanımı:

Yet” soruda ve olumsuz cümlede kullanılır ve normal olarak cümlenin sonunda yer alır.

Have you finished your homework yet?                  No, I haven’t finished it yet.

Is your father at home?          No, he hasn’t come yet.

 

Just“,  olumlu cümlede kullanılır ve “henüz, şimdi, yenice” anlamını verir. “Just” cümlede, yardımcı fiille asıl fiil arasında yer alır.

Have you finished your homework?            Yes, I’ve just finished it.

Is the manager in?

No, he has just gone out.

Already“, olumlu cümlede kullanılır ve “zaten, çoktan” anlamına gelir. Bir eylemin umulandan daha önce bir zamanda yapılmış olduğunu vurgular. Cümle içindeki yeri normalde yardımcı fiil ile asıl fiil arasındadır, ancak cümle sonunda da kullanılır.

Shall we go to see the film “Schindler’s List” tonight? Not a good idea! I have already seen it.

Manager: Don’t forget to mail the invitations in time. Secretary: I’ve already posted them.

Mother: Wash your hands before you sit at the table. Son: I’ve washed them already.

  1. f) Ever, never, all my life, in his life, always, occasionally, often, several times, once, twice, etc. gibi zarflarla kullanımı:

Daha önce, sıklık bildiren zarfların (ever, never, always, often, etc.) Geniş Zaman ile (Simple Present) kullanımını görmüştük. Aynı zarflar, anlamda biraz bir değişiklikle, Present Perfect Tense ile de kullanılır.

I always get up early. (Simple Present — Ben her zaman erken kalkarım.
“Bugüne kadar hep  erken kalktım. Bundan sonra da büyük bir

olasılıkla erken kalkacağım. Bu benim alışkanlığım.”  anlamını verir.)

I have always got up early.

(Present   Perfect   —   “Ben   her   zaman   erken   kalkmışımdır.”   ifadesi, yaşamımın sadece şu ana kadar olan bölümünü kapsar.)

My father has always lived in his hometown.         (He has lived in his hometown all his life.)

I’ve never seen such a pretty dog in my life.

Have you ever ridden on an elephant?

No, I’ve ridden on a camel once, but I’ve never ridden on an elephant.

 

Once, twice, three times, several times, many times (bir kez, iki kez, üç kez, bir kaç kez, pek çok kez) gibi zarflarla, bir eylemi yaşamımız boyunca kaç kez yaptığımızı ifade etmek için Present Perfect Tense kullanırız.

Have you ever been abroad?

Yes, I’ve been to Germany several times.

She has invited me to her house many times, but I’ve never had any                     spare time.

I’ve seen her parents only once.

NOTE:   Bu zarfların Simple Past Tense ile kullanımına dikkat ediniz.

“She has invited me to her house many times, but I’ve never had any                   spare time.” cümlesini, geçmişte zamanı belirterek verirsek, Simple Past kullanmamız gerekir.

She invited me to her house many times during my stay in Germany,                       but I never had any spare time.

“My father has lived in his hometown all his life.”

cümlesinden,   babamın hayatta olduğu anlamını çıkarıyoruz.  Artık hayatta olmayan birinin yaptığı işlerden söz ediyorsak. Simple Past Tense kullanmamız gerekir.

My grandfather lived in his hometown all his life. (He is dead now.)

I have never flown in an aeroplane.

My grandmother never flew in an aeroplane.

(She isn’t alive any more.)

I have ridden on a camel twice. It is very exciting.

When I was in Egypt, I rode on a camel twice. It was very exciting.

  1. g) So far (up to now, until now) ile kullanımı:

So far“,  “şu  ana kadar” anlamına gelir ve so far today,  so far this month, so far this semestre, so far this summer, etc. gibi zarflarla birlikte de kullanılabilir.

It hasn’t snowed so far this winter.

I got many bad grades last semestre, but I haven’t had any low grades so                         far this semestre.

We haven’t eaten anything so far today.

So far this summer, I have swum in the sea only once.

 

  1. h) For ve Since ile kullanımı:

For“,  geçmişte belli bir noktadan içinde bulunduğumuz ana kadar devam eden bir süreç                             bildirir, (for two years, for a month, for five minutes, for a long time, etc.)

                                                  January        February               March           April

        

        past                                                  for three months                               now                      future

 

He became the manager

He has been the manager for three months.

 

Since“, eylemin geçmişte başlangıç noktasını belirtir, (“since yesterday, since 1987, since March, since the Middle Ages, etc.)

He has been the manager since January.

1997                 1998                 1999                 2000                 2001

                                                                                                                                                                   past                                                  for four months                                         now           future

They moved to this town in 1997.

They have lived in this town for four years.           They have lived in this town since 1997.

She bought her house three years ago, so she has had it for three years.                               I last saw him in September. I haven’t seen him since then.

We first met at my cousin’s 15th birthday party, so we have known each other for almost five years.

She has always been afraid of thunder since her childhood/since she was a girl.

I haven’t been to Germany since I got married.                                                       They haven’t had the opportunity to have a long holiday for years.                      We haven’t heard from him since he phoned us a month ago.                                He has read fifty pages of the book since I gave it to him.

We have changed four houses since we moved to Istanbul seven years ago.

There has been a great rise in prices in the last six months.                                    The housing problem has grown bigger in the past few years.

 

 

 

 

 

         It is + a period of time + since + Simple Past/Present Perfect

 

  1. i)

 

 

It is three months since I last went to the cinema.                                                  It is three months since I have been to the cinema.

 

 

Her iki cümleyi de Türkçe’ye şöyle çevirebiliriz:

Sinemaya gitmeyeli üç ay oluyor, ya da

En son sinemaya gittiğimden beri üç ay geçti.

Bu cümlelerin eş anlamlısı olarak, “Üç aydır sinemaya gitmiyorum.” ya da “Sinemaya en son üç ay önce gittim.”  gibi ifadeler de kullanabiliriz.

I haven’t been to the cinema for three months.                I last went to the cinema three months ago.

It’s ten days since she hasn’t worked because she is ill.

(She has been ill in bed for ten days.)

It’s eight years since I graduated from university.             (I graduated from university eight years ago.)

It is just two weeks since they got married.

(They got married just two weeks ago.  or They have been married for just two weeks.)

 

 

This is the first time   +  Present Perfect

 

 

j)

 

I’m very excited now, because this is the first time I’ve driven a car.

This is the second time he has played tennis. That’s why he isn’t good                  at it.

You shouldn’t drink so much coffee. It’s bad for you. This is the fifth cup of coffee you have drunk in the last two hours.

This is the third exam we have taken so far this term.

 

This is Superlative   +  Present Perfect

 

 

k)

 

 

This is the most boring book I have ever read.

(Bu hayatımda okuduğum en sıkıcı kitap.)

This is the most difficult situation I have ever been in.

He is the most talkative person I have met in my life.

 

1)         gone   or    been

“go” fiilini Perfect Tense ile iki şekilde kullanabiliriz:

Eğer kişi, sözü edilen yerde ise, ya da sözü  edilen yere gitmek üzere yola çıkmışsa,  gone
kullanılır.

I’d like to talk to your mother. Is she at home?     No, she has gone shopping.

Can I speak to Mr. Jones, please?

Sorry. He has gone out of town and hasn’t come back yet.

Eğer kişi, sözü edilen yerde daha önce bulunduğunu ifade ediyorsa, yani konuşma sırasında başka bir mekanda ise been kullanılır.

Have you ever been abroad?

Yes, I have been to Germany several times.

(The speakers are now not in Germany.)

I want to do some shopping, but I’m afraid I haven’t got enough money.

Don’t worry. I have been to the bank today. I can lend you some.

EXERCISE   11 :    Use the Present Perfect Simple or Simple Past.

1-     I’m afraid I can’t make a comparison between Turkish and Indian cuisine because I (never, try) …………………… the latter.

2-     ……….. you (see) ……………….. Mike today? I think I (see) …………………… him

parking his car when I (look) …………………… out of the window this morning, but

now I can’t find him anywhere.

3-     Mr. Smith, the fax from our suppliers (just, arrive) …………………… . Shall I bring it

over to you?

4-     Believe it or not. This is the first time I (manage) …………………… to make a proper

cake. I (try) …………………… it many times before, but each time it (be)

…………………… a disaster.

 

5-     Oh no! The lid to the salt (fall) …………………… off into the soup. What shall I do

now?

6-    A: Who (win) …………………… the race yesterday?

B: Alex. Apparently, it (be) …………………… an easy victory for him because he (run)

…………………… first throughout the race.

A: He must be very happy. He (win) …………………… all the races so far this season.

7-     A: You look great!   ……………. you (style) ……………….. your hair differently?

B: Yes, I (just, be) …………………… to my hairdresser. He (encourage)……………………

me to try a new model, and I (let) ………………… him do as he (like) …………………

8-     We (not, visit) …………………… that butcher’s since he (sell) …………………… us some

very poor meat,

9-     Ever since my car (break) …………………… down that Sunday, I (not,fee)l

…………………… safe driving it.

10- Tim (often, think) …………………… of opening a cafe, but he probably never will

because he has neither money nor courage to do so.

11- He (send) …………………… three proposals out so far this week, but he (not, have)

…………………… any orders yet.

12- As soon as he (hear) …………………… about the robbery, the sherrif (grab)

…………………… his gun, (mount) …………………… his horse and (set) ……………………

off after the robbers. It (be) …………………… almost two days since he (leave)

……………………. but he (still, not, return) …………………… .

13-  At 9 p.m. on Monday, fourteen-year-old Simon (leave) …………………… home for his

friend’s house. No one (see) …………………… him since.

14-  I (enjoy) …………………… everything they (serve) …………………… so far during this

meal. What about you?

15-  After he (give) …………………… up playing football, he (coach) …………………… the

Swansea team for four years before he (retire) …………………… to his hometown.

16- This is the second time he (be) …………………… ill with flu this year and he (be)

…………………… ill quite a lot last year too.

17-   Last month they (raise) …………………… the price of petrol and I believe that they

(just, increase) …………………… it again.

18- They (sell) …………………… an antique chest for 1 million pounds on Friday. That’s

the highest price that a piece of furniture (ever, raise) …………………… at auction.

19-  I’m waiting for a letter.  …………… the postman (deliver) ……………… the mail yet?

20- As a boy, he (sing) …………………… beautifully, but I (not, hear) …………………… him

sing as an adult.

 

 

 

8-  THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE                                                                                             

 

8-1 FORM

 

 

Affirmative

 

 

Negative

 

 

Interrogative

 

I have been working.                             You have been working. He/She/It has been working

We have been working.             You have been working. They have been working.

 

I haven’t been working.           You haven’t been working. He/She/It hasn’t been working.

We haven’t been working. You haven’t been working. They haven’t been working.

 

Have I been working?                     Have you been working?                 Has he/she/it been working?

Have we been working? Have you been working? Have they been working?

 

They have been living in this country since last year.

You have been studying for exactly three hours.

She has been learning English since she was in secondary school.

8-2 USE OF THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

  1. a) Present Perfect Continuous Tense, geçmişte başlayıp, içinde bulunduğumuz anda hala devam etmekte olan eylemleri anlatır ve for, since, all day, all week, all year gibi zaman zarflarıyla çok sık kullanılır.

I started to read this book two hours ago, and I’m still reading it.                   I have been reading this book for two hours.

It started to rain yesterday morning, and it is still raining.                      It has been raining since yesterday morning.

You have been working very hard all week. You should take some time to relax at the weekend.

The discussion has been going on for two hours, but they haven’t taken a decision vet.

 

  1. b) Present Perfect Continuous Tense, geçmişte başlamış, içinde bulunduğumuz anda henüz bilmiş, ancak belirtileri devam eden eylemler için de kullanılır.

Is that child crying?

No, but his eyes arc watery. He has been crying.

Your hands are covered in oil. What have you been doing?                       I have been fixing the car.

You look very tired. Yes, I have been working hard today. Sorry, I’m late. Have you been waiting long?

  1. c)Since” ve “for” ile belirtilen zamanları “how long” soru sözcüğü ile sorabiliriz. Present Perfect Simple ve Continuous tense’ler, geçmişten günümüze bir süreç belirttiği için, kesin bir zaman isteyen “when” soru sözcüğünü bu tense’lerle kullanamayız.

When did you move to this city?                I moved here seven years ago.

How long have you been living in this city?                             I have been living here for seven years.

When did you become a teacher? (Ne zaman öğretmen oldunuz?)                  I became a teacher in 1986.

How long have you been a teacher? (Ne zamandır öğretmensiniz?)              I have been a teacher since 1986.

9-  PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE or PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

  1. a) Geçmişte başlayıp, içinde bulunduğumuz anda hala devam etmekte olan, ya da henüz bitmiş olan bir eylemi anlatan bazı fiiller, her iki lense ile de kullanılır ve aynı anlamı verir. Bu şekilde yaygın olarak kullanılan fiiller şunlardır:

expect            lie                   rain                snow               study            want

hope               live                 sleep              stand              teach            work                                                

learn              look                sit                   stay                wait

How long have you lived in this city?                          How long have you been living in this city?

She has worked for that firm for the last two years.

She has been working for that firm for the last two years.

 

  1. b) Continuous Tense’lerle    (l    am   doing,    I    was    doing)    kullanılmayan    diğer    fiiller (non-progressive verbs) Present Perfect Continuous ile de kullanılmazlar. Ancak, “want” ve “wish”  bu kuralın dışındadır.

Look at that lovely shirt in the shop window! I’ve been wanting one like that for some time.

I’ve been wishing to visit your mother since I heard that she was ill.

 

Diğer non-progressive fiiller ise Present Perfect Simple ile kullanılır.

What a lovely watch! How long have you had it?                               For over a year.

I see that you are close friends with him. Have you known each other for long?

Since we were children.

A nice old couple! They seem to be very fond of each other.

How long have they been married?

For almost fifty years. They’ll celebrate their Golden Wedding next year.

Hello, I have been looking everywhere for you. How long have you been in this remote part of the park?

Well, I have been thinking over my problems, and I lost track of time.

En son diyalogda “been” sözünün kullanımına dikkat ediniz. ” How long have you been in this remote part……..”   ifadesinde   “been“, “be”   fiilinin past  participle   biçimidir  ve asıl fiil olarak

kullanılmıştır.

She is still a student. She has been a student for over six years.                     They are married now. They have been married for three months.

“I   have   been   thinking   over   my   problems.”   cümlesinde   ise   “been”   yardımcı   fiil   olarak kullanılmıştır.

She has been working on her graduation thesis recently.

I have been helping her with her English assignments since the beginning of the term.

 

  1. c) Present Perfect Continuous Tense, always, never, sometimes gibi sıklık bildiren zarflarla, once, twice, several times gibi eylemin kaç kez yapıldığını bildiren yapılarla, ya da just, already, yet gibi eylemin bittiğini, tamamlandığını ifade eden yapılarla kullanılmaz.

I have always lived here. / I have lived here all my life.                          I have been living here since I was born.

I’ve been reading this book since this morning, and I’ve read a hundred pages so far.

(Okuma eylemi devam ettiği için “have been reading”  , yüz sayfalık bölümü tamamlanmış olduğu için “have read” )

We’ve been trying to answer a number of questions since the beginning of the class, and we’ve answered half of them already.

He’s been writing letters since breakfast time.   He’s just written the

fourth one, and he has two more letters to write.

The door bell has rung twice in the last half hour, and each time, it has been a visitor for my roommate.

The door bell has been ringing for the last minute. Why doesn’t

someone open the door?

EXERCISE 12:    Use either the Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Continuous of the verbs in parentheses.

1-     He (act) …………………… as our manager for two months, but they (not, offer)

…………………… him a permanent management position.

2-     A: Your hands are orange!

B: Yes, I (peel) …………………… fresh walnuts. The juice of the fruit (dye)

…………………… my hands.

3-     I (scrub) …………………… this floor for an hour now and it still looks dirty.

4-      …………… you (sit) ………………… in the sun? Your shoulders and face are very red.

5-     We (eat) …………………… our dinner already, but Greg (not, come) ……………………

home yet. I (keep) ………………….. his dinner warm in the oven for over two hours

now, so it is quite dried up.

 

6-     We (run) …………………… our business since September and (gain) ……………………

lots of regular customers already.

7-     We (think) …………………… about buying a house several times, but we (live)

…………………… happily in rented accommodation since we got married.

8-     The river (rise) …………………… now for three days. I’m worried because the River

Severn (burst) …………………… its banks three times this century.

9-     Who (leave) …………………… the butter out?

10-   For the last four weeks, she (train) …………………… at the gym after work. She (lose)

…………………… seven kilograms already.

11-   My sister (replace) …………………… some of her furniture, so ever since, we (hope)

…………………… for her old pieces as a gift.

12-  The council (only just, inspect) …………………… the water pipe, although it (leak)

…………………… for weeks.

13-   We (become) …………………… very fond of our cat. We (look) …………………… after him

since we found him a year ago.

14-   The manager (promise) …………………… several times to ask the employers about

wage increases, but so far the workers (not, hear) …………………… anything.

15-   I (want) …………………… to buy that table in the antique shop for weeks, but up until

now, I (resist) …………………… the temptation.

16-  We (receive) …………………… lots of applications for the job, and since this morning,

we (consider) …………………… which ones to put on the short list. So far we (choose)

…………………… five suitable ones.

17-  I (consider) …………………… ordering a new carpet since January and my husband

(try) …………………… to persuade me not to for just as long.

18-  A: Where’s Simon? He (not, come) …………………… to dine here for ages.

B: Oh. he (go) …………………… abroad. He (work) …………………… in Istanbul since last month.

A: That explains his absence then. I’m glad he (not, eat) …………………… at a different restaurant.

19-  Julie and Tim (save) …………………… hard all year for their skiing holiday and they

(not even, buy) ………………. any biscuits.

20-   For as long as I (know) …………………… Adrian, he (learn) …………………… how to

play the guitar.

 

EXERCISE   13 :    Use the Present Perfect Simple or Continuous, Simple Past or Past Continuous.

1-     George (take) …………………… Mildred to the opera. Afterwards, they (go)

…………………… for a walk along the coast It was when they (approach)

…………………… the marina that they (hear) …………………… a scream.

2-     This is the only time I (see) …………………… the beautiful Autumn colours of Quebec,

although I (visit) …………………… the province many times before.

3-     We (play) …………………… monopoly for over three hours now. Let’s call it a draw and

go to bed.

4-     Martin Luther King (give) ……….………… his now famous speech when someone

(shoot) …………………… him.

5-     Between 1970 and 1990, Nigel (run) …………………… his own business, but in 1991,

he (lose) …………………his son in a car crash, and since then, he (work)

…………………… for someone else, which he finds less stressful.

6-     The mutineers (hang) …………………… the captain from the mast of the ship and

(whip) …………………… him until his back (bleed) …………………… .

7-     In the summer, Lizzie (win) …………………… a prize For one of her paintings, and

since then, she (have) …………………… much more confidence in her work.

8-     The earthquake (strike) …………………… while most people in the city (sleep) ……………………

9-     General Pinochet, a former Chilean dictator, (come) ………………… to England for an

operation, but while he  (receive) …………………… treatment. Spain (ask)

…………………… the government to send him there for trial. For several months, he

(wait) …………………… for the decision of the British Home Secretary, and in the end,

they (decide) …………………… to let him go. Now he is back in his own country.

10-  While he (live) …………………… in England under a false name, the authorities

(discover) …………………… that he (be) …………………… a Nazi war criminal.

11-   From the moment the advertisement (appear) …………………… in the newspaper, we

(receive) …………………… calls from interested people.

12-  We (see) …………………… four squirrels playing together in a tree while we (picnic)

…………………… on Sunday. Ever since, my younger son (beg) …………………… me to

take him there again.

 

13-   Norri is Filipino but she (marry) …………………… a German guy last July, and, after

they (travel) …………………… around the world for three months, they (settle)

……………………  in Germany. Because she (not, see) …………………… her parents

since then, she really misses them.

14-   When Nigel’s first wife (die) …………………… of cancer ten years ago, he (have to)

…………………… look after his two sons, Michael and Barry, himself for three years.

Then he (many) …………………… his second wife. Since then she (look)

…………………… after the children.

15-   Last year, Mary (have) …………………… an idea for a new product. The designers

(work) …………………… on it for months now and (just, complete) …………………… the

first prototype.

16-  Not so long ago, most people (pay) …………………… their bills in cash, but banking

methods (change) …………………… recently; nowadays, most people use bank

transfers.

17-   Jennifer (still study) …………………… when I (wake) …………………… up around 3

a.m. last night. I believe, she (work) …………………… really hard for today’s exam the

whole week, but she is still so nervous about it. Look, she is checking her bag to make sure she has everything, although she (do) …………………… it several times

already.

18-   This area (be) …………………… a vineyard since Roman Times, but they (produce)

…………………… this label here only since 1991. So far they (sell) …………………… two

thousand bottles.

19-  The National Bank (buy) …………………… the company about six months ago. Since

then they (strive) …………………… to reorganise it. They (already, make)

…………………… several changes.

20-  I (clean) …………………… the house when the postman (deliver) …………………… a

parcel, so I (stop) …………………… the work and (open) …………………… the package.

 

EXERCISE   14 :    Add for or since to the sentences below.

1-     Chris has wanted to live in Turkey ……….. she and her husband spent their holiday

in Marmaris two years ago.

2-     I still can’t speak German fluently even though I’ve been attending this course ………

more than two years.

3-     Humans have been painting and drawing the animals and landscapes around them ……….. millennia.

4-     There has been a ‘park and ride’ system in Shrewsbury ……….. 1997.

5-     We haven’t been to the cinema ……….. our daughter’s birth.

6-     My sister has been running her own hairdressing salon ……….. sixteen years now.

7-     There hasn’t been so many people in Taksim square ……….. New Year’s Eve.

8-     I haven’t drunk freshly made ‘Boza’ ……….. ages.

9-    The accountant hasn’t done any more work for the butcher ……….. he argued about

the bill.

10-  Jo has been on the computer ……….. over an hour, Mum! Now it’s my turn.

11-   We have been trying to start my car ……….. approximately an hour.

12-  Because of my operation, I haven’t eaten anything ……….. 8 p.m. last night.

13-  International communication has become much easier ……….. the Internet became

widely available.

14-  John has been looking miserable ……….. days. Do you know what’s wrong with him?

15- Jan has been interested in flower arranging ……….. her schooldays.

16-  The doctor has been operating on him ……….. 9 o’clock in the morning — ……….

almost five hours.

17-  I’ve known her ……….. so long that it’s hard to remember when I didn’t.

18- We’ve kept in touch ……….. we worked together in the Northumbria branch of the

company.

19-  Mrs. Appen has been riding a horse regularly ……….. more than twenty years.

20-  Stonehenge, England, has been a place of worship ……….. the Stone Age.

EXERCISE   15 : Use the Simple Present, Present Continuous, Simple Past, Past Continuous, Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Continuous of the verbs in parentheses.

1-    The betting office (take) …………………… only four bets so far on the English boxer

who (fight) …………………… Mike Tyson tonight.

2-     E-mails, faxes and letters (pour) ………………….. into the office at the moment. And

now, members of several trade unions (complain) …………………… about the

decisions the government (take) …………………… about privatisation recently.

 

3-     Richard (win) ………………….. 500,000 pounds in a quiz last week. He (not, receive)

…………………… the money yet because of certain official procedures, but he

(already, make) …………………… lots of plans about what to do with it. Among other

things, he (plan) …………………… to buy a new car.

4-     At the moment, the doctor (try) …………………… a new treatment on my mother. We

(be) …………………… rather anxious when he (first, mention) …………………… it, but

seeing as my mother (make) …………………… significant improvement so far, we

(feel) …………………… much better now.

5-     The singer Natalie Imbruglia’s hair style (be) …………………… very fashionable

nowadays and many women (copy) …………………… it already.

6-     A: Come here Mum!  Look! A reporter (interview) …………………… Dad on the

television.

B: Oh, he (never, look) …………………… so nervous.

7-     A:  Oh, I see that you (drive) …………………… a new car.  When ……….. you (buy)

…………….. it?

B: Actually, I (have) …………………… it since my promotion last month.

8-     I  (need) …………………… an hour to get ready for the parry. I (not, change)

…………………… yet.

9-     Seeing as the television and video (work) …………………… now, why …………. we (not,

watch) …………………… a good film?

10-  The thief (slip) …………………… the camera into his pocket while the security guard

(not, look) …………………… .

11-   Over the past few weeks, the famous boxer (train) …………………… hard for his fight.

12-   She (walk) …………………… around with her head in the clouds ever since she (win)

……………………. the award.

13-   I (generally, arrive) …………………… at work at nine o’clock, but this morning an

accident (happen) …………………… as I (drive) ……………………. here, so I (arrive)

…………………… about an hour late.

14-   Currently, David (drive) …………………… a red sports car, but I (not, think)

…………………… the car (belong) …………………… to him.

15-  You (smile) …………………… all evening.  ………….. you (have) ……………. some good

news?

 

16-   While they (fell) …………………… trees from behind the house. Jake (have)

…………………… a terrible accident with the chain saw. He (receive)……………………

treatment ever since.

17-   I (just, cut) …………………… some roses in the garden because we (have)

…………………… some guests tonight.

18-  You (not, say) …………………… a word about your exam since you (come)

…………………… . I (hope) …………………… you (not, worry) …………………… about the

results.

19-   I (leave) …………………… for my holiday tomorrow morning and I (get)

…………………… quite excited about it, but I (not, pack) …………………… my suitcase

yet.

20-   My brother (collect) …………………… stamps for about five years and, so far, he

(collect) …………………… stamps from one hundred different countries.

EXERCISE   16:    Use  the  Simple Present,  Present  Continuous,   Simple Past,  Past Continuous, Present Perfect Simple or Present Perfect Continuous of

the verbs in parentheses.

1-     I (not, f eel) …………………… well for four days. I (go) …………………… to The doctor’s

yesterday and he (give) …………………… me a prescription, but I (not, collect)

…………………… the medicine from the chemist yet.

2-     My mother is very fond of porcelain. She particularly (love) …………………… blue

china, so she usually (buy) …………………… something new for her collection each

time she (go) …………………… shopping.

3-     Yesterday the government (announce) …………………… a new incentive for the

unemployed, but they (not, explain) …………………… the details as yet.

4-     The charity (hold) …………………… a ball next Saturday. …………. you (feel)

……………….. like going?

5-     We (have) …………………… our computer system reprogrammed at the moment, so

we (write) …………………… invoices by hand for the last few days.

 

6-     My mobile phone (be) …………………… probably fully charged now. It (charge)

…………………… since this morning.

7-     This time last year,  I (look …………………… after a new-born baby and (not, get)

…………………… much sleep.

8-     I (understand) …………………… that the school concert is very important for you, but

you (rehearse) …………………… the music for three hours now and (give)

…………………… me a headache.

9-     While Lucy and I (gossip) …………………… during our maths lesson, we (notice)

…………………… that the teacher (observe) …………………… us.

10-   Even though we (still, need) …………………… more volunteers, we (not, want)

…………………… to waste any more time, so we (place) …………………… an

advertisement about the event in the newspaper tomorrow. We expect enough people to volunteer before the day.

11-   As I (promise) …………………… my wife a trip to the seaside for some time now. I (just,

book) …………………… a hotel on the coast for the weekend, but I (not, tell)

…………………… her any tiling about it yet.

12-   As the performance of our vacuum cleaner (deteriorate) …………………… steadily for

the last week, I (take) …………………… it to the repairer’s tomorrow afternoon.

13-   Up to now, as many as twenty people (volunteer) …………………… for the beach clean

up campaign.

14-   A: Could I speak to the manager, please?

B: I’m sorry. He (interview) …………………… someone at the moment.

A: Can I wait? I (try) …………………… to sort out this problem for a long time.

15-  Jess (lose) …………………… interest in sports lately and generally (spend)

…………………… his evenings on his computer.

16-   George’s grandfather (retire) …………………… from horse racing in 1960 and his

father (just, retire) …………………… from the same profession and, although George

(work) …………………… as the manager of a big company, which (be) ……………………

a very demanding job, he (occasionally, race) …………………… as an amateur.

 

17-   For more than 20 years, the two great leaders of India, Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, (work) …………………… together to free India from British rule, and they (achieve)

…………………….their goal in 1947, when India (become) …………………… an

independent nation within the British Commonwealth. Nehru (become) ………………….. the first prime minister of the new India.

18-  The rest of us (think) …………………… that, currently. Andrew (not, do)

…………………… enough towards our group project. Normally he (come)

…………………… to the meetings late and he (not, do) …………………… much research

yet. He (always, have) …………………… bright ideas, but habitually, he (not, follow)

…………………… them through.

19-  Just as I (be) …………………… about to ring the doorbell, I (hear) ……………………

 them shouting at each other. Obviously, they (argue) ……………………. so I (decide)

…………………… not to visit them at such an awkward time.

20-  I (think) …………………… I (hide) …………………… your birthday present in the most

unexpected place in the house! How …………… you (find) ……………….. it? I’m sure

you (see) …………………… me while I (hide) …………………… the box; otherwise, you

couldn’t have found it.

 

 

TEST YOURSELF

 

 

 

 

1-      I ……. Malcolm in his car, but he…….. the traffic and didn’t see me.

  1. A) was seeing/watches
  2. B) see/has watched
  3. C) have seen/is watching
  4. D) saw/was watching E) am seeing/watched

 

2-    Tim …….. a master’s degree as soon

as he ……. to Canada.

  1. A) has begun/is returning
  2. B) began/returned
  3. C) is beginning/returned
  4. D) was beginning/returns                    E) begins/has returned

 

3-    Rachel ……. up smoking four years

ago and she ……. a cigarette since.

  1. A) was giving/doesn’t smoke
  2. B) has given/wasn’t smoking
  3. C) gave/hasn’t smoked
  4. D) has given/didn’t smoke                                                                   E) is giving/isn’t smoking

4-    Last year, Sonny ……. four miles each

morning before breakfast, but he …….

around the block each morning 

instead since his heart attack.

 

  1. A) ran/has been walking
  2. B) has run/has walked
  3. C) runs/was walking
  4. D) has been running/walks E) was running/walked

 

5-   I ……. a brace on my teeth as a child,

but I didn’t like it.

  1. A) was wearing
  2. B) am wearing
  3. C) have worn
  4. D) wore
  5. E) have been wearing

 

6-    I ……. an extra part-time job last

week as we ……. the money.

  1. A) am starting/are needing
  2. B) was starting/have needed
  3. C) start/needed
  4. D) have started/were needing E) started/need

 

 

 

7-    In 1951, the people of the Gold Coast ……. for their own government and

shortly afterwards, they ……. their

country as Ghana.

  1. A) vote/are renaming
  2. B) voted/renamed
  3. C) have voted/were renaming
  4. D) were voting/have renamed E) are voting/rename

8-   As my son ……. down by the river, I

……. his room thoroughly.

  1. A) fishes/have cleaned
  2. B) is fishing/cleaned
  3. C) has fished/clean
  4. D) fished/have been cleaning E) was fishing/cleaned

 

 

 

9-    We ……. in Cornwall for two weeks

last summer. Since then, we ……. a

holiday by the sea.

  1. A) stayed /haven’t had B) are staying/don’t have
  2. C) were staying/didn’t have
  3. D) stay/aren’t having
  4. E) have stayed/weren’t having

 

 

10- One of the straps on the baby’s pram ….. quite thin, so we ….. to replace it.

  1. A) wore/decide
  2. B) wears/have decided
  3. C) was wearing/decided
  4. D) is wearing/were deciding E) has been wearing/ decide

 

 

11- This time last year, his business …….

a reasonable profit, but now, because of bad management, he ……. to keep

it going.

  1. A) has made/has struggled
  2. B) made/was struggling
  3. C) make/has been struggling
  4. D) has been making/struggles E) was making/is struggling

12- The last time we ……. dinner with

them, they ……. for a new house.

  1. A) have had/looked
  2. B) were having/have been looking
  3. C) have been having/look
  4. D) had/were looking E) have/are looking

13- The whole family was busy. While the children ……. decorations, their

father ……. up the Christmas tree.

 

  1. A) are making/is setting
  2. B) made /has been setting
  3. C) have been making/has set
  4. D) were making/was setting E) have made/set

14- A: What’s on TV tonight?

B: Match of the day. Manchester United……. South Melbourne.

  1. A) play
  2. B) were playing
  3. C) are playing
  4. D) have played E) played

 

15- Isn’t it strange that you ……. for

Mark’s surprise party all week, but you ……. him a birthday present yet?

  1. A) are preparing/didn’t buy
  2. B) have been preparing/haven’t bought
  3. C) prepared/don’t buy
  4. D) have prepared/aren’t buying E) prepare/weren’t buying

 

16- While my parents ……. in the

shopping centre, a thief ……. into

their car for the radio.

  1. A) shopped/has broken
  2. B) were shopping/broke
  3. C) have shopped/breaks
  4. D) are shopping/was breaking E) shop/is breaking

 

17- When we ……. her, she…. in the

wardrobe.

  1. A) were finding/hides
  2. B) find/has hidden
  3. C) are finding/is hiding
  4. D) found/was hiding E) have found/hid

 

18- I never ……. my temper on purpose,

of course, but sometimes I just …….

though I always regret it afterwards.

  1. A) lose/explode
  2. B) lost/am exploding
  3. C) have been losing/exploded
  4. D) was losing/have exploded E) have lost/was exploding

19- Even though it ……. heavily at the

time, they ……. home.

  1. A) has snowed/were driving
  2. B) snows/have been driving
  3. C) was snowing/drove
  4. D) has been snowing/drive E) snowed/are driving

 

 

 

20- It’s been one week since the floods …….. but still aid workers …….people.

  1. A) are striking/rescued
  2. B) strike/were rescuing
  3. C) were striking/have been rescuing
  4. D) struck/are rescuing E) have struck/rescue

21- I ……. my book in the launderette

while my washing …… .

  1. A) have read/dries
  2. B) read/was drying
  3. C) was reading/has dried
  4. D) have read/is drying E) am reading/has dried

 

22- Up to now, the predicted Millennium computer bug ……. very few

problems, although many scientists last year ……. a catastrophe.

  1. A) has been causing/have predicted
  2. B) is causing/predict
  3. C) causes/were predicting
  4. D) caused/have been predicting E) has caused/predicted

23- I only ……. the company on Monday

for a copy of their magazine and I ……. it already.

  1. A) was asking/am receiving
  2. B) have been asking/was receiving
  3. C) ask/receive
  4. D) asked/have received
  5. E) have asked/have been receiving

 

 

24- More and more of my colleagues …….

these days because the new owners of the company have changed a lot of procedures. These changes won’t affect me though, because I ……. my

job here only recently.

  1. A) have left/was starting
  2. B) leave/am starting
  3. C) were leaving/started
  4. D) left/start
  5. E) are leaving/have started

25- She ……. onto the train because the

station guard ……. his whistle.

  1. A) has hurried/blows
  2. B) hurries/has been blowing
  3. C) hurried/was blowing
  4. D) was hurrying/has blown E) is hurrying/blows

 

 

26- Peggy’s family ……. pedigree dogs for

three generations and they regularly ……. their dogs in shows.

  1. A) have been breeding/enter
  2. B) are breeding/are entering
  3. C) were breeding/are entering
  4. D) breed/have entered E) bred/were entering

 

27- Mrs. White ……. her daughter’s

wedding dress herself since November and ……. it, except for the trimmings.

  1. A) made/finished
  2. B) was making/was finishing
  3. C) has been making/has finished
  4. D) is making/finished E) makes/is finishing

 

 

 

28- Because we have a young baby, we ……. the opportunity to go to the

cinema any more, but now and again, we ……. a video to play at home.

  1. A) didn’t have/are buying
  2. B) aren’t having/were buying
  3. C) don’t have/buy
  4. D) weren’t having/bought
  5. E) haven’t had/have been buying

29- This perfume ……. like cheap soap

and definitely isn’t worth this price.

  1. A) is smelling
  2. B) smells
  3. C) has been smelling
  4. D) was smelling E) smelt

 

 

 

30- While I ……. some money from a cash

machine, a man ……. it all out of my

hand.

  1. A) was withdrawing/snatched
  2. B) withdrew/snatches
  3. C) am withdrawing/has snatched
  4. D) have withdrawn/was snatching E) withdrew/has been snatching

 

31- They ……. to buy a boat for years,

and finally they ……. enough money.

  1. A) have been hoping/have saved
  2. B) hope/saved
  3. C) were hoping/are saving
  4. D) hoped/have been saving E) are hoping/save

 

32- As he ……. the party, a strange man

……. him.

  1. A) left/has been approaching
  2. B) is leaving/has approached
  3. C) leaves/was approaching
  4. D) has left/approaches E) was leaving/approached

33- We ……. with the sales staff tomorrow

because our sales ……. recently.

  1. A) were meeting/declined
  2. B) are meeting/have declined
  3. C) meet/decline
  4. D) met/were declining E) have met/are declining

 

34- Sally’s husband ……. for a new job

because his present one ……. no

opportunities for advancement.

  1. A) was looking/has offered
  2. B) looks/was offering
  3. C) looked/is offering
  4. D) is looking/offers
  5. E) has looked/has been offering

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

35- I……. you several times last week,

but no one ……. in.

  1. A) was phoning/has been B) phoned/was
  2. C) have phoned/has been
  3. D) phone/is being E) am phoning/is

 

 

36- My father ……. English at all

although he ……. it for three years

when he was in high school.

  1. A) isn’t speaking/has studied
  2. B) hasn’t been speaking/studies
  3. C) doesn’t speak/studied
  4. D) didn’t speak/has been studying E) wasn’t speaking/is studying

 

 

37- I ……. on this report for more than

three weeks now, but I …… only half

of it yet.

  1. A) worked/have been completing
  2. B) am working/complete
  3. C) work/am completing
  4. D) was working/completed
  5. E) have been working/have completed

 

 

38- The archeological evidence …….

clearly that people in ancient Crete ……. flush toilets 4000 years ago.

  1. A) has shown/use
  2. B) is showing/have used
  3. C) showed/have been using
  4. D) shows/were using
  5. E) was showing/are using

 

 

39- Mary says she ……. George because

he ……. her life miserable.

  1. A) has been leaving/makes B) has left/is making
  2. C) leaves/was making
  3. D) is leaving/has made E) was leaving/has made

 

 

 

 

40- My brother ……. a new BMW and ever

since he ……. about it.

  1. A) was buying/bragged
  2. B) is buying/is bragging
  3. C) has bought/brags
  4. D) buys/has bragged
  5. E) bought/has been bragging

 

41- He ……. great, poverty until he .

up writing and got a proper job.

  1. A) has suffered/gives
  2. B) suffered/gave
  3. C) is suffering/has given
  4. D) has suffered/was giving E) suffers/is giving

 

42- I ……. a lot of weight since I

drinking beer every night.

  1. A) have lost/stopped
  2. B) lost/am stopping
  3. C) lose/have been stopping
  4. D) was losing/have stopped E) am losing/stop

43- My son ……. very well at university

this term because he ……. out late at

night any more.

  1. A) does/hasn’t stayed
  2. B) did/isn’t staying
  3. C) has done/wasn’t staying
  4. D) was doing/hasn’t been staying E) is doing/doesn’t stay

44- Last year he almost ……. because he

……. his social life a little too much.

  1. A) fails/has enjoyed
  2. B) was failing/has been enjoying
  3. C) failed/was enjoying
  4. D) has been failing/enjoyed
  5. E) has failed/enjoys

45- Our company’s sales ……. since the

new management ……. over.

  1. A) have been improving/took
  2. B) improve/has taken
  3. C) improved/has been taking
  4. D) are improving/was taking E) were improving/is taking

 

46- The guards ……. when the enemy ……..  .

  1. A) are sleeping/has been attacking
  2. B) have slept/was attacking
  3. C) slept/has attacked
  4. D) were sleeping/attacked E) sleep/is attacking

 

 

 

47- The negotiators ……. to bring the two

sides together for months, but so far they ……. .

  1. A) try/are failing
  2. B) are trying/failed
  3. C) tried/fail
  4. D) have tried/were failing
  5. E) have been trying/have failed

 

 

48- The electricity ……. off last night just

as the film on TV ……. interesting.

  1. A) has gone/got
  2. B) was going/has got
  3. C) is going/has been getting
  4. D) goes/is getting E) went/was getting

 

 

49- More than a million people ……. the

new superstore since it ……. last

month.

  1. A) are visiting/has been opening
  2. B) have visited/opened
  3. C) were visiting/opens
  4. D) have been visiting/is opening E) visited/has opened

 

 

50- Water ……. from liquid to gas when it ……. a temperature of 100°C.

  1. A) has changed/reached
  2. B) changed/was reaching
  3. C) changes/reaches
  4. D) has been changing/is reaching E) is changing/reached

51- The phrase “post modernism” …….

about fifty years ago, but most people still ……. what it means.

  1. A) was appearing/haven’t known
  2. B) has appeared/don’t know .
  3. C) appeared/don’t know
  4. D) appears/didn’t know
  5. E) has been appearing/haven’t known

 

52- People who ……. items like bottles

and cans ……. the world’s resources.

  1. A) aren’t recycling/wasted
  2. B) didn’t recycle/waste
  3. C) haven’t been recycling/were wasting
  4. D) don’t recycle/are wasting E) haven’t recycled/wasted

 

 

53- The President ……. too hard lately,

and as a result, he ……. terrible.

  1. A) has been working/looks
  2. B) has worked/looked
  3. C) worked/is looking
  4. D) works/has looked
  5. E) is working/was looking

 

 

54- I ……. to play the lottery about two

years ago, but I ……. anything yet.

 

  1. A) was starting/didn’t win
  2. B) started/haven’t won
  3. C) start/haven’t been winning
  4. D) have started/don’t win
  5. E) am starting/wasn’t winning

 

 

55- I ……. in Istanbul for so long that I

……. the time before the Bosphorus

Bridges.

  1. A) am living /remembered
  2. B) lived/am remembering
  3. C) was living/have remembered
  4. D) live/was remembering E) have lived/remember

 

 

 

 

56- Two years ago, she ……. English at all, but she ……. hard since then.

  1. A) hasn’t spoken/is studying
  2. B) wasn’t speaking/studies
  3. C) isn’t speaking/studied
  4. D) didn’t speak/has been studying E) doesn’t speak/was studying

 

57- My brother ……. three years in jail when he was younger, but now he ……. to give up his life of crime.

  1. A) spent/has decided
  2. B) spends/is deciding
  3. C) has spent/has been deciding
  4. D) was spending/decides
  5. E) has been spending/decided

 

58- I ……. my boss privately tomorrow

and I……. quite nervous about it.

  1. A) have seen/am feeling
  2. B) see/was feeling
  3. C) am seeing/feel
  4. D) saw/ felt
  5. E) was seeing/have felt

59- The first time I ……. horse riding, I

was very nervous and ……. the reins

very tightly.

  1. A) was going/am holding
  2. B) have gone/hold
  3. C) am going/have held
  4. D) go/was holding E) went/held

 

60- Life ……. immensely since Thomas

Edison ……. the first light bulb in

1879.

  1. A) is changing/was Inventing
  2. B) has changed/invented
  3. C) has been changing/has invented
  4. D) changed/has been inventing E) was changing/invents

 

 

 

 

 

TEST YOUR VOCABULARY

 

 

 

 

1-    Being a doctor is not normally a dangerous ……. but working at the scene of a disaster, such as a mud slide or an earthquake, can be very risky.

  1. A) epidemic B) disease
    C)
    profession D) vacation
    E)
    prescription

 

 

2-    After the landslide at the primary school, everyone in the village was ……. as they were all related to the victims either closely or distantly.

 

  1. A) burying B) mourning C) injuring               D) celebrating                                                                             E) murdering

3-    He founded a little business which eventually became quite ……. and, by the time he retired, he was a wealthy man.

 

  1. A) fruitless B) time-consuming C) creative            D) prosperous              E) logical

 

4- The Turkish drink Rakı has an aniseed ……. similar to French Pernod or Ricard.

  1. A) feel B) spice C) liquid                        D) flavour                    E) season

 

5-    According to the producer’s claim, this emergency earthquake cage can withstand eighty tons of ….. .

 

  1. A) gravity B) volume C) speed       D) depth                  E) pressure

 

 

 

6-    A welder joins two metals by applying ……. heat to them so that the metal melts and, when solidifying, joins together.

  1. A) intense B) deep C) wide             D) anxious E) vigorous

 

7-    Jeff was experiencing the kind of ……. that only someone who has lost a close friend can know.

  1. A) injury B) grief C) hope D) jealousy E) surprise

 

8-    My sister’s treacle tart was so hard that, when I tried to eat it, I …… my fork.

 

  1. A) shaped B) folded C) bent          D) creased E) wrinkled

 

9-    As there was a sheer drop of 1000 metres on his right, the mountaineer  ……. to the side of the mountain with his left hand as if his very life  epended on it.

 

  1. A) rolled B) spilt C) pulled           D) relaxed E) clung

 

10- Louise and Sophie ……. passed the security guards at the entrance unnoticed and mingled with the celebrity guests at the party.

 

  1. A) saluted B) crept C) bumped       D) encountered E) pushed

 

 

 

11- The holiday company ……. the inconvenience the delay had caused us, but it was not very comforting.

  1. A) regretted B) rehearsed
    C)
    applauded D) bragged
    E)
    committed

 

12- The shopkeeper only gave me change for a ten pound note, although I’d given him a twenty pound note, but I think it was not a deliberate but a/an ……. mistake.

 

  1. A) Innocent B) false C) violent     D) cruel                   E) intense

 

13- They were completely lost, had no torch and the Sun was sinking …… behind the hills.

  1. A) joyfully B) rapidly C) noisily D) deeply                E) intense

 

14- An abnormally high body ……. is described as a fever.

  1. A) temperament   B) atmosphere
    C)
    climate                     D) weight
    E)
    temperature

15- Your ……. for the new stadium includes a running track. How many lanes do you want the running track to have?

  1. A) objection B) election C) proposal              D) survey                   E) accommodation

 

16-  As a cabin boy, every day Norman and the others ……. the deck of the ship until it was spotlessly clean.

 

  1. A) sank B) rowed C) laid      D) shrank              E) scrubbed

17- In the fifteenth century, South American Incas ……. many gods. They believed these gods lived high in the Andes mountains and they built their temples on the mountain peaks.

  1. A) envied B) worried C) polished       D) worshipped E) cheated

 

18- When I make curry, I use coriander. I take the seeds and ……. them into a fine powder using a pestle and  ortar.

  1. A) grind B)bound C) saw                          D) ground               E) bind

19- For foreign students, the university provides …….. very close to the campus. They charge extra money for this, of course.

  1. A) knowledge B) intellect
    C)
    accommodation   D) intelligence
    E)
    recommendation

 

20- As I braked to stop at the traffic lights, one of the tyres …… with a loud noise.

  1. A) rushed B) grew C) picked            D) burst                  E) collided

 

21- The Ford company is designing a new small car. This week’s issue of  Autocar shows a picture of the actual …… on display at the Frankfurt Motorshow. It will he available in showrooms across the country in four months’ time.

  1. A) idea B) prototype C) concept               D) customer        E) promotion

 

 

 

22- Because my grandfather is a/an …….. he worries a lot about his bills and, as he only receives a small amount of money, he tries to conserve electricity and water.

  1. A) manufacturer B) criminal                 C) manager             D) employer              E) pensioner

 

23- Since police officers in London have cut down on the number of stop and searches they carry out, there has been a …… increase in crime. Some types of crime have as much as doubled.

  1. A) light B) considerate C) doubtful D) deep                   E) significant

 

24- Because we haven’t sold many vans this month, the manager has offered us an extra …… . The person who sells the most vans this month will receive a colour TV.

  1. A) Incentive B) wage
    C)
    punishment   D) fare
    E)
    profession

 

25-  My uncle owns a …….. catering unit. Wherever and whenever there is a large event, he takes it to the spot and sells hamburgers and hot and cold drinks.

  1. A) tasty B) mobile C) favourite D) complicated E) multi-storey

 

26- The workers at the hospital coffee shop are not paid employees, hut …….; that is, they devote their time free of charge so that hospital visitors can buy refreshments at reasonable prices.

  1. A) engineers B) patients C) managers             D) volunteers    E) relatives

27- When Jean sold her house, she sold half of her garden separately as a building ……. for a new house.

  1. A) garage B) shed C) field    D) farm              E) plot

 

28- When I attended this school, teachers used a cane to punish pupils, but now such ……. treatment of students is illegal.

  1. A) lender B) kind C) harsh       D)  immense           E) calm

 

29- It’s not easy to leave Vickie’s farm in a hurry. First you have to unbolt the gate, then drive through and finally …… the gate behind you.

  1. A) shut B) crash C) knock    D) ring                      E) jump

30- My son didn’t have enough money for Metallica’s new compact disc, so I ……. him ten pounds.

  1. A) owed B) borrowed C) let            D) lent                     E) held

 

31-I didn’t have enough money for  Metallica’s new compact disc, so I ……. ten pounds from my mother.

  1. A) owed B) borrowed C) let           D) lent              E)  held

32- Because sugar ……. to the bottom of a tea cup, unless you want the last mouthful to be sickly sweet, it is a good idea to stir your tea well.

  1. A) floats B) swings C) grinds   D) sinks                    E) melts

 

33- I ……. off the minibus straight into a pile of snow, some of which went inside my boots.

  1. A) burst B) swung C) stepped                D) drew                      E) crept

34- I often play ‘snakes and ladders’ with my niece, but due to the fact that she ……. she always wins.

 

  1. A) defeats B) bets C) cheats   D) competes              E) participates

35- The boys tied a rope between the trees and hung an old tyre from it. They ……. back and forth on this old tyre all afternoon until their mother called them in for dinner.

  1. A) spread B) fled C) bound      D) swung                 E) ground

36- We would like to send you some information about our products and services if you have no ……. to us doing so.

  1. A) objection B) fault
    C)
    suggestion D) tendency
    E)
    competition

 

37- When Peter saw how ill his mother looked, he …… .

  1. A) crept B) kept      C) swept       D) dealt                          E) wept

 

38- After their mother died, the children decided to hold a/an ……… and sell all her possessions to the highest bidder.

  1. A) party B) funeral C) exhibition           D) auction               E) gallery

 

39- After the pilot made a bumpy landing at Stanstead Airport, a new wheel had to be fitted to the plane. Because of the bad landing, many passengers suspected that it was the pilot’s …… .

  1. A) achievement B) fault
    C)
    result           D) cause
    E)
    calculation

40- Before the Industrial Revolution, people in villages …… most cloth on hand looms in their own homes.

  1. A) sewed B) wove C) threw      D) drew                    E) sawed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ELS 2001/1 – ANSWER KEY

 

 

 

 

Exercise 1      (pg. 11)

  1. are leaving 2. are selling/normally charge 3.never hear/am 4.is listening/are sitting 5.is tasting/wait/are eating/are going  6.is wearing/aren’t collecting/come 7.are mourning 8.wash/am taking/don’t have 9.move 10.doesn’t taste 11.always see/Doesn’t…ever eat/doesn’t get 12.is getting/is raising (raises) 13.varies 14.emit 15.fill/put/keep/smells   16.are experiencing   17.feels   18.always taste/remind 19.is sending 20.am using 21.causes/is causing 22.thinks/don’t agree 23.usually play/are playing 24.look/hope/am thinking 25.doesn’t like/is cooking 26.is feeling 27.are redecorating 28.is smelling/doesn’t have/go/tries/leaves 29.am working/are lying 30.isn’t providing

Exercise 2    (pg. 18)

1.laid 2.lay/saw 3.set 4.sat 5.aroused 6.rose 7.bound 8.found 9.founded 10.wind 11.wound 12.wounded 13.arose 14.bounded 15.felled 16.saw 17.sawed 18.hanged 19.hung 20.raises 21.grounded 22.ground 23.ground 24.raised 25.fell

Exercise 3   (pg. 19)

1.led 2.thrust 3.flew 4.swung 5.lit 6.undertook 7.meant 8.wove 9.won 10.wrung 11.kept 12.upset 13.gave 14.shot 15.wept

Exercise 4    (pg. 20)

1.fled 2.bore 3.built 4.dug 5.hid 6.held 7.lent 8.put 9.sought 10.slid 11.stole 12.swam 13.withdrew 14.threw 15. taught

Exercise 5    (pg. 21)

1.bled 2.broke 3.flung 4.forsook 5.lay 6.froze 7.mislaid 8.saw 9.shrank 10.bent 11.bit 12.burst 13.cast 14.chose 15.fit

Exercise 6    (pg. 22)

1.fought 2.quit 3.shed 4.swore 5.bred 6.caught 7.clung 8.drew 9.paid 10.rid 11.rang 12.split 13.strung 14.strove 15.crept

Exercise 7    (pg. 22)

1.worried 2.spent 3.shut 4.maintained 5.lost 6.wore 7.climbed 8.ate 9.injured 10.drove 11.grew 12.mistook 13.passed   14.washed 15.borrowed

Exercise 8 (pg. 28)

1.was drying/blew 2.was teaching/returned 3.walked/died 4.smelt/rushed/was spreading/dashed/phoned 5.was dusting/knocked/didn’t break 6.were decorating 7.shot/shook/fell 8.sat/announced 9.arrived/were beating 10.ripped/was trying 11.was working (worked)/kept 12.stopped/went/had/woke 13.did…take/were kicking 14.was looking/were having (looked/had) 15.saw/was walking 16.ran/were going/was going/changed/joined 17.burst/were exchanging 18.arrived/were feeding 19.found/was researching 20.was worrying 21.seemed/told/were leaving/sulked 22.was pouring/spilt 23.injured/was cutting 24.played 25.banged/was going

Exercise 9  (pg. 30)

1.was bleeding 2.were throwing 3.arranged 4.allowed 5.sank 6.was dreaming 7.was wrapping 8.was feeding 9.stepped 10.was cheating 11.paid 12.enjoyed 13.designed 14.was rising 15.moved

Exercise 10  (pg. 31)

1.attended 2.fell 3.was worrying 4.knelt 5.was sipping 6.cost 7.rose 8.was baking (baked) 9.telephoned 10.was finding 11.signed 12.was defending 13.was polishing 14.were singing 15.contained

Exercise 11   (pg. 39)

1.have never tried  2.Have…seen/saw/looked 3.has just arrived 4.have managed/have tried/has been  5.has fallen 6.won/was/ran/has won  7.Have…styled/have just been/encouraged/let/liked  8.haven’t visited/sold 9.broke/haven’t felt   10.has often thought   11.has sent/hasn’t had   12.heard/grabbed/mounted/set/has been/left/still hasn’t returned 13.left/has seen   14.have enjoyed/have served  15.gave/coached/retired   16.has been/was  17.raised/have just increased   18.sold/has ever raised   19.Has…delivered  20.sang/haven’t heard

 

 

Exercise 12   (pg. 44)

1.has been acting/haven’t offered 2.have been peeling/ has dyed 3.have been scrubbing 4.Have…been sitting 5.have eaten/hasn’t come/have been keeping 6.have been running/have gained 7.have thought/have been living (have lived) 8.has been rising/has burst 9.has left  10.has been training/has lost 11.has replaced/have been hoping 12.has only just inspected/has been leaking 13.have become/have been looking 14.has promised/haven’t heard 15.have wanted (have been wanting)/have resisted  16.have received/have been considering/have chosen 17.have been considering/has been trying 18.hasn’t come/has gone/has been working/hasn’t been eating 19.have been saving/haven’t even bought 20.have known/has been learning

Exercise 13  (pg. 46)

  1. took/went/were approaching/heard 2.have seen/have visited 3.have been playing 4.was giving/shot 5.was running (ran)/lost/has been working 6.hung/whipped/bled 7.won/has had 8.struck/were sleeping 9.came/was receiving/asked/waited/decided 10.was living/discovered/was 11.appeared/have been receiving 12.saw/were picnicking/has been begging 13.married/travelled/settled/hasn’t seen 14.died/had to/married/has been looking (has looked) 15.had/have been working/have just completed 16.paid/have changed 17.was still studying/woke/has worked (has been working)/has done 18.has been/have been producing/have sold 19.bought/have been striving (have striven)/have already made 20.was cleaning/delivered/ stopped/opened

Exercise 14   (pg. 48)

1.since 2.for 3.for 4.since 5.since 6.for 7.since 8.for 9.since 10.for 11.for 12.since 13.since 14.for 15.since 16.since/for 17.for 18.since 19.for 20.since

Exercise 15 (pg. 48)

1.has taken/is fighting 2.are pouring/are complaining/has taken 3.won/hasn’t received/has already made/is planning 4.is trying/were/first mentioned/has made/feel 5.is/have copied 6.is interviewing/has never looked 7.are driving/did…buy/have had 8.need/haven’t changed 9.are working (work)/don’t…watch 10.slipped/wasn’t looking 11.has been training 12.has been walking/won 13.generally arrive/happened/was driving/arrived 14.is driving/don’t think/belongs 15.have been smiling/Have…had 16.were felling/had/has been receiving 17.have just cut/are having 18.haven’t said/came/hope/are not worrying 19.am leaving/am getting/haven’t packed 20.has been collecting/has collected

Exercise 16  (pg. 50)

1.haven’t been feeling/went/gave/haven’t collected 2.loves/buys/goes 3.announced/haven’t explained  4.is holding/Do…feel 5.are having/have been writing 6.is/has been charging 7.was looking/was not getting 8.understand/have been rehearsing/have given 9.were gossiping/noticed/was observing 10.still need/don’t want/are placing  11.have been promising/have just booked/haven’t told  12.has been deteriorating/am taking 13.have volunteered   14.is interviewing/have been trying 15.has lost/spends 16.retired/has just retired/works/is/occasionally races  17.worked/achieved/became/became  18.think/isn’t doing/comes/hasn’t done/always has/doesn’t follow  19.was/heard/were arguing/decided 20.thought/hid/did…find/saw/was hiding

 

TEST YOURSELF
1.D

 

2.B

 

3.C

 

4.A

 

5.D

 

6.E

 

7.B

 

8.E

 

9.A

 

10.C

 

11.E

 

12.D

 

13.D

 

14.C

 

15.B

 

16.B

 

17.D

 

18.A

 

19.C

 

20.D

 

21.B

 

22.E

 

23.D

 

24.E

 

25.C

 

26.A

 

27.C

 

28.C

 

29.B

 

30.A

 

31.A

 

32.E

 

33.B

 

34.D

 

35.B

 

36.C

 

37.E

 

38.D

 

39.D

 

40.E

 

41.B

 

42.A

 

43.E

 

44.C

 

45.A

 

46.D

 

47.E

 

48.E

 

49.B

 

50.C

 

51.C

 

52.D

 

53.A

 

54.B

 

55.E

 

56.D

 

57.A

 

58.C

 

59.E

 

60.B

 

TEST YOUR VOCABULARY
1.C

 

2.B

 

3.D

 

4.D

 

5.E

 

6.A

 

7.B

 

8.C

 

9.E

 

10.B

 

11.A

 

12.A

 

13.B

 

14.E

 

15.C

 

16.E

 

17.D

 

18.A

 

19.C

 

20.D

 

21.B

 

22.E

 

23.E

 

24.A

 

25.B

 

26.D

 

27.E

 

28.C

 

29.A

 

30.D

 

31.B

 

32.D

 

33.C

 

34.C

 

35.D

 

36.A

 

37.E

 

38.D

 

39.B

 

40.B

 

 

 

 

 

 

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