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THE PASSIVE   YDS and LYS

TIKLAYIN WORD DOSYASI OLARAK İNDİRİN

 

THE PASSIVE                                                                                         PAGE

INTRODUCTION  ………………………………………………………………………………………….  2

1-  FORMING THE PASSIVE …………………………………………………………………….   2

2-  THE PLACE OF TIME ADVERBIALS IN A PASSIVE SENTENCE  ……….   3

3-  USING “BY PHRASE” ………………………………………………………………………….   6

4-  USING PASSIVE IN INTERROGATIVES ………………………………………………   7

5-  INDIRECT OBJECTS AS PASSIVE SUBJECTS ……………………………………….10

6-  THE PASSIVE FORM OF MODALS AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS ……… 13

7-  STATIVE PASSIVE ………………………………………………………………………………. 15

8-  STATIVE PASSIVE WITH PREPOSITIONS …………………………………………… 17

9-  THE PASSIVE WITH GET ………………………………………………………………………20

10– “BY PHRASE” OR ANOTHER PREPOSITION …………………………………………22

11– IMPERSONAL PRONOUNS IN THE PASSIVE ………………………………………..24

12– PASSIVE WITH GERUNDS-INFINITIVES …………………………………………….. 25

13– ITS SAID THAT… / HE IS SAID TO … ETC. …………………………………………… 27

EXAMPLES FROM ÖYS/YDS  …………………………………………………………… 36

TEST YOURSELF I  …………………………………………………………………………… 39

TEST YOURSELF 2 ……………………………………………………………………………. 42

TEST YOURSELF 3 ……………………………………………………………………………. 45

TEST YOURSELF 4 ……………………………………………………………………………. 49

TEST YOUR VOCABULARY …………………………………………………………….. 61

APPENDIX …………………………………………………………………………………………. 64

PASSIVE

 

INTRODUCTION

Etken bir fiili (active), edilgen (passive) bir fiile dönüştürebilmemiz için o fiilin geçişli bir fiil (transitive) olması gerekir. Yani, open, dose, give, buy, invite, etc. gibi nesne alabilen bir fiil olması gerekir. Happen, come, go, seem, cry gibi nesne almayan fiiller (intransitive), passive yapılamaz.

Active         :    The school custodian opens the door every day.
Passive         :    The door is opened by the school custodian every day.

Active         :    An accident happens at this crossroads nearly every day.
(No passive, because there isn’t an object.)

1-     FORMING THE PASSIVE

Active fiilin nesnesi, passive cümlede, özne durumuna geçer ve cümlenin tense’ine uygun olarak be + past participle (fiilin üçüncü hali) kullanılır.

He is washing                    the car.

object

The car is being washed by him.

subject

She cooked           the dinner

object

The dinner was cooked by her.

subject

He makes         the sandwiches.

Object

The sandwiches are made by him. subject

 

ACTIVE

 

PASSIVE
Present Progressive

Simple Present

Simple Past

Past Progressive

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

Simple Future

be going to

Future Perfect

 

He is washing the car.

He washes the car.

He washed the car.

He was washing the car.

He has washed the car.

He had washed the car.

He will wash the car.

He is going to wash the car.

He will have washed the car.

The car is being washed by him.

The car is washed by him.

The car was washed by him.

The car was being washed by him.

The car has been washed by him.

The car had been washed by him.

The car will be washed by him.

The car is going to be washed by him.

The car will have been washed by him.

NOTE:“am/is/are doing” ve “was/were doing” dışındaki progressive tense’lerle (will be doing, have been doing, had been doing, will have been doing) passive kullanımı çok enderdir.

 

EXERCISE   I    :    Change the active to the passive.

1-   The gardener is mowing the grass at the moment.                                                                      The grass……………………………………..by the gardener at the moment.

2-   The gardener mows the grass once a month.                                                                                        The grass …………………………………….. by the gardener once a month.

3-   The gardener mowed the grass last week.                                                                               The grass …………………………………….. by the gardener last week.

4-   The gardener was mowing the grass.                                                                                          The grass ……………………………………. by the gardener.

5-  The gardener has mowed the grass.                                                                                           The grass …………………………………….. by the gardener.

6-   The gardener had mowed the grass.                                                                                           The grass …………………………………….. by the gardener.

7-   The gardener will mow the grass tomorrow.                                                                            The grass …………………………………….. by the gardener tomorrow.

8-   The gardener is going to mow the grass in the morning.                                                          The grass …………………………………….. by the gardener in the morning.

9-   The gardener will have mowed the grass by noon.                                                                  The grass …………………………………….. by the gardener by noon.

2-     THE PLACE OF TIME ADVERBIALS IN A PASSIVE SENTENCE

  1. a) Cümlenin sonunda kullanılan zaman zarfları, “by phrase”den sonra gelir.

Active          :    Jack washed the car yesterday.
Passive         :    The car was washed by Jack yesterday.

Active          :    Jack will wash the car tomorrow.
Passive         :    The car will be washed by Jack tomorrow.

Active          :    Jack will have washed the car by 5 p.m.
Passive         :     The car will have been washed by Jack by 5 p.m.

Cümlenin sonunda kullanılan bu zarflar,vurguyu arttırmak için cümle başında da kullanılabilir.

Yesterday, the car was washed by Jack. Tomorrow, the car will be washed by Jack.

  1. b) “Always, usually, just, already” gibi cümle içinde kullanılan zaman zarfları, eğer cümlede başka yardımcı fiil yoksa, “be” fiilinden sonra gelir.

Active           :    Jack usually washes the car in the afternoon.
Passive          :     The car is usually washed by Jack in the afternoon.

 

Active          :    Jack last washed the car two days ago.
Passive         :    The car was last washed by Jack two days ago.

Eğer cümlede başka yardımcı fiil varsa, bu zarfların yeri iki şekilde olabilir.

Active          :    Jack has just washed the car.

Passive         :   The car has just been washed by Jack.  (1. yardımcı fiilden sonra)                                                                                                  The car has been just washed by Jack, (“be” fiilinden sonra)

Active         :    Jack had already washed the car.

Passive         :    The car had already been washed by Jack.
The car had been already washed by Jack.

Active         :    Jack will probably wash the car tomorrow.

Passive         :   The car will probably be washed by Jack tomorrow.
The car will be probably washed by Jack tomorrow.

“Probably”nin olumsuz cümledeki yerine dikkat ediniz.

Active          :    Jack probably won’t wash the car tomorrow.

Jack will probably not wash the car tomorrow.
Passive        :    The car probably won’t be washed by Jack tomorrow.

The car will probably not be washed by Jack tomorrow.

  1. c) “Carefully, beautifully, deeply” gibi durum bildiren zarflar (adverbs of manner) passive cümlede genellikle “be” fiili ile asıl fiil arasında yer alır.

Active         :    The horror film affected the children badly.
Passive        :    The children were badly affected by the horror film.

Active         :    We placed the glassware carefully in the cupboard.
Passive         :    The glassware was carefully placed in the cupboard.

EXERCISE   2    :    Change the active to the passive.

1-   They brought the first automobile to Istanbul in 1895.                                                                      The first automobile …………………………………………………………………………………..   .

2-   Despite the announcement about improved safety, people are still asking for more safety regulations on the railways.                                                                                                 Despite the announcement about improved safety, more safety regulations on the railways ……………………………………………………………………………… .

3-   After they have searched you, they will pass your luggage through an X-ray machine.               After you ……………………………. your luggage ………………………….. through an X-ray machine.

4-    Cyanide from a Romanian gold mine has contaminated the drinking water of 2.5 million people.                                                                                                                                The drinking water of 2.5 million people ……………………………………………………… .

5-   Four candidates competed for the post of London Mayor.                                                         The post of London Mayor …………………………………………..

6-   Miraculously, grave robbers had not stolen the treasures in the four Egyptian tombs. Miraculously, the treasures in the four Egyptian tombs ……………………………………..

7-   The Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle put forward the ideal of education as a lifelong process centuries ago.                                                                                                         The ideal of education as a lifelong process ……………………………………………………

8-   Toulouse Lautrec painted ‘Alfred la Guigne’ in 1894.                                                                 ‘Alfred la Guigne’ ……………………………………………………………………………………………

9-    Luis Vaez de Torres discovered the Torres Strait, the channel between Northern Australia and Southern New Guinea, in 1606.                                                                                             The Torres Strait, the channel between Northern Australia and Southern New Guinea, …………………………………………………………………………………………………

10- The Allies bombed the Rhodes Island heavily during World War II.                                           The Rhodes Island ……………………………………………………………………………………

11- They use about 20 percent of the world’s diamond output for industrial purposes.                       About 20 percent of the world’s diamond output……………………………………………

12- The council will pay compensation to the residents of the houses which collapsed into the old mine shaft.                                                                                                                The residents of the houses which collapsed into the old mine shaft ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

13- When I telephoned the company secretary, they hadn’t received our quotation yet.                     When I telephoned the company secretary, our quotation ……………………………………… yet.

14- We expect that we will have collected £3000 by the time we draw the lottery.                                 We expect that £3000 ………………………………………………… by the time the lottery

15- At the moment, a teenage gang are plaguing a Shrewsbury youth centre.                                          At the moment, a Shrewsbury youth centre ………………………………………

16- Members of the gang have intimidated the staff at the centre.                                                         The staff at the centre ……………………………………………………

17- The Local Health Authority is going to provide ten new beds for heart patients at the county hospital.                                                                                                                          Ten new beds …………………………………………………. for heart patients at the county hospital.

18- A specialist team of doctors and nurses care for premature and underweight babies. Premature and underweight babies …………………………………………………………….. .

19- Although Voltaire was the most celebrated poet and classic tragedian of his day, people best remember him today for his role as a philosopher.                                                                Although Voltaire was the most celebrated poet and classic tragedian of his day, he ……………………………………………………………. for his role as a philosopher.

20- The regional manager will write the new business plan.                                                         The new business plan …………………………………………………………

 

 

 

3-     USING “by phrase”

Passive bir cümlede, eylemi yapan kişiyi “by phrase” ile belirtiriz.

Active      :     My mother made this pullover.                      Passive    :    This pullover was made by my mother.

Active      :     The President will announce the date of the meeting.            Passive     :     The date of the meeting will be announced by the President.

Ancak, passive bir cümlede eylemi yapan kişi, eğer eylemin kimin tarafından yapıldığı önemliyse belirtilir. Eylemin kimin tarafından yapıldığı değil de, eylemin yapılmış olması önemliyse, “by phrase” kullanılmaz.

Active    :    Einstein developed the theory of relativity.

Passive    :    The theory of relativity was developed by Einstein.

Yukarıdaki Örnekte, “by Einstein” kullanarak, eylemi yapan kişiyi (agent) belirtmek zorundayız. Çünkü “by Einstein” ifadesini kullanmazsak, “İzafiyet teorisi üretildi.” olur ki bu da anlamlı bir cümle olmaz. “İzafiyet teorisi Einstein tarafından üretildi.” doğru ve tam bir cümledir.

Active    :     People mine coal in Zonguldak.
Passive    :     Coal is mined in Zonguldak.

Bu örnekte, “by people” ifadesini kullanmaya gerek yoktur.

Active    : The judge sentenced the murderer to life imprisonment.              Passive   : The murderer was sentenced to life imprisonment.

Active     :  Someone made this pullover in Germany.

Passive    : This pullover was made in Germany.

Active      : They make paper from wood.

Passive    : Paper is made from wood.

EXERCISE   3    :    Change   the active to   the passive.   Use by phrase” only if it is necessary.

1-   In addition to Japan, they produce Honda cars in the UK and in Turkey.                                      In addition to Japan, Honda cars …………………………………………………………………

2-   They transferred the footballer from Leeds United to Manchester United.                                       The footballer …………………………………………………………………………..

3-   A Manchester United striker kicked Leeds United’s goalkeeper during last Saturday’s match.                Leeds United’s goalkeeper …………………………………………………………………………..

4-    George Elliot wrote the famous book The Mill on the Floss’.                                                     The famous book The Mill on the Floss’ …………………………………………………..

5-   Scientists all over the world have worked out the evolutionary history of life from many plant and animal remains.                                                                                                            The evolutionary history of life …………………………………………………………………..

6-   Christopher Wren designed St Paul’s Cathedral in London.                                                              St Paul’s Cathedral in London ……………………………………..

7-   Some workers carried out some restoration work on St Paul’s Cathedral last year.                      Some restoration work…………………………………………………………………………. .

8-   The company provides sales executives with a car.                                                          Sales executives …………………………………………………………………………….

9-    Something has delayed the train.                                                                                         The train …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

10- A lot of teenagers use the Internet.                                                                                      The Internet…………………………………………………………………………………………………

11- They are increasing the old age pension 25 percent.                                                                The old age pension ……………………………………………………………………………………..

12- They sent the order special delivery.                                                                                           The order ………………………………………………………………… …………………………………

13- Mr Green sent the order personally.                                                                                       The order …………………………………………………………………………………………………….

14- A six-year-old boy shot a six-year-old girl in February 2000.                                                  A six-year-old girl ………………………………………………………………………………………..

15- They stole thousands of art treasures during WWII.                                                       Thousands of art treasures ……………………………………………………………………………..

4-     USING PASSIVE IN INTERROGATIVES

Active bir soruyu, passive bir soruya dönüştürürken yine aynı kurallar geçerlidir.

Active        : Is Jack washing the car now?

Passive       : Is the car being washed by Jack now?

Active        :  Does Jack wash the car every day?

Passive       :  Is the car washed by Jack every day?

Active        :  When does Jack usually wash the car?

Passive       :  When is the car usually washed?

“Who” ile sorulan sorularda dikkatli olunuz. Eğer “who”, eylemi yapan kişiyi (agent) soruyorsa   “Who ……………… by?” soru biçimini kullanmamız gerekir.

Active    :    Who discovered America?
Passive   :    Who was America discovered by?

(By whom was America discovered?)

Active    :    Who founded the Republic of Turkey?
Passive   :    Who was the Republic of Turkey founded by?

(By whom was the Republic of Turkey founded?)

“Who” nesne durumundaki kişiyi soruyorsa “by” kullanılmaz. Ancak, nesneye ait bir preposition

varsa, o kullanılır.

Active    :     Who will you invite to your party?

Passive   :     Who will be invited to your party?

Active    :     Who did you see him with?

Passive   :     Who was he seen with? (With whom was he seen?)

Active    :      Who are you going to borrow money from?

Passive   :     Who is money going to be borrowed from?                                   (From whom is money going to be borrowed?)

Active    :      Who did he lend his car to?

Passive   :     Who was his car lent to? (To whom was his car lent?)

“What” bir cümlede nesneyi sorar. Yani, “what” ile sorulmuş bir soruda, nesne yoktur. Bu durumda, cümleyi passive yaparken, özne durumuna getirebileceğimiz bir sözcük yok demektir. Böyle bir cümleyi şu şekilde passive yaparız:

Active    :     What are they doing about the case?

Passive   :     What is being done about the case?

Active    :     What did they do about the case?

Passive   :     What was done about the case?

Active    :     What have they done about the case?

Passive   :     What has been done about the case?

(NOTE: Passive cümlede “What”dan sonra gelen fiiller tekildir.)

EXERCISE   4    :    Change the active to the passive.

1-    Did Leonardo Da Vinci make these calculations? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

2-   Which particular event are they referring to in section three of the report? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

3-    In 19th century England, who copied the styles of Ottoman tiles? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

4-    How many species of monkey do they keep here? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

5-    How did he puncture his tyre? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

6-    Who has written this ridiculous newspaper article? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

7-   Have they collected our rubbish? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

8-    Does the caretaker clean the windows once a week? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

9-   When did the Home Secretary release General Pinochet? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

10- What have they dropped from the plan? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

11- Who did he interview yesterday? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

12- Who interviewed him yesterday? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

13- Why are they laying carpet in the kitchen? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

14- Are they going to lay all the carpet today? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

15- When are they going to send us the leaflets we need? …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

EXERCISE   5    :   Change the following active sentences to the passive if possible. (Some of the  verbs are intransitive and cannot be changed.)

SAMUEL MORSE (1791-1872)

1-    “I wish that in one instant I could tell you of my safe arrival, but we are 3,000 miles apart and must wait four long weeks to hear from each other.” …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

2-    Samuel Morse was 20 when he wrote this sentence in a letter to his mother in 1811. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

3-    He was studying art in London and she was living at the home in Charlestown, Massachusetts. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

4-    His parents hadn’t wanted him to be an artist. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

5-    However, they allowed him to go to London to study art in 1811, after Gilbert Stuart praised his work …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

6-    When Samuel returned in 1815, he found that buying paintings did not interest Americans. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

7-    He realised that he could earn very little from painting portraits. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

8-    A chance conversation inspired Morse to invent the telegraph while he was returning from Europe on the steamship Sully in 1832. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

9-    A fellow passenger told him about European experiments in electromagnetism. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

10- Morse remarked, “If we can make the presence of electricity visible in any part of the circuit, I see no reason why we cannot transmit intelligence by electricity.” …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

11- During the rest of the voyage, he worked excitedly on drawings for his plan. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

12- Morse had an inventive mind but little knowledge of electricity, …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

13- Thus, he required years of work and study to perfect his device. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

14- People admired his determination. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

15- The industrialist Alfred Vail, physicist Joseph Henry and others gave him practical help. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

16- In 1837, he applied for a patent on The American Electromagnetic Telegraph. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

17- He went to England, France and Russia seeking aid for his invention but met with failure there as at home. ……………………………………………………………………………………………..……………..

18- Finally in 1843 the United States Congress appropriated $30,000 to build a line from Washington to Baltimore. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

19- In May 1844, they flashed the first message over this wire. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

20- After his years of sacrifice, Morse became wealthy as a great inventor. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

21- Newspapers, railroads and businesses quickly found use for the telegraph. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

22- After they had founded Western Union in 1856. they soon strung wires from coast to coast. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

23- Other men of science had worked on the problem, but Morse’s invention was the basis of the land telegraph systems. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

24- We still know the code of dots and dashes used in sending messages as the Morse code, in honour of its inventor. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

25- When he died in 1872, on April 2, they held public memorial meetings across the nation. …………………………………………………………………………………………………..

5- INDIRECT OBJECTS AS PASSIVE SUBJECTS

Bazı fiiller iki nesne alır: “indirect object” ve “direct object”. Bu nesnelerin cümle içindeki yerleri iki şekilde olabilir.

I gave       him    some money yesterday.
I.O.       D.O.

I gave     some money to him yesterday.
D.O.                 I.O.

I will buy     her       a book   tomorrow.
I.O.      D.O.

I will buy   a book    for   her  tomorrow.
D.O.             I.O.

Örneklerde gördüğünüz gibi, indirect object yani insan olan nesne fiilden hemen sonra geliyorsa, diğer nesneye geçerken bir preposition kullanılmaz. Eğer fiilden hemen sonra direct object geliyorsa, indirect object’e geçerken, fiilin gerektirdiğine göre, “to” ya da “for” kullanılır.

Bu iki nesneli fiillerin passive biçimi de iki şekilde olur:

Active         :    I gave      him    some money yesterday.

  I.O.         D.O.

Passive    I    :    He was given some money yesterday.

Passive   2     :    Some money was given to him yesterday.                                    (Ona dün biraz para verildi.)

Active         :     I will buy      her      a book tomorrow.

I.O.     D.O.

Passive    I   :    She will be bought a book tomorrow.

Passive    2   :    A book will be bought for her tomorrow.                                    (Yarın ona bir kitap alınacak.)

Farklı şekillerde passive yapılabilmelerine karşın,  bu cümlelerin  anlamları  aynıdır.  Indirect object’irı passive cümlede subject olması, daha yaygın olarak kullanılır.

EXERCISE   6    :    Change the active to the passive. Make two passives for each.

1-    A supplier gave him the calendar.

He ………………………………………………….. by a supplier.

The calendar ………………………………………………….. by a supplier.

2-    The company will tell the customers lies as usual.

Lies ………………………………………………….. by the company as usual.

The customers ………………………………………………….. by the company as usual.

3-    They will give you a pay rise after twelve months.

You ………………………………………………….. after twelve months.

A pay rise ………………………………………………….. after twelve months.

4-    The carpet shop is going to send us a quotation.

A quotation ………………………………………………….. by the carpet shop.

We ………………………………………………….. by the carpet shop.

5-    Her mother taught Kate the basics of dressmaking.

The basics of dressmaking …………………………………………………… by her mother.

Kate …………………………………………………… by her mother.

6-    The children presented their teacher with a beautiful retirement gift.

Their teacher …………………………………………………… by the children.

A beautiful retirement gift…………………………………………………… by the children.

7-    The Red Crescent provided tents for the victims of the earthquake.

Tents …………………………………………………… by the Red Crescent.

The victims of the earthquake …………………………………………………… by the Red Crescent.

8-    The environmental organisation gave each volunteer tree planter a free T-shirt.

Each volunteer tree planter ………………………………………………….. by the environmental organisation.

A free T-shirt………………………………………………….. by the environmental organisation.

 

EXERCISE   7    :    Complete the sentences with the given words. Some of the sentences are passive and some are active. Use any appropriate tense.

1-    The Marathon of Sands (hold) ……………………… every year in spring. The race (start) ……………………… in Ouratazate in Morocco. It (last) ……………………… six days.                  Competitors (walk) ……………………… or (run) ……………………… 140 miles across the Sahara Desert. Each person (allow) ……………………… nine litres of water a day.  The race (refer) ……………………… to as the toughest foot race on the Earth.

2-    One year’s average rainfall (fall) ……………………… in five days last year in Caracas, Venezuela. The torrential rain (lead) ……………………… to deadly mud slides. 400,000 people (make) ……………………… homeless. 25,000 people (kill) ……………………… . Many people (die) ……………………… because their houses (not, build)

……………………… properly.

3-    The quality of the Louvre’s restoration of the painting ‘The Marriage at Cano’ (question) ……………………… by critics at the moment. This masterpiece (paint) ……………………… by Veronese, the 16th century master of Leonardo Da Vinci. Following the completion of the restoration, some clothes which were red now (appear) ……………………… green. The painting (value) ……………………… at between £50 million and £100 million. It (paint) …………………….. at a monastery in Italy and (remain) ……………………… there until Bonaparte’s occupation of Venice, when it (take) ……………………… to France. In 1992, it (suffer) ……………………… an accident when some scaffolding (crash) ……………………… into it, Unfortunately, the repair work and cleaning (destroy) ……………………… the original colour combinations.

4-     99% of Japanese Airlines’ flights (take off) ……………………… on time, so it’s most likely that you (not, delay) ……………………… .

5-    About 700 passengers (rescue) ……………………… from the ‘Titanic’ after it (hit) ……………………… an iceberg in the Atlantic Ocean.

6-    No film by Leni Riefenstahl (show) ……………………… in her native Germany since the end of WWII.

7-    From the activities they (hold) ……………………… at the end-of-term party, the school children (raise) ……………………… £2,000 for the Hospital Fund and the cheque (present) ……………………… to an official from the Hospital at a special award ceremony yesterday.

8-     Cyclone Eline (cause) ……………………… the worst flooding for 50 years in Mozambique in February. 2000. Heavy rain (fall) ……………………… on the Limpopo River region of Mozambique. Tens of thousands of people (push) ……………………… onto rooftops or into trees by the flooding. In the days following the flooding, rescue teams (arrive)  …………………….. from around the world. In all, the South African air crews alone (save) ……………………… over 8,000 people from drowning. The death toll (expect) ……………………… to be into the thousands. For days after the disaster, the international community (severely, criticise) ……………………… by the media for taking too long to act.

9-    Deny (work) ……………………… in Africa for many years, when in 1975, against his will, he (recall) ……………………… to London by his company.

10- Graham Reeves’ healthy kidney (remove) ……………………… mistakenly by surgeons at Prince Philip Hospital in Wales. Despite all the efforts, he could (not, save)  ………………………. and he (die) ……………………… on the 1st of March, 2000.

11- Experts state that, if stressful situations (continually, encounter) ………………………. the individual’s physical, social and mental health (eventually, affect) ………………………. .

 

12- Caves (find) ……………………… throughout the world. Up to now, more than 5,400 (name) ……………………… in the United States, and there are probably ten times as many still undiscovered. The most extensive cave regions (locate) ……………………… around Mammoth Cave in Kentucky, around Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico, in the mountains of West Virginia and Tennessee.

13- The cake we (offer) ……………………… at the celebration dinner (fill) ……………………… with thick double cream, which I (find) ……………………… very fattening and thus (eat) ……………………… very little.

14- We (look) ……………………… for half an hour for our cricket ball, but it (hide) ……………………… by the long grass, which (not, mow) ……………………… for ages.

15- Our new curtain rails (fit) ……………………… yesterday, but I (not, hang)……………………… the curtains up yet.

16-   A:   Hi. Mike! What ……………… you (do) …………………. up here at the head office?

B: I (interview) ……………………… today by the National Sales Manager for a promotion to Area Sales Manager. I hope I can get it as I (really, want) ………………………. it.

A: Well, good luck then.

17-   A:  Hello, Jones & Sons.

B:  Oh, I’m sorry. I think I (just, give) ……………………… the wrong telephone number by the operator, or I (dial) ……………………… incorrectly.

18- Cashmere cardigans and sweaters (export) ……………………… all over the world from Inner Mongolia in China. The high quality wool (grow) ……………………… on goats which are particularly suited to the harsh conditions of the area.

19- Since the day Steve Bico. the South African hero, (die) ……………………… in police custody, his name (know) ……………………… worldwide.

20- By the time the shopping centre (officially, open) ……………………… by the Mayor last Saturday, some of the shops (sell) ……………………… goods for weeks.

6-     THE PASSIVE FORM OF MODALS AND SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS

modal + be  + past       participle
a)    The letters

b)    Tomorrow’s exam

c)    You

d)    Children

e)     Chocolate

f)    Tomorrow’s meeting

g)     She

h)    He

i)      We

 

will                                            be

can                                  be

may                                           be

should                                     be

ought not to               be

had better                   be

had to                           be

must                                         be

were supposed to     be

 

posted tomorrow.

postponed to next Monday.

allowed to leave early.

warned against dangers.

eaten Loo much.

cancelled.

taken to hospital.

told the news.                                                         informed about the change.

modal + have been + past participle
j)    She

k)   He

I)    This book

m) You

 

shouldn’t     have     been    told the bad news.

can’t               have      been     seen with her.

must              have     been    left here by a student.

ought to       have     been    allowed to go there

EXERCISE   8 :     Complete the sentences with the verbs in parentheses. Some of the sentences are passive and some are active. Use the simple or perfect forms of the modals.

1-   The council should (impose) ……………………… a strict speed limit on that stretch of road, or accidents will continue to occur.

2-   A strict speed limit should (impose) ……………………… on that stretch of road if accidents are wanted to be prevented.

3-   Shoes which have been left in the gym will (destroy) ……………………… if they aren’t collected within six months.

4-   The answer machine ought to (switch) ……………………… on before you left the office. Apparently, customers who called on Friday couldn’t (leave) ……………………… a message over the weekend.

5-   Suitable clothing must (wear) ……………………… during the exercise, or it will cause discomfort to the person.

6-   All the vehicles made in that batch had to (recall) ……………………… in order to be checked for safety. There was a possibility that they had a faulty steering wheel.

7-   My mother is supposed to (operate) ……………………… on at 3 p.m., but it’s ten to three, and the doctor hasn’t arrived yet.

8-   I know there was a blue one in my size here yesterday. It must (sell) ………………….. .

9-   Sentences in the active voice can’t (always, rewrite) ……………………… in the passive voice.

10- You can’t (rewrite) ……………………… all active sentences in the passive voice.

11- A: I can’t (find) ……………………… my Cosmopolitan Magazine and I haven’t read it yet.

B: Could it (throw) ……………………… away by mistake?

A:  Now that you mention it. I did leave it under my desk near the waste paper basket.

12-  If your daughter is walking now, you had better (buy) ……………………… her some proper shoes, as ill-fitting shoes can (damage) ……………………… a child’s feet permanently.

13- They could (explain) ……………………… the reasons for the delay better than they did.                We were kept waiting for hours without knowing the full seriousness of the situation.

14- Before the fleeces of Mongolian goats can (make) ……………………… into Cashmere, the wool has to (wash) ……………………… several times.

15-  They must (price) ……………………… the rugs too high as they could (only, sell) …………………….. a few during the sale.

16-  You ought to (send) ……………………… the measurements to Turkey in metres, not in feet and inches; otherwise, they will have to (convert) ……………………… there.

17-  Normally Jeff can’t (rely) ……………………… upon to finish a project on time, but he must (Lake) ……………………… this one seriously as he handed it in punctually.

18-  I believe that roadside services should (provide) ………………………… baby-changing facilities.

19- A:   Oh no! I’m going to make pancakes tonight and there isn’t any flour. I am sure I bought some the last time I went shopping.

B:  Well, if there isn’t any in the cupboard, you can’t (buy) ……………………… any then. Shall I run to the corner shop for you?

20- The ten-year-old girl shouldn’t (leave) ……………………… in charge of the twins. No wonder the accident happened.

7-     STATIVE PASSIVE

İngilizce’de fiillerin üçüncü halleri (past participle), bazı cümlelerde sıfat gibi işlev görür. Bu cümleler yapı olarak passive olmalarına karşın, kullanılan past participle, eylemin nasıl yapıldığım ya da kim tarafından yapıldığını ifade etmez. Yalnızca bir ismi tanımlar. Yani bir nesnenin ya da kişinin durumunu ifade eder. Bir ismi tanımladığı için de bu sözcükler sıfat görevindedir.

The window is large.

The window is white.

The window is broken.

İlk iki cümledeki “large” ve “white” sözcük türü olarak sıfattır. “Broken” ise “break” fiilinin üçüncü halidir; ancak o da, “large” ve “white” gibi ”window” sözünü tanımlamıştır.

Bu tür sözcüklerin, cümlede passive eylem görevinde mi yoksa bir ismi tanımlayan sıfat görevinde mi olduğunu cümlenin akışından çıkarabiliriz.

Yesterday,  the window of the classroom was broken by one of the students. (passive action)

(Dün sınıfın camı, bir öğrenci tarafından kırıldı.)

When I entered the classroom yesterday, the window was broken. (stative

passive)

(Dün sınıfa girdiğimde, cam kırıktı.)

The door to the school is always locked by the caretaker after the classes are over. (passive action)

(Dersler   bittikten   sonra,   okulun   kapısı  müstahdem   tarafından   hep

kilitlenir.)

We can’t enter that room. The door is locked, (stative passive)

(O odaya giremeyiz. Kapı kilitli.)

EXERCISE   9    :    Use the Simple Present or Simple Past of the given verbs with stative passive.

1-    I have hurt my foot and I can’t put my shoe on because my foot (swell)  is swollen

2-    While I was playing basketball last week, I hurt my foot and couldn’t put my shoe on
because my foot (swell) was swollen .

3-    I have to buy some silver polish because our silver tea service (heavily, tarnish) …………………….. and needs a good polish.

4-   Jeremy (bore) ……………………… with his job in the computer company, so he gave it up and started to work in a zoo.

5-   The Blue Mosque, which is among Istanbul’s major tourist attractions, (decorate) ……………………… very ornately. It’s so called because its walls (all, cover) ……………………… with blue tiles.

6-    This vase is half the price because it (chip) …………………….. .

7-   After the journey which lasted eight hours, we (exhaust) ………………………. hungry and ready for bed.

8-   The thieves stole many of their possessions including an antique clock, which luckily, (insure) ……………………… for £5000.

9-   You have to be careful coming out of Vicki’s driveway because the entrance to her farm (conceal) ……………………… behind some large trees.

10- Shrewsbury, which is an important market town, (situate) ……………………… on the River Severn.

11- A Roman village (situate) ……………………… between Salisbury and Winchester, but it is no longer there.

12- I’m afraid I can’t serve our guests this chicken pie. It (burn) ……………………… and tastes horrible.

13- Many homes have been repaired since the earthquake, but many (still, damage) ……………………… .

14- The opinion about the dam project (divide) ……………………… . Some of the councillors think it is a good idea but others think it is far too expensive.

15- The Professor (annoy) ………………………. probably because half the students hadn’t bothered to turn up for his lecture.

16- The handle on my old suitcase (break) ………………………. so I bought a new larger suitcase in a sale last week.

17- My car is in quite good condition for its age, except that the passenger door (dent) ……………………… .

18- The train (crowd) ………………………. so we couldn’t get a seat and had to stand all the way to Manchester.

19- The man (lose) ……………………… and asked us if we knew the way to the station.

20- She was a tall woman and her hair (dye) ……………………… an unnatural shade of red.

 

 

 

 

8-     STATIVE PASSIVE WITH PREPOSITIONS

“Stative passive” bildiren fiiller çoğunlukla bir preposition ile birlikte kullanılırlar. *

I’m interested in music, especially in folk music.

She is married to an American.

I’m satisfied with the progress you’ve made in English.

When the teacher gave the exam results, Ann was disappointed with her

score.

NOTE: Exercise 10 ve 11’i yapmadan önce sayfa 64’teki listeyi inceleyiniz.

EXERCISE   10 :    Stative Passive + Preposition

1-   Now that his mother lives alone, she is worried …………… the costs of keeping her house in good condition.

2-   If you have studied hard and worked through all the exercises, you will be prepared ………….. your university entrance examination.

3-   The word biscuit is derived …………… the French for ‘baked twice.

4-   I was amazed …………… the number of storks on the lake near Kütahya as I had only ever seen single birds or pairs before.

5-   Attendance at this school is limited …………… children living in Shropshire or Mid Wales.

6-   A barometer is an instrument which is used ……………. measuring the pressure of the atmosphere surrounding the Earth.

7-   When he was younger, he worked on an oil rig in the North Sea, so he was separated …………… his family for long periods.

8-   When I saw the muddy footprints by the lake, I was upset…………… Simon because he had promised not to let the younger children go near the water.

9-   We peeked through the window of the new Italian restaurant and saw that it was furnished …………… items reflecting the Mediterranean style.

10- The streets were sprayed with disinfectant so that the survivors would not be exposed …………… air borne diseases.

11- At the time Emma was killed in the avalanche, she was engaged …………… Kevin Wheatly, a local police sergeant.

12- Recently, many Czech Gypsies have applied for refugee status in the United Kingdom. These Gypsies claim that they are discriminated …………… in the Czech Republic.

13- Some people in Kent are annoyed …………… the increase in tax, which has been imposed to pay for the increase in young refugees in the region.

14- The Prime Minister was annoyed …………… him because he had decided to stand independently, so he was expelled from the party.

15- We were blessed …………… a mild spring, which meant the harvest was bountiful and we were able to repay all our debts.

*        Stative passive + preposition listesi için bkz. sayfa 64

 

16- He is bored …………… learning English from lessons and textbooks and has a strong desire to visit the UK or the USA and make some English-speaking friends.

17- I have signed a contract, so now, I am committed …………… working for the school for two years.

18- When I was learning German. I often got the word ‘richtig’ confused   …………… the word   ‘wichtig’ and would say one when I meant the other.

19- The shopping mall is often crowded …………… teenagers who don’t actually buy anything.

20- Although they don’t have a Monarchy in France, some people have proved by DNA testing that they are related …………… the former Royal family.

EXERCISE   11:    Stative passive + preposition. Choose the correct answer.

1-    The word panorama, which means an unbroken view of the surrounding region, is …….. from the Greek prefix for all ‘pan1 and the Greek word for view ‘horama’.

  1. A) based B) named
    C) known             D) suggested
    E) derived

2-    I’m really …….. with our new carpet. It looks better fitted than it did in the shop.

  1. A) disappointed B) pleased
    C) excited                             D) worried
    E) equipped

3-    A: The new accountant knows a lot about Management Accounting, doesn’t he?

B: I have no idea. I am not …….. with him.

  1. A) impressed B) convinced
    CJ known                            D) acquainted
    E) devoted

4-    Because the Head Quarters of our company is in New York, one of the clocks in the office is …….. with theirs so that we know when they are working.

  1. A) absorbed B) filled
    C) opposed                                  D) synchronised
    E) prepared

5-    When I saw the original of Renoir’s painting ‘Le Moulin de la Galette1 in the museum, I was so absorbed …….. it that when my husband tapped me on the shoulder, I jumped out of my skin.

  1. A) on B) at
  2. C) in D) from E) with

6-    According to the survey, some teenagers are addicted ……… shopping and need treatment.

  1. A) to B) with
    C) about     D) at                                                                                                    E) from

7-    I am …….. of the long journey to work every day and have decided to move to a flat closer to the office.

  1. A) involved B) tired
    C) derived     D) convinced
    E) concerned

8-     My father is terrified …….. the thought of hospitals, but the doctor has stressed that an operation is necessary.

  1. A) from B) in
    C) at    D) with
    E) of

9-    You don’t need to prepare anything to eat because the students will be …… with a packed lunch on the picnic.

  1. A) dedicated B) dressed
    C) provided                       D) exposed
    E) committed

10- I am strongly ……… to the concept of nuclear energy because I feel that human error could lead to a catastrophe.

  1. A) opposed B) satisfied
    C) remembered D) accustomed
    E) troubled

11- We are obliged …….. my sister and her husband for looking after our daughter when we go to America.

  1. A) from B) with
    C) for             D) about
    E) to

12- She is …… to give up her work as an accountant in order to look after her paralysed mother.

  1. A) married B) blessed
    C) composed   D) prepared
    E) shocked

13- As he was ……. to the cold climate of Finland, Elias found it difficult to bear the strong heat in Turkey.

  1. A) worried B) accustomed
    C) separated                D) engaged
    E) involved

14- It’s amazing, but nowadays, they produce sports jackets which are made recycled plastic bottles.

  1. A) from B) to
    C) about               D) on
    E) in

 

15- The holiday apartments are equipped ……… a cooker, a refrigerator and a dishwasher,

  1. A) about B) from
    C) at                     D) with
    E) for

16- Today, macaroni is commonly associated ……. Italy; however, it’s believed that it originated in China,

  1. A) to B) from
    C) about                D) by                                                                       E) with

17- Marie Antoinette, the last Queen of France, is best remembered …….. reportedly saying, “Let them eat cake.” when she was told that the peasants of Paris were rioting because they had no bread to eat.

  1. A) about B) for
    C) to                D) from
    E) of

18- Anthea is really …….. in interior design, so she regularly attends classes on the subject.

  1. A) used B) made
    C) interested   D) astonished
    E) dressed

19- I’m impressed …….. the results of our efforts in the garden. It all looks very nice.

  1. A) with B) to
    C) on    D) for
    E) from

20- McGill University is best known ……. its work in medicine and has one of the best medical libraries in Canada.

  1. A) from B) for
    C) at                    D) to
    E) as

9-     THE PASSIVE WITH GET

Bazı sıfatlan “get” ile birlikte kullanarak, onları durum, bildiren bir yapıdan eylem bildiren bir yapıya dönüştürebiliriz.

I couldn’t wear my jeans this morning, because they were still wet.                        (“Were wet” kotun o anki durumunu belirtiyor.)                                                         (Bu sabah kotumu giyemedim çünkü hala ıslaktı.)

When I stepped into a hole full of water yesterday, my jeans got wet.                (“got wet” o anda olan bir olayı belirtiyor.)                                                                 (Dün su dolu bir çukura basınca, kotum ıslandı.)

 

“Get + past participle” da aynı şekilde kullanılır ve passive bir anlam taşır.

She didn’t want to go out because she was tired.                 (Dışarı çıkmak istemedi çünkü yorgundu.)

Having worked for three hours without stopping, she got tired. (Ara vermeden üç saat çalışınca yoruldu.)

When she came home, she was very annoyed.                      (Eve geldiğinde çok öfkeliydi.)

She got very annoyed when she heard the news.                 (Haberi duyunca çok öfkelendi.)

“Annoy, please, surprise, frighten, etc.” gibi fiilleri kullanırken dikkatli olunuz. Bu fiillerin active biçimleri “kızdırmak, memnun etmek, şaşırtma/c, korkutmak vb.” biçimindedir. Eğer bunları “kızmak, memnun olmak, şaşırmak, korkmak” anlamında kullanmak istiyorsak, “be + past participle” ya da “get + past participle” yapısıyla, yani passive cümle yapısıyla kullanmamız gerekir.

She disappointed me with her low grades.                        (Düşük notlarıyla beni hayal kırıklığına uğrattı.)

I was disappointed with her low grades.

(Düşük notlarından dolayı hayal kırıklığına uğradım.)

He surprises us all with his strange behaviour.                   (Garip davranışlarıyla hepimizi şaşırtıyor.)

We are all surprised at his strange behaviour.                   (Onun garip davranışlarına hepimiz şaşırıyoruz.)

He annoyed me by coming late for his appointment. (Randevusuna geç gelerek beni kızdırdı.)

I got annoyed when he came late for his appointment. (Randevusuna geç gelince ona kızdım.)

The dog frightened me when it suddenly appeared in front of me. (Köpek aniden önüme çıkınca, beni korkuttu.)

l got frightened when a dog suddenly appeared in front of me. (Aniden önüme bir köpek çıkınca, korktum.)

EXERCISE   12 :    Use an appropriate form of get and the given verbs.

1-    We (lose)     got lost    after we took a wrong turning in the forest.

2-    Yon had better (dress) …………………….. before your aunt arrives. It’s not very polite

to greet her wearing your pyjamas.

3-    She (depress) …………………….. whenever her husband has to work out of London for

long periods.

  1. 4. As the elephant came towards the bush which we were hiding behind, we (more and more, frighten) …………………….. . You can imagine the relief we felt when the animal walked off in the opposite direction.

5-    I used to like her before she (promote) …………………….. .  Now she is so bossy that I can’t stand her any more.

6-    He works with clients from so many different countries that sometimes he (confuse) ……………………. and talks to Spaniards in Italian, or to the Japanese in Russian.

7-    It’s only two weeks now until we fly to Egypt for our holiday. We (both, excite) ………………………. about it.

8-    She likes working for the charity, but she (embarrass) …………………….. when she has to appear in public on their behalf.

9-    Don’t go to Birmingham now. The roads are terrible at this time of day. You (delay) …………………….. in the traffic.

10- While Julia and Robert (divorce) ……………………… she claimed that the set of golf clubs should belong to her, although she hates golf. In the end, the judge decided Robert could keep it.

11- I (upset) …………………….. by all this talk of the war. Please change the subject.

12- It was reported in the news bulletin that some of the houses in Marmaris (damage)  ……………………. during the earthquake.

13- I don’t trust the group of boys that Joseph has made friends with. I’m afraid he (encourage) ……………………. to misbehave.

14- During this holiday with your cousin, you (better, acquaint) …………………….. with him. You might find that you have a lot in common.

15- Studies have shown that children of drug users (often, involve) …………………….. with drugs themselves.

10-  “BY PHRASE” OR ANOTHER PREPOSITION:

Bazı cümlelerde, eylemi yapan kişinin yanı sıra, eylemin hangi araçla yapıldığını da ifade etmek isteriz.

He chopped the wood with an axe.

The wood was chopped with an axe (by him).

The burglar hit the owner on the head with a stone.

The owner was hit on the head with a stone (by the burglar.)

You must write your compositions in ink.                                                                                Your compositions must be written in ink.

Eylemi yapan kişi ya da nesneyi “by” ile ifade ederiz: by him, by the burglar, etc. gibi.

Eylemi yapmak için kullanılan aracı ise “with, in, on, etc.” gibi o sözcüğün kendine Özgü preposition’ı ile ifade ederiz. With an axe, with a stone, in ink, etc. gibi. Eğer eylem kendiliğinden gerçekleşmişse, nesneler için de “by phrase” kullanırız.

He was hit on the head with a stone by the burglar.

(Vurma eylemini kişi yapıyor.)

A stone rolled down the cliffs and he was injured by the falling stone.

(Taş kendiliğinden düşüyor.)

EXERCISE   13 :    Choose the correct answer.

1-   Advertisements for council jobs in Wales are always printed ……. two languages: English and Welsh.

  1. A) with B) in C) by                    D) on                    E) from

2-   The living room was decorated ……. the homecoming party. As their son had been in Kosova for one year, they wanted to hold a special welcoming party for him.

  1. A) from B) by C) for                    D) with                E) on

3-   The front door was decorated ……. a banner, balloons and streamers.

  1. A) by B) on C) with                  D) at                    E) in

 

4-  The living room and front door were decorated ……. his family and friends.

  1. A) from B) in C) on                    D) with                E) by

5-  Several people were struck …….. bullets during the riots.

  1. A) in B) by C) for                   D) on                    E) about

6-   It appears that Mr Smith didn’t have a heart attack.   Police think that he was struck over the head ……. a blunt object, possibly a candle stick.

  1. A) about B) on C) in                   D) with               E) from

7-   The ideas for Lawrence Durrell’s book ‘The Black Book’ were taken ………. his experiences while living abroad in Greece, Cyprus and Egypt.

  1. A) from B) by C) about              D) in                     E) with

8-     The airline passengers were taken …….. a bus from Manchester to Birmingham, where the aeroplane was supposed to have landed.

  1. A) for B) from C) on                    D) about              E) of

9-   Mary’s old pram is used ……. a toy now. The children push their teddy bears around the garden in it.

  1. A) of B) as C) by                   D) from                E) in

10-  My grandfather’s hunting cabin was built ……. logs.

  1. A) out of B) in C) about            D) as                   E) for

11- The branches had been cut ……… local trees before my grandfather was born.

  1. A) from B) for C) by                    D) with                E) in

 

12- In rural areas, chickens are usually kept …….. their eggs.

  1. A) from B) in C) inside             D) for                   E) by

13- His illness deteriorated ……… his poor eating habits.

  1. A) on B) for C) in                     D) about             E) by

14- The old chest was covered ……… a beautifully embroidered tablecloth and used ……… a coffee table.

  1. A) on/with B) with/as C) by/by             D) in/for             E) for/against

15-  Of course, suede shoes can’t be polished, but they can be brushed …….. a stiff brush, which removes dirt.

  1. A) with B) on C) for                  D) by                  E) from

11- IMPERSONAL PRONOUNS in the PASSIVE

Anyone, no one, anybody, nobody, anything ve nothing gibi belgisiz zamirlerin bulunduğu active cümleyi passive yaparken, cümlenin olumsuz anlamını bozmamaya dikkat ediniz.

Active         : Nobody can repair this broken vase. (Cümlede fiil
olumlu, ancak “nobody” cümleye olumsuz bir anlam
veriyor.)

Passive        :    This   broken   vase   can’t   be    repaired   by    anybody.

(Cümlede  fiil   olumsuz   olduğu   zaman   “nobody”  yerine “anybody”, “nothing” yerine “anything” kullanılır.)

Active         :    Nobody has considered the result like this.

Passive         :    The result hasn’t been considered like this.

Active         :    You can’t do anything about this case.

Passive         :    Nothing can be done about this case.

Active         :    They don’t allow anyone to leave early.

Passive        :     No one is allowed to leave early.

EXERCISE   14 :    Change the active to the passive.

1-     None of his colleagues could dissuade him from handing in his resignation.

He ………………………………………………….. by …………………….. of his colleagues.

2-     Nobody could have saved his life.

His life …………………………………………….. by ………………………

3-     It was such a terrible job that we really shouldn’t have paid them anything.

It was such a terrible job that they                                                          ………………………………………………………………………

4-     Visiting the Millennium Dome doesn’t interest anyone in my family.

…………………………………………………………………. in visiting the Millennium Dome.

5-     They haven’t given any explanations to anyone yet.

…………………………………………………………………………………….. yet.

6-     They knew he was guilty, but they couldn’t prove anything.

They knew he was guilt), but …………………………………………………..

7-     You mustn’t disturb anything until the police arrive.

……………………………………………………… until the police arrive.

8-     No one could beat Charlie that day.

………………………………………………………. by ……………………… that day.

9-     You shouldn’t leave anything unattended at the airport.

…………………………………………………………………………………….. at the airport.

10-   Nobody from this school has won this chess tournament this century.

……………………………………………….. by ………………… from this school this century.

12- PASSIVE WITH GERUNDS-INFINITIVES *

“Want, would like, enjoy, hate, like” gibi fiiller, hem nesne alarak hem de nesne almadan kullanılabilen fiillerdir. Eğer bu filleri nesnesiz kullanıyorsak, passive biçime dönüştürenleyiz. Bazıları kural olarak dönüştürülebilse bile, anlam açısından bozuk cümleler elde edilir.

I want to go abroad. (No passive)

I would like to read a book. (No passive)

I like swimming. (”Swimming is liked by me.” kural olarak doğru bir. cümledir. Ancak ‘Yüzme benim tarafımdan sevilir.” anlamsız bir cümledir.)

Everybody likes him.

He is liked by everybody. (“O herkes tarafından sevilir.” cümlesi hem kural hem anlam açısından doğru bir cümledir.)

The secretary wants to work hard. (No passive)

The company wants a hardworking secretary.

A hardworking secretary is wanted.(Çalışkan bir sekreter aranıyor.)

I hate laughing at other people. (No passive)

(İnsanlara gülmekten nefret ederim.)

I hate someone laughing at me.

I hate being laughed at.

(Bana gülünmesin den nefret ederini.)

*    Bu konu, Gerunds-Infinitives konusunu işlerken daha detaylı görülecektir. Burada, çok yaygın olarak kullanılan “want, would like, like, enjoy, hate” gibi Juller üzerinde durulacaktır.

 

I like to read for myself. I don’t like someone to read to me.

I don’t like to be read to.

(Bana kitap okunmasını sevmem.)

Gerund/Infinitive içeren bir cümlede özellikle fiillerden hangisinin active hangisinin passive olduğuna dikkat ediniz. Bazen her iki fiil de passive olabilir.

They don’t allow students to take books out from the library.

Passive 1:        Students aren’t allowed to take books out from the library.
(aren’t allowed: passive, to take: active)
Öğrencilerin kütüphaneden dışarı kitap çıkarmalarına izin verilmiyor.

Passive 2:        They don’t allow books to be taken out from the library,
(don’t allow; active, to be taken: passive)
Kitapların kütüphaneden dışarı çıkarılmasına izin vermiyorlar.

Passive 3:        Books aren’t allowed to be taken out from the library.
(aren’t allowed: passive, to be taken: passive)
Kitapların kütüphaneden dışarı çıkarılmasına izin verilmiyor.

EXERCISE   15 :    Change the active to the passive.

1-   Some parents would prefer someone to supervise the children during the school trip.                Some parents ………………………………………………………………. during the school trip.

2-   They want a doctor to give them an opinion on their daughter’s condition.                              They …………………………………………………….. an opinion on their daughter’s condition by ………………………… .

3-   Many unemployed people just want someone to give them a chance.                                           Many unemployed people just ……………………………………………………………………….

4-   The customer expects us to deliver the furniture on Saturday.

We …………………………………………………………………………………….. on Saturday.

The furniture ……………………………………………………………………….. on Saturday.

5-   My brother hates someone overtaking him on the road.

My brother ……………………………………………………………………………. on the road.

6-   Lucy asked the company to promote her to manager.

Lucy ………………………………………………………………………………………………………

7-   They need to provide some more intensive care beds in hospitals.

Some more intensive care beds ……………………………………………………………………

8-   George likes someone challenging him. George ………………………………………….

9-   You need to obtain a permit before you can work in Canada.

A permit………………………………………………………… before you can work in Canada.

10- The counsil don’t allow people to drive cars on the beach.

People ……………………………………………………………………………………. on the beach.

The counsil …………………………………………………………………………….. on the beach.

Cars ………………………………………………………………………………………. on the beach.

13-   IT’S SAID THAT…/ HE IS SAID TO… etc.

“Main clause + noun clause” biçiminde kurulmuş olan cümleleri iki şekilde passive yapabiliriz.

Active        :    People say that he lives abroad now.

Passive 1    :    It is said that he lives abroad now.

Passive 2    :    He is said to live abroad now.

Bu iki cümlenin de Türkçe’ye çevirisi aynıdır.

Onun şimdi yurtdışında yaşadığı söyleniyor.

Active        :    People believe that he is the murderer of his wife.

Passive 1    :    It’s believed that he is the murderer of his wife.

Passive 2    :    He is believed to be the murderer of his wife.

Birinci tip passive cümleye “It’s + past participle” ile başlanır ve “that clause” aynen eklenir.İkinci tip passive cümleye ise, “noun clause” daki özne ile başlanır. Bu passive biçimini tense’lere göre şu şekillerde kullanabiliriz:

  1. a) Present “be” (am, is, are)

They say the man upstairs is a thief.

It is said that the man upstairs is a thief.

The man upstairs is said to be a thief.

  1. b) Simple Present

We understand that he dislikes children.

It is understood that he dislikes children.

He is understood to dislike children.

  1. c) Past “be” (was, were)

They say that he was very rich in the past.

It is said that he was very rich in the past.

He is said to have been very rich in the past.

  1. d) Simple Past

People claim that he left the country two months ago.

It is claimed that he left the country two months ago.

He is claimed to have left the country two months ago.

  1. e) Present Perfect

People think that he has deserted his family.

It’s thought that he has deserted his family.

He is thought to have deserted his family.

  1. f) Present Progressive

We think he is waiting there now.

It’s thought that he is waiting there now.

He is thought to be waiting there now.

 

  1. g) Past Progressive

People say he was working very hard.

It is said that he was working very hard.

He is said to have been working very hard.

  1. h) Future Tense (will or going to)

People expect that the rate of exchange will go down soon.

It is expected that the rate of exchange will go down soon.

The rate of exchange is expected to go down soon.

Present Passive (am, is, are done)

They say that a lot of electrical appliances are stolen every day.

It is said that a lot of electrical appliances are stolen every day.

A lot of electrical appliances are said to be stolen every day.

  1. j) Past Passive (was, were done)

They report that two people were killed in the explosion.

It is reported that two people were killed in the explosion.

Two people are reported to have been killed in the explosion.

Temel cümledeki yüklem past tense ise, passive cümlede “was, were” kullanmamız gerekir.

People believed that he had committed the crime.

It was believed that he had committed the crime.

He was believed to have committed the crime.

Temel cümlenin yüklemi “present”, yan cümleciğin yüklemi “past olduğu zaman passive cümlede “to have done” yapısının kullanıldığını gördük. Bunun nedeni, eylemler arasındaki zaman ilişkisini vurgulamaktır.

They believe she acted deliberately.

(believe: present, acted: past)

It is believed that she acted deliberately.

She is believed to have acted deliberately.

Eğer hem temel cümlenin hem de yan cümleciğin yüklemi “past” ise, iki eylem arasında zaman farkı olmadığı için, bu ifadeyi passive yapıya “to do” biçiminde aktarırız. Yan cümledeki eylem daha önce gerçekleşmişse, bunu active cümlede “past perfect” kullanarak ifade ederiz. Bu durumda, iki eylem arasındaki farkı göstermek için passive cümlede yine “to have done” kullanırız.

They believed she knew the truth.

(believed: past, knew: past)

She was believed to know the truth.

They believed she had acted deliberately, (believed: past, had acted: past perfect)

She was believed to have acted deliberately.

Bu passive yapısıyla yaygın olarak kullanılan fiiller say, claim, understand, think, suppose, expect, report, allege, acknowledge, assume, estimate, believe, consider gibi fiillerdir.

EXERCISE   16 :    Change the active to the passive.

1-     People assume that she turned down the offer.

It ………………………………………………………………………………………….. the offer.

She ……………………………………………………………………………………….. the offer.

2-     People say that he knows more than anyone about genetic science.

It ……………………………………………….. more than anyone about genetic science.

He ………………………………………………. more than anyone about genetic science.

3-     People suspect that he resigned because of the scandal.

It ……………………………………………………………………….. because of the scandal.

He ……………………………………………………………………… because of the scandal.

4-     They believe that West Bromwich is unsafe at night.

It ……………………………………………………………………………………………. at night.

West Bromwich ………………………………………………………………………… at night.

5-     They claim that the company has plenty of jobs available.

It ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. .

The company ……………………………………………………….. plenty of jobs available.

6-     They expect that the company will sell twenty percent of its shares.

It………………………………………………………………………. twenty percent of its shares.

The company ………………………………………………………. twenty percent of its shares.

7-     People observed that children in the Sudan were suffering from malnutrition.

It………………………………………………………………………………… from malnutrition.

Children in the Sudan …………………………………………………….. from malnutrition.

8-     They report that fighting has broken out again in Indonesia.

It …………………………………………………………………………………. again in Indonesia.

Fighting …………………..,…………………………………………………… again in Indonesia.

9-     We understand that the government has introduced a new tax on parking.

It……………………………………………………………………… a new tax on parking.

The government…………………………………………………………….. a new tax on parking.

10-  They expect that 50,000 people will lose their jobs as a result of the factory’s closure.

It ……………………………………………………………………… as a result of the factory’s closure.

50,000 people ……………………………………………………. as a result of the factory’s closure.

 

EXERCISE   17 :      a)  Complete the passage below using the correct forms of the verbs given. Some of the sentences are passive and some are active.       

CRAZY HORSE

Crazy Horse (l.bear) …………………………. on Rapid Creek, USA, in 1843. Although he (2.be) …………………………. not the son of a chief, he (3.become) …………………………. one of the greatest leaders of his people during his life.                                                                                                          The boyhood of Crazy Horse (4.spend) …………………………. in the days when the western Sioux Indians (5.seldom, see) …………………………. a white man. He (6.bring) …………………………. up carefully according to the Sioux tribal customs. Crazy Horse (7.love) …………………………. horses, and his father (8.give) …………………………. him a pony of his own when he was very young. He (9.become) …………………………. a fine horseman and (10.accompany) …………………… his father on buffalo hunts. In those days, the Sioux (11.have) …………………………. only a few guns, and the hunting (12.do) …………………………. mostly with bow and arrows.                                                                        Young Crazy Horse was twenty-one years old when all the western and plains Sioux Indians (13.meet) ………………………… in council to determine upon their future policy toward the white settlers. They (14.reason) …………………………. that the country was wide, and that the white traders should (15.make) …………………………. welcome. Up to that time, they (16.anticipate) …………………………. no conflict. They (17.perm.it) …………………………. the Oregon Trail, but now to their astonishment, forts (18.build) …………………………. in their territory.

After years of unrest, in 1866, The Sioux (19.decide) …………………………. to defend their rights and territory by force. Attacks (20.make) …………………………. upon the forts throughout Sioux territory.

Crazy Horse (21. become) …………………………. the leader of the Sioux warriors. He (22.lead) …………………………. his men to victory on many occasions and (23. never, defeat) …………………………. in a military battle, but he (24.kill) …………………………. when he was only 34 years of age, on September 6, 1877. He (25.stab) …………………………. in the back by an American soldier at Fort Robinson, Nebraska, while he was under US Army protection.

  1. b) Choose the correct answer according to the

1-    During Crazy Horse’s childhood, Sioux Indians ……. .

  1. A) erected forts on their territory
  2. B) usually hunted with rifles
  3. C) rarely came into contact with white settlers
  4. D) were fighting continually with the US cavalry
  5. E) never lost in battles with other tribes

2-    Crazy Horse …… .

  1. A) was shot in a battle
  2. B) was mortally wounded while buffalo hunting
  3. C) was captured when he fell off his horse
  4. D) disagreed with the other council members
  5. E) was killed by an American soldier

3-    The Sioux’s original reaction to the white traders was that they …… .

  1. A) could defeat all the other Indian tribes if they joined forces
  2. B) ought to be welcomed and not opposed
  3. C) would definitely destroy their buffalo hunting grounds
  4. D) should be resisted by force immediately
  5. E) could not be trusted even if they signed a treaty with them

EXERCISE 18  :    a)  Complete the passage using the correct forms of the verbs given.            Some of the sentences are passive and some are active.

A CYCLE RIDE ALONG THE NILE

Recently, Tim de Vere Green (l.ride) …………………………. 400 kilometres along the Nile in

Egypt. He (2 Join) …………………………. 130 other participants of all ages to raise money for the charity ‘Mencap’. In total. £150.000 (3.raise) …………………………. for the charity. The participants (4.sleep) …………………………. on a boat during the trip. The cycle ride (5.start) ….,……………………., in the town of Esna and as the cyclists (6.ride) …………………………. through the town, the streets (7.line)  ………………………… with children who (8.wave) …………………………. at them and (9.shout) …………………………. greetings.

The cyclists (10.wake) …………………………. up at 5.45 every morning by the crew on the boat. During the cycle ride, Tim (11.surprise) …………………………. to notice that, although the Nile (12.border) …………………………. by lush green fertile land, only a few hundred yards away, the earth (13.become) …………………………. dry and barren. The cyclists (14.ride) …………………………. to the Aswan Dam and (15.see) …………………………. the Philae temple, which (16.move) …………………………. stone by stone from its original location because it (17.threaten) …………………………. with total submersion from the lake behind the dam. The day after their visit to the dam (18.be) …………………………. the longest day of the trip. Although they (19.cycle) …………………………. all day and (20.cover) …………………………. 137 kilometres, they (21.exhaust) …………………………. but jubilant at the end of the day. Shortly before the end of the trip, they (22.stop) …………………………. at the Valley of the Kings, where 62 pharaohs (23.entomb) ……….,.’………………. between 1500 and 500 BC. Tim (24.find) …………………………. his short adventure rewarding not only because he (25.raise) …………………………. some money for a charity, but also because he (26.learn) …………………………. a lot about himself through spending six to eight hours each day alone on his bike.

  1. b) Choose the correct answer according to the passage.

1-    We can infer from the information given in the passage that the former location of the Philae temple …….. .

  1. A) was in the Valley of the Kings
  2. B) was blocking the cycle route
  3. C) now belongs to a charity organisation
  4. D) was sold to raise money for charity
  5. E) is now under the water

2-    The land outside the immediate Nile Valley is described in the passage as …… .

  1. A) poor and arid
  2. B) densely populated
  3. C) rich and productive
  4. D) full of historical sites
  5. E) submerged under water

3-    The reason Tim learned a lot about himself on the trip is that he

  1. A) visited so many historical places
  2. B) spent a lot of time by himself
  3. C) raised a lot of money for ‘Mencap’
  4. D) noticed only the Nile Valley is lush and green
  5. E) got up very early every morning

 

EXERCISE   19 :   a)  Complete the passage using the correct forms of the verbs given.                  Some of the sentences are passive and some are active.

THE MILLENNIUM DOME, GREENWICH

Greenwich, near London, (1.be) …………………………. the home of the world’s Prime Meridian, the line which (2.divide) …………………………. the Western Hemisphere from the Eastern. It (3.be) …………………………. also the point from which all time zones (4.begin) …………………………. . Some time ago, the government (5.launch) …………………………. a 750-million-pound project to build a dome on the site of a disused gas works there to mark the new Millennium in 2000. The expensive plans (6.not, welcome) …………………………. by all and since its opening, the press (7. be) …………………………. particularly negative. However, the Dome, which (8.open) …………………………. officially by Elizabeth II on 31st December. 1999, (9.solar, welcome) …………………………. warmly by visitors. The dome (10.suspend) …………………………. from twelve 100-metre-high steel masts and. with a circumference of one kilometre, (11.be) …………………………. the largest structure of its kind in the world. 50.000 visitors can (12.accommodate) …………………………. at any one time. During the year 2000, more than 12,000,000 people (13.expect) …………………………. to visit the Millennium Exhibition. More than 5.000 people (14.employ) …………………………. in running and managing the exhibition.

The exhibition itself (15.divide) …………………………. into fourteen ‘zones’ which (16.sponsor) …………………………. by private companies. For example, the ‘Body Zone’, which (17.focus) …………………………. on biology and medicine, (18.sponsor) …………………………. by Boots the chemists. The organisers of the ‘Money Zone’ (19.lend) …………………………. £1 million in the form of 20,000 £50, which line the walls, from the Bank of England. The notes (20.cover) …………………………. with reinforced glass. The other zones are: Self Portrait, Journey, Rest, Play, Work, Learning, Shared Ground. Home Planet, Mind, Living Island, Faith and Talk. The concept of the exhibition is to teach children and adults about the environment and the future in a fun way.

  1. b) Choose the correct answer according to the passage.

1-     It’s clear from the passage that the Millennium Dome …… .

  1. A) won’t earn as much money as was originally estimated
  2. B) is a scientific research centre
  3. C) has been popular with visitors but not with the press
  4. D) is the tallest structure in the world ever built
  5. E) was paid for totally out of tax collected by the government

2-     It is estimated that, by the end of the year 2000, ……. .

  1. A) about 20,000 visitors will have visited the ‘Money Zone’
  2. B) over 5,000 tickets will have been sold for the exhibition
  3. C) the exhibition will have had over 12,000,000 visitors
  4. D) 750 million pounds will have been raised by ticket sales
  5. E) the price of the ticket for the ‘Money Zone’ will be raised to £50

3-     The passage tells us that the location chosen for the Dome

  1. A) is in London because it’s the capital city of the country
  2. B) forms the basis of the criticism made by the press
  3. C) was available at a low cost as it was a disused area
  4. D) is important to the world for other reasons as well
  5. E) is situated in one of the best parts of London

 

EXERCISE   20 :  a)   Complete the passage using the correct forms of the verbs given.               Use active or passive.

AIRPORT MALARIA

The disease Malaria (1.transmit) …………………………. by mosquitoes. It (2.be) …………………………. a very old disease.  It (3.believe) …………………………. that prehistoric man (4.suffer)  ………………………… from malaria. It probably (5.originate) …………………………. in Africa and (6.accompany) …………………………. human migration to the Mediterranean shores. India and South East Asia. In the past, it used to be common in the marshy areas around Rome, and the disease (7,name) …………………………. ‘mal-aria’, meaning ‘bad air’ in Italian; it (8.also, know) …………………………. as Roman fever. Today some 500 million people in Africa, India, South East Asia and South America (9.expose) …………………………. to malaria and it (10.estimate) …………………………. to cause two and a half million deaths annually, one million of which are children.

In recent years, the so called “airport malaria” (11.become) …………………………. a big problem in Europe as well. A bartender who (12.work …………………………. in an establishment close to London’s Heathrow Airport (13.become) …………………………. acutely ill and (14.diagnose) …………………………. with malaria, although he (15.never, be) …………………………. out of the country. A lady who (16.drive) …………………………. her car past the same airport (17.become) …………………………. ill with malaria although she, too, (18.never, be) …………………………. out of the country. Four workers who (19.unload) …………………………. a cargo plane at Amsterdam Airport (20.become) …………………………. infected with malaria. It (21.assume) …………………………. that, in all these cases, infected mosquitoes (22.carry) …………………………. on planes from Africa and (23.release) …………………………. at the destination airport.

  1. b) Choose the correct answer according to the passage.

1-    It is believed that the workers at Amsterdam Airport contracted malaria from ..

  1. A) being bitten by mosquitoes brought there with the cargo
  2. B) handling goods from Africa
  3. C) passengers from Africa or South East Asia
  4. D) visiting the marshy area that surrounds the Italian city of Rome
  5. E) travelling abroad to Africa, South East Asia or South America

2-    According to the passage, most of the deaths caused by malaria today occur  .. .

  1. A) in and around airports
  2. B) in Africa, India, South East Asia and South America
  3. C) in the Italian city of Rome
  4. D) around the shores of the Mediterranean
  5. E) in areas where the air is bad

3-    The name malaria comes from

  1. A) the name of the mosquito which causes the disease
  2. B) the Italian for ‘mosquito’
  3. C) the name the disease was called by prehistoric man
  4. D) the Italian words for ‘bad air’
  5. E) the name of a region with bad air around Rome

 

 

EXERCISE   21   :  a) Complete the passage using the correct forms of the verbs given.                       Use active or passive.

 

MARY JANE SEACOLE     (1805-1881)

A statue of Mary Jane Seacole (1. erect)…………………………. next year in Liverpool. She (2. be)…………………………. a Jamaican nurse and a heroine of the Crimean War.

Mary (3. bear)…………………………. in Jamaica, the daughter of a Scottish military officer and a Jamaican healer. Mary (4. educate)…………………………. well, and she (5. become) …………………………. a skilled nurse. When the Crimean War (6. break)…………………………. out, she (7. travel) …………………………. to London and (8. apply)…………………………. to go to Crimea to tend the wounded soldiers, but she (9. not, grant)…………………………. an interview by the British War Office. Then, she (l0. apply)…………………………. to Elizabeth Herbert, who (11. recruit)…………………………. nurses for the war effort, but again, Mary (12. deny) …………………………. an interview. Apparently, Britain (13. not, be)…………………………. ready to welcome a black nurse.

Undaunted, Mary (14. go)…………………………. on her own initiative and in 1856. she                            (15. establish) …………………………. the British Hotel near Balaclava at her own expense in order to provide food and accommodation for wounded officers. She often (16. 30)…………………………. to the battlefield to care for the wounded there. After the war, Mary Seacole (17. go) …………………………. bankrupt, but her story (18. feature)…………………………. by the British press and money (19. raise) …………………………. by subscriptions to pay off her debts. In 1857, she (20. publish)…………………………. The wonderful Adventures of Mrs Seacole in Many Lands’. The book was a great success and Mary Seacole became a popular figure. She (21. spend) …………………………. the rest of her life travelling and working between London and Jamaica. She (22. become)…………………………. famous and (23. award)…………………………. a Crimean Medal, The French Legion of Honour and a Turkish medal by the time she (24. die)………………. in 1881. Since then, many nursing institutions (25. name)…………………………. after her.

  1. b) Choose the correct answer according to the passage.

1-    The author suggests that the main reason for Mary Seacole’s rejection by the British War Office was…….

  1. A) her Scottish father
  2. B) her colour
  3. C) her lack of education
  4. D) the British press
  5. E) her debts

2-    Mary’s desperate financial situation following the Crimean War was eased after

  1. A) she was rejected by the British War Office
  2. B) a nursing institution was named after her
  3. C) the British press published her story
  4. D) she was awarded a Turkish medal
  5. E) she ran a boarding house in Balaclava

3-    We can deduce from the passage that ‘undaunted’ probably means……..

  1. A) not wealthy, earning very little
  2. B) unattractive, ugly
  3. C) unknown, obscure
  4. D) well educated, intelligent
  5. E) not discouraged, fearless

EXERCISE   22:    a)  Complete the passage using the correct forms of the verbs given.                    Use active or passive.

SHREWSBURY SCHOOL

One of the oldest schools Britain has. Shrewsbury School (1. situate)…………………………. on the opposite side of the River Severn to the ancient town of Shrewsbury. The grounds of the school (2. once, describe)…………………………. by Sir Neville Cardus as “the most beautiful playing fields in the world”. The school (3. found)…………………………. by King Edward VI in 1552. The original policies of the school, which (4. write)…………………………. by the third Headmaster, (5. still, preserve)…………………………. in the library. Several famous people, including George Savile and Charles Darwin, (6. educate)…………………………. there. It is a boarding school where boys (7. live) …………………………. in Houses. Each House (8. contain)…………………………. 60 hoys, who (9. look) …………………………. after by the house master and his wife, the team of tutors and a matron. The senior boys (10. encourage) …………………………. to take responsibility for good order in the House. The standard of accommodation (11. consider)…………………………. to be among the best in the country.  About ten percent of the boys (12. come)…………………………. from overseas. Overseas boys who            (13. have) …………………………. no relations in England (14. find)…………………………. guardians there. Thus they (15. provide)…………………………… with a home environment in short holidays and school breaks. Parents (16, encourage)…………………………. to take an interest in all that is going on within the school.

The school (17, equip)…………………………. with excellent academic and sporting facilities. A new £1. 5 million Information Technology Centre (18. open)…………………………. in May 1996.

On average, 97 percent of the boys (19. enter)…………………………. university each year and around 25 boys (20. gain)…………………………. places at Oxford or Cambridge.

  1. b) Choose the correct answer according to the passage.

1-     We can deduce from, the passage that girls…….

  1. A) are accepted in smaller numbers than boys
  2. B) graduating from Shrewsbury School don’t usually become famous
  3. C) do better on average than boys at Shrewsbury School
  4. D) aren’t accepted at Shrewsbury School
  5. E) don’t usually attend university after leaving Shrewsbury School

2-      Students from abroad without relations in the UK

  1. A) find families to look after them during breaks
  2. B) have to fly home even for short breaks
  3. C) always stay with the parents of another pupil
  4. D) stay with the housekeeper and his wife in school breaks
  5. E) spend school holidays in their dormitories

3-     King Edward VI is connected with the school because…….

  1. A) he used to be one of its most famous students
  2. B) he established the school originally
  3. C) he wrote the original policies for the school
  4. D) he praised the beautiful surroundings
  5. E) he was educated with Charles Darwin there

 

 

EXAMPLES FROM ÖYS/YDS

1-  Recently, a new way of treating this disease ……………. .

  1. A) would be developed B) has been developed
    C) had developed     D) has been developing
    E) was being developed

(ÖYS 1988)

2-  They didn’t allow anyone to leave before the end of the month.                                              cümlesinin edilgen (passive) biçimi aşağıdakilerden hangisidir?

  1. A) Everyone has been allowed to leave before the end of the month.
  2. B) No one had been allowed to leave before the end of the month.
  3. C) Everyone was allowed to leave before the end of the month.
  4. D) No one was allowed to leave before the end of the month.
  5. E) No one has been allowed to leave before the end of the month.

(ÖYS 1989)

3-   James should tell everyone the good news as soon as possible.                                                    cümlesinin  edilgen  (passive)  biçimini  elde etmek için  boş bırakılan yere  aşağıda­kilerden hangisi getirilmelidir?                                                                                                                             ………… as soon as possible.

  1. A) Everyone should be told the good news
  2. B) James should be told the good news
  3. C) Everyone should have told James the good news
  4. D) James should tell the good news to everyone
  5. E) Everyone should have been told the good news

(ÖYS 1990)

4- Andrew’s car ………. because he had forgotten to lock it.

  1. A) has stolen B) is stolen                    C) was stolen                                                  D) had stolen                                                  E) will be stolen

(ÖYS 1991)

5-   All the expenses for the scientific explorations in the area ………. by a number of private institutions.

  1. A) had borne B) bore            C) will bear                                                     D) have borne                                              E) are borne

(ÖYS 1992)

6-   Despite new urban developments and the expansion of industrial sites, still 70 % of the land area of the Netherlands ……… for farming.

  1. A) was using B) is used                C) would have used                                         D) has to use                                                  E) uses

(ÖYS 1993)

7-  Chemical preservatives …….. as substances which are added to foods to prevent deterioration.

  1. A) can be defined B) define                  C) have defined                                               D) were defining                                           E) had been defined

(ÖYS 1994)

 

 

8-  Since he ……. from prison, he ……. unable to sleep properly.

  1. A) has been released/was B) had released/had been
    C) was released/has been                                 D) released/is being
    E) had been released/would be

(ÖYS 1994)

9- By the time we …….. nearly all the food

  1. A) arrived/had been eaten B) arrive/has been eaten
    C) are arriving/has to be eaten      D) would arrive/had eaten
    E) have arrived/is being eaten

(ÖYS 1996)

10- Everyone was surprised to see us because we ……… to return before the middle of the month.

  1. A) are not expected B) have not expected
    C) were not expected                             D) are not expecting
    E) have not been expecting

(ÖYS 1997)

11-  The Suez Canal, which connects the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, was designed and Built by the French engineer De Lesseps.

  1. A) Akdeniz ile Kızıl Deniz’i birleştiren Süveyş Kanalı, Fransız mühendis De Lesseps tarafından tasarlanmış ve inşa edilmiştir.
  2. B) Fransız mühendis De Lesseps’in tasarlamış ve inşa etmiş olduğu Süveyş Kanalı, Akdeniz ile Kızıl Deniz’i birleştirir.
  3. C) Süveyş Kanalı’nı tasarlayıp inşa eden Fransız mühendis De Lesseps, Akdeniz ile Kızıl Deniz’i birleştirmeyi amaçlamıştır.
  4. D) Süveyş Kanalı’nın Fransız mühendis De Lesseps tarafından tasarlanıp inşa edilmesiyle, Akdeniz’in Kızıl Deniz ile birleşmesi sağlanmıştır.
  5. E) Akdeniz ile Kızıl Deniz’in birleşmesi, Fransız mühendis De Lesseps’in Süveyş Kanalı’nı tasarlayıp inşa etmesiyle olmuştur.

(YDS 2000)

12- The house looked dreadful as no one was living there and most of the windows …….. .

  1. A) have been broken B) had been broken
    C) broke          D) were being broken
    E) would have broken

(YDS 2001)

“TEST YOURSELF” BÖLÜMÜNDEKİ SORULARI YANITLARKEN

NELERE DİKKAT EDECEKSİNİZ?

Son   bir   kaç   yılda   ÖYS   İngilizce   sınavında   çıkan   Passive   konusuyla   ilgili   sorular   biçim değiştirmiştir.   Önceki yıllarda olduğu  gibi   “verilen etken, cümlenin edilgen biçimini bulmak”   . yerine, sizden istenen, cümledeki boşluğa getireceğiniz yüklemin hem “tense”ini belirlemek hem de yüklemin etken mi yoksa edilgen mi olduğuna karar vermektir. Böyle bir soruyu yanıtlarken şu noktalara dikkat ediniz:

1-       Eğer seçeneklerdeki fiil “bear, treat, announce, etc.” gibi nesne alan bir fiilse, active cümlede nesnesiz kullanılamaz. O halde cümlede bırakılan boşluktan sonra bir “nesne” yok ise o cümlenin yüklemi “passive”dir.

Ex.1:           Their engagement…………….. when her parents return from abroad.

  1. A) was announced B) has been announced
    C) is going to announce          D) will have announced
    E) will be announced

Seçeneklerdeki “announce” fiili nesne alan bir fiildir. Cümledeki boşluktan sonra bir nesne olmadığına göre bu cümlenin yüklemi “passive”dir. ”Active” oldukları için “C” ve “D” seçeneklerini hemen eleyebiliriz. “… when her parents return from, abroad” ifadesi temel cümlede “Future tense” gerektirdiği için “A” ve ”B” seçeneklerini de elediğimizde, doğru seçeneğin “E” olduğunu görürüz.

Ex.2:           They ………… their engagement when her parents return from abroad.

  1. A) were announced B) had announced
    C) are going to announce         D) will have been announced
    E) have announced

Aynı yöntemi kullandığımızda doğru seçeneğin “C” olduğunu görüyoruz.

2-       Seçeneklerdeki fiil “give, tell, lend, etc.”gibi iki nesne alabilen (dolaylı nesne+dolaysız nesne) bir fiil olabilir. Bu fiillerin iki şekilde passive yapılabileceğini görmüştük.

Active            :      They gave    him      an award.

I.O.        D.O.

Passive 1        :       He was given an award.
Passive 2         :       An award was given to him.

Böyle bir fiil active cümlede kullanıldığında, iki tane nesnesinin olması gerekir. Size verilen cümlede boşluktan sonra bir nesne varsa, yüklem “passive”dir.

Ex.3-           They ……………….. him an award last year.

  1. A) were given B) gave
    C) had been given         D) have given
    E) will have given

Boşluktan sonra iki nesne olduğu için yüklemin “active”;  “tense” kurallarına göre ise “past” olması gerekiyor. Doğru seçenek “B”dir.

Ex.4-           He ……………….. an award last year.

  1. A) was given B) gave
    C) had given D) has been given
    E) will have given

Doğru seçenek “A”dır.

Ex.5-          An award …………………. to him last year.

  1. A) was given B) gave                                               C) had given                            D) has been given
    E) will have given

Doğru seçenek yine “A”dır.

3-       Size verilen cümlede “by him, by the authorities, etc.” gibi bir ifade varsa, yüklem mutlaka “passive”dir. ‘Tense” kurallarına dikkat ederek doğru yanıtı bulabilirsiniz.

Ex.6-           He …………………. by a famous doctor when he goes to the U.S.A.

  1. A) was treated B) has been treated
    C) will have treated         D) will be treated
    E) is going to treat

Doğru seçenek “D”dir.

TEST YOURSELF 1

 

 

1-   The statistics ……. that education levels in the UK ……. in the areas of mathematics and English in recent months.

  1. A) are shown/are improved
  2. B) show/have been improving
  3. C) will be shown/will be improved
  4. D) had been showing/have improved
  5. E) were shown/might improve

2-   Due to the pressure which ……. on schools to improve their results in mathematics and English, arts and crafts ……. .

  1. A) is placing/were neglected
  2. B) will place/were neglecting
  3. C) was placed/have been neglected
  4. D) had been placed/are neglecting
  5. E) placed/will have neglected

3-   Understandably, his colleagues ……. when John left his job just after he

  1. A) are shocked/was promoting
  2. B) have been shocked/is promoted
  3. C) were shocked/had been promoted
  4. D) had been shocked/has promoted
  5. E) are being shocked/is promoting

4-   The sentence ……. out by the judge when the court reassembles after lunch.

  1. A) was read B) had been read
    C) should read D) will be read
    E) will have read

5-  For today’s writing test, you ……. to write a composition of at least four paragraphs.

  1. A) have required
  2. B) require
  3. C) required
  4. D) will have required
  5. E) are required

6-  In my opinion, all the debts of the Third  World countries ……. by the USA and the EU.

  1. A) should be cancelled
  2. B) are cancelling
  3. C) could be cancelling
  4. D) ought to have cancelled
  5. E) have been canceling

 

7-  International relations is a 20th-century subject, though foreign policy …….. out between countries for many centuries.

  1. A) is being carried
  2. B) was carrying
  3. C) has been carried
  4. D) had been carrying
  5. E) will have carried

8-  To achieve the unique coral red of the Ottoman tiles in the 16th century, craftsmen ……. a mixture of iron-oxide and quartz.

  1. A) used to fire B) were fired C) have fired      D) will be fired
  2. E) could be fired

9-  PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL’ ……. in capital letters on the envelope, but still the letter was open when it …….. on my desk.

  1. A) was written/was put
  2. B) had written/was putting
  3. C) is being written/has put
  4. D) was writing/has been put
  5. E) has been written/will be put

10- The pretty flower Viola ……. in 1863 by a Scottish plant breeder, who …… wild pansies with a garden variety.

  1. A) is created/had been crossing
  2. B) was created/crossed
  3. C) has been created/was crossing
  4. D) created/was crossed
  5. E) could create/had crossed

11- The area around the village of Grange in the Lake District ……. the ‘Jaws of Borrowdale’ because of the jagged rocks which ……. the valley.

  1. A) is being called/are bordered
  2. B) has been called/were bordered
  3. C) is called/border
  4. D) has called/will border
  5. E) would be called /have bordered

12- The lead mine, which ……. since Roman times, ……. work for the local inhabitants.

  1. A) is using/provided
  2. B) will be used/has provided
  3. C) has been used/provides
  4. D) is used/will provide
  5. E) has used/is going to provide

13- Experts say that your chances of a long and healthy life ……. if you ……. plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables.

  1. A) enhance/are eaten
  2. B) will be enhanced/were eating
  3. C) enhanced/are eating
  4. D) are enhanced/eat
  5. E) have enhanced/will be eaten

14- When he ……. his room for the first time in his life, his mother ……. him a look of surprise.

  1. A) will tidy/will be giving
  2. B) had been tidying/was given
  3. C) has been tidied/gives
  4. D) was tidying/has given E) tidied/gave

15- Since the 1960s, new roads …….. in Lhasa, Tibet’s capital, and now a highway system …….. the city with the major cities in neighboring provinces.

  1. A) have been built /connects
  2. B) were built/is connected
  3. C) had built/is connecting
  4. D) are being built/has connected
  5. E) could have built/will connect

16- It’s true that life ……. as anything may happen at any time, but some precautions, such as insurance policies, ……. against disaster.

  1. A) mustn’t be predicted/have taken
  2. B) shouldn’t predict/have been taking
  3. C) doesn’t predict/are taking
  4. D) can’t be predicted/can be taken
  5. E) hasn’t predicted/might be taken

17- Harry & Senga’s octagonal-shaped home ……. by James Salmon in 1890. It ……. that he only designed ten octagonal properties.

  1. A) was building/thinks
  2. B) has been built/was thought
  3. C) would have built/was thinking
  4. D) had been built/has been thinking
  5. E) was built/is thought

18- When yellow paint with blue, it ……. green.

  1. A) mixes/is produced
  2. B) mixed/was produced
  3. C) has been mixing/has produced
  4. D) will mix/will be produced
  5. E) is mixed/produces

19- 1999 ……. a year when many tragedies …….. including the terrible mud slides in Venezuela and the horrific   arthquakes in Turkey.

  1. A) is/were happening
  2. B) was/happened
  3. C) is being/will happen
  4. D) has been/had been happening
  5. E) had been/have happened

20- The last two times I ……. the health club, I ……. for my membership card, but we had better take them with us today.

  1. A) have visited /haven’t asked
  2. B) was visited /don’t ask
  3. C) visited/wasn’t asked
  4. D) was visiting/didn’t ask
  5. E) had visited/won’t be asked

21-As might be expected from China’s huge area and variety of regional climates, most of the types of plants that ……… in the Northern Hemisphere ……… there, except for those varieties common to the arctic and tundra regions.

  1. A) will grow/have found
  2. B) are grown/are finding
  3. C) have grown/were being found
  4. D) grow/can be found
  5. E) will have grown/used to be found

22- Mount Everest ……… as the highest point on the Earth until 1852, when the governmental Survey of India …….. the fact.

  1. A) hasn’t been recognised/established
  2. B) didn’t recognise/has established
  3. C) hasn’t recognised /would establish
  4. D) wouldn’t recognise/was established
  5. E) wasn’t recognised /established

23- Alternatives to the ‘right to trial by jury’ system …….. but all the ideas which ……. so far are unacceptable.

  1. A) are being considered/have been discussed
  2. B) have been considering/were discussed
  3. C) had been considered/are discussing
  4. D) have considered/have been discussing
  5. E) are considering/are discussed

24- People can now buy and sell shares over the Internet and it …… that over 50 new millionaires ……. this year by ‘e-commerce’.

  1. A) is estimating/are creating
  2. B) had been estimated/create
  3. C) is estimated/will be created
  4. D) estimated/had been creating
  5. E) will have estimated/were created

25- Numerous expeditions, which …….. by various countries, …….. since the first successful climb of Mount Everest.

  1. A) are sponsored/are being undertaken
  2. B) were sponsored /have been undertaken
  3. C) have sponsored/will be undertaking
  4. D) have been sponsored/undertook
  5. E) had sponsored/will have undertaken

26- Recently, a new vaccine against measles ……. .

  1. A) will have developed
  2. B) had been developing
  3. C) had developed
  4. D) was developing E) has been developed

27- The lounge carpet ……. after Ralph …….. some bleach on it.

  1. A) is ruined/was spilling
  2. B) has ruined/had spilt
  3. C) has been ruined/was spilt
  4. D) was ruined/spilt
  5. E) will have ruined/is spilt

28- All the expenses of shipping your  furniture ……. by the company, so you needn’t worry about that.

  1. A) will bear B) will be borne
    C) are bearing             D) were bearing
    E) might have borne

29- From the 4th to the 18th of next month, contemporary glass and ceramics ……. at the Fenny Lodge Gallery.

  1. A) will be displayed
  2. B) are displaying
  3. C) had been displayed
  4. D) will have been displaying
  5. E) have been displayed

30- Before the United Nations sanctions …….. sixty to eighty percent of our dates ……. from Iraq.

  1. A) were imposed/were obtained
  2. B) are imposing/are obtaining
  3. C) were imposing/have obtained
  4. D) imposed/will be obtained
  5. E) are being imposed/have been obtained

31- A ‘Welsh dresser’ ……. as a piece of kitchen furniture which …….. shelves and cupboards in one unit.

  1. A) should be described/is combined
  2. B) has described/can combine
  3. C) can be described/combines
  4. D) used to describe/combined
  5. E) is described/could be combined

32- Since Bernard ……. from the bank, he ……. unable to find another job.

  1. A) was dismissed/has been
  2. B) used to be dismissed/is
  3. C) has been dismissed/had to be
  4. D) had been dismissing/was
  5. E) will be dismissed/might have been

33- By the time we seats all the covered  ……. .

  1. A) arrive/might have occupied
  2. B) will arrive/have been occupying
  3. C) are arriving/will occupy
  4. D) were arriving/have been occupied
  5. E) arrived/had been occupied

34- I’m glad you didn’t give me this essay yesterday after all. We had a long power cut, so I ……. it for you.

  1. A) won’t be able to type
  2. B) couldn’t have typed
  3. C) had better not type
  4. D) may not be typed
  5. E) must not have typed

35- Experts are not sure whether skiing ……. into the USA for the first time by Scandinavian settlers or by Indians from Canada.

  1. A) is introduced
  2. B) will be introduced
  3. C) was being introduced
  4. D) was introduced
  5. E) can be introduced

 

 

TEST YOURSELF 2

 

 

1-    Guns ……. away securely so that children ……. them.

  1. A) had better lock/won’t have reached
  2. B) ought to be locked/weren’t reaching
  3. C) may be locking/shouldn’t reach
  4. D) should be locked/can’t reach
  5. E) could have locked/may not reach

2-    China …….. to have extensive petroleum reserves, both on land and offshore.

  1. A) believes B) has believed
    C) will believe D) believed
    E) is believed

3-    St John’s Wort, a natural herbal supplement which ……. Hypericin, ……. for centuries to treat minor ailments.

  1. A) is contained/used
  2. B) contains/has been used
  3. C) is containing/is being used
  4. D) was containing/is used
  5. E) has contained/has used

4-    Many interesting relics of the Kennedy family ……. in Culzean Castle, Scotland.

  1. A) will have contained
  2. B) contain
  3. C) contained
  4. D) are contained
  5. E) have contained

5-   Peace in Northern Ireland ……. after the two sides …….. for months.

  1. A) was achieved/negotiated
  2. B) is achieved/we’re negotiating
  3. C) will have achieved/are negotiated
  4. D) had been achieving/have negotiated
  5. E) has been achieved/negotiate

6-   Animal lovers in England ……. that fox hunting with horses and dogs ……. illegal.

  1. A) are demanded/can make
  2. B) have demanded/is making
  3. C) demand/should be made
  4. D) have been demanded/was made
  5. E) will demand/will have made

7-   The UN official ……… by Kosovan villagers to the spot where they believed the mass grave …….. .

  1. A) is taken/is locating
  2. B) is taking/locates
  3. C) will be taken/located
  4. D) had taken/had been located
  5. E) was taken/was located

8-    I really dislike it when I ……. the incorrect change by the ferry cashiers in Istanbul.

  1. A) have given B) gave
    C) give             D) am given
    E) had been given

9-   Dogs, which ……. man since ancient times, were mainly used on farms or for hunting in earlier times, but today they ……. to a wide range of uses, such as drug or victim detection.

  1. A) are accompanied/have been put
  2. B) have accompanied/are put
  3. C) had been accompanying/are putting
  4. D) were accompanying/put
  5. E) accompany/are being put

10- In traditional cultures, it is widely believed that when a man ……. a mask, his religious or magical powers ……. by changing identity and becoming another being.

  1. A) has worn/release
  2. B) is worn/have released
  3. C) wears/are released
  4. D) had worn/will have released
  5. E) will be worn/are being released

11- Obviously, the headmaster ……. that students ……. better to the new teaching methods.

  1. A) is believed/are responding
  2. B) believes/will respond
  3. C) has believed/have been responded
  4. D) was believed/had been responding
  5. E) will believe/will be responded

 

12- We ……. that my father’s new car ……. by Friday. He has promised to give his old one to me and I want to drive to Ankara in it at the weekend.

  1. A) are expected/will be delivering
  2. B) expect/will have been delivered
  3. C) have been expecting/is delivering
  4. D) had expected/was delivering
  5. E) are expecting/will have delivered

13- The book ‘The Lost Continent’ ……. Bill Bryson is based ……. the author’s own experiences in America.

  1. A) from/at B) of/with
    C) with/from          D) by/on
    E) for/about

14- Of the many attempts to find clues for predicting the location, time and strength of future earthquakes, the best results seem to be associated …….. seismicity studies using earthquake observatories.
A) with                  B) on
C) about                             D) to
E) in

15- Silvia repairs rush chairs and she is often so absorbed ……. her work that she barely notices the world around her.

  1. A) in B) on C) with                       D) from                                    E) to

16- Because of the expense of their traditional wedding, they had to limit the guests ……. their close relatives and friends.

  1. A) towards B) at
  2. C) in D) to E) with

17- The Serbian warlord Zelijko Raxnatovic, who ……. as ‘Arkan’, in Belgrade in January, 2000.

  1. A) had known/would be assassinated
  2. B) has been known/assassinates
  3. C) was known/was assassinated
  4. D) knew/had been assassinated
  5. E) is known/assassinated

18- When Tiger Woods ……. his sixth golfing title in a row, he equalled the record of Ben Hogen, which ……. 52 years ago.

  1. A) was won/had set
  2. B) is won/had been set
  3. C) won/was set
  4. D) wins/has been set
  5. E) has won/was setting

19- Although earthquakes …….. death and destruction through such secondary effects as landslides, tsunamis and fires, the greatest losses in terms of both lives and property …….. from the collapse of man-made structures during the violent shaking of the ground.

  1. A) are causing/were resulted
  2. B) have been caused/resulted
  3. C) had been causing/will result
  4. D) ought to be caused/have resulted
  5. E) can cause/result

20- This year a woman ……. President of Finland for the first time in the country’s history.

  1. A) was elected B) is elected                        C) has elected    D) was electing                   E) elected

21- The civil war in Sudan ……. for seventeen years now, and so far, two million people ……. .

  1. A) continued/will have been killed
  2. B) has been continuing/have been killed
  3. C) is continuing/had been killed
  4. D) was continuing/were killed
  5. E) will have continued/will have killed

22- Most of the 700 protesters the police ……… at Mexico’s largest university ……. within days.

  1. A) had arrested/will have freed
  2. B) are arrested/will be freed
  3. C) will be arresting/have freed
  4. D) arrested/were freed
  5. E) were arrested/may be freed

23- 20 million seahorses, which ……. in Chinese medicine, ……. from the oceans each year.

  1. A) will be using/are being taken
  2. B) were used/will have taken
  3. C) will be used/must have taken
  4. D) can be used/have taken
  5. E) are used/are taken

24- When Thailand ……. as Siam, mighty elephants ……. its kings into battle.

  1. A) had known/were carried
  2. B) is known/have been carrying
  3. C) knew/could be carried
  4. D) was known/used to carry
  5. E) has known/had to carry

25- In recent years, the elephant’s usefulness for labour and a means of transportation ……. by technology.

  1. A) will be eliminated
  2. B) has been eliminated
  3. C) is eliminating
  4. D) had been eliminating
  5. E) eliminated

26- Today, in many countries, as many as one third of all cancer deaths …….. to cigarette smoking.

  1. A) are attributed
  2. B) can attribute
  3. C) had attributed
  4. D) were attributed
  5. E) will have attributed

27- My cousin had emotional problems as a teenage because he ……. up properly.

  1. A) hasn’t brought
  2. B) isn’t bringing
  3. C) hadn’t been brought
  4. D) didn’t bring
  5. E) won’t be brought

28- Our horse …….. when the fence down in a storm.

  1. A) was escaping/blew
  2. B) is escaping/will be blown
  3. C) has been escaped/has blown
  4. D) must be escaped/had blown
  5. E) escaped/was blown

29- Human settlement at Sandford ……. back to Norman times, when a group of monks ……. a monastery there.

  1. A) had traced/were built
  2. B) has traced/are built
  3. C) could have been traced/build
  4. D) can be traced/built
  5. E) should be traced/had been built

30- The old lady ……. by two rottweiler dogs when a Shropshire huntsman ……. her life.

  1. A) had savaged/was saved
  2. B) was being savaged/saved
  3. C) was savaging/was saving
  4. D) could be savaged/had saved
  5. E) is being savaged/has been saved

31- Are you sure my tablecloth ……. permenantly fay this red wine?

  1. A) won’t stain
  2. B) isn’t being stained
  3. C) won’t be stained
  4. D) shouldn’t have stained
  5. E) didn’t use to stain

32- The ascent of Ben Nevis, the highest point in British Isles, ……. only in fair weather.

  1. A) should be attempted
  2. B) could have attempted
  3. C) may attempt
  4. D) ought to attempt
  5. E) will be attempting

33- The team of climbers ……. to return to the campsite because heavy cloud ……. their vision.

  1. A) were decided/was restricted
  2. B) decided/restricted
  3. C) can decide/will be restricted
  4. D) should decide/was restricting
  5. E) have been decided/restricts

34- Although the queen of UK has in fact little authority of her own, she ……. informed of events, and sometimes, she ……. by the government in power.

  1. A) keeps/has consulted
  2. B) can be kept/should consult
  3. C) is kept/is consulted
  4. D) will keep/was consulted
  5. E) has kept/had consulted

35- I’m sure he ……. in your lecture. He ……. monarch butterflies for ten years now.

  1. A) had been interested/studies
  2. B) will have interested/is studying
  3. C) interested /will have been studying
  4. D) will be interested /has been studying
  5. E) interests/was studying

 

 

TEST YOURSELF 3

 


1-   Your order ……. tomorrow, so you …….. it on Friday.

  1. A) is being sent/have received
  2. B) will be sent/should receive
  3. C) has been sent/must be received
  4. D) will have sent/can receive
  5. E) is going to send/are received

2-   Apparently, the incident ……. the reputation of the club as it …….. quite a few members recently.

  1. A) was damaged/was losing
  2. B) has damaged/has lost
  3. C) will be damaged/is losing
  4. D) can damage/has been lost
  5. E) will have damaged/is lost

3-   If the topsoil that ……. much of the Earth’s surface ……. in some way, it can he carried away by wind or washed away by water in a process called erosion.

  1. A) is covering/hasn’t protected
  2. B) has covered/won’t have protected
  3. C) covers/isn’t protected
  4. D) is covered/won’t be protected
  5. E) was covered/hadn’t been protected

4-   Although their carpets ……. primarily for mosques, sometimes, they ……. designs for restaurants and hotels as well.

  1. A) are designed/produce
  2. B) have been designed/were produced
  3. C) will be designed/were producing
  4. D) have designed/had been producing
  5. E) design/are producing

5-    The board ……. that a takeover by a foreign company ……. at all costs.

  1. A) was decided/should avoid
  2. B) has been decided/was avoided
  3. C) decided/may have avoided
  4. D) has decided/must be avoided
  5. E) decides/would avoid

6-   I am attending a presentation by Ford today, but I ……. whether I ……. a really formal suit or something more comfortable.

  1. A) won’t decide/have worn
  2. B) mustn’t decide/could have worn
  3. C) won’t be decided/wear
  4. D) haven’t been decided/will wear
  5. E) can’t decide/should wear

7-   While the injured child …….. to the ambulance on a stretcher, a woman ……. running, saying that she was his mother.

  1. A) had been carried/will come
  2. B) was carrying/was coming
  3. C) was being carried/came
  4. D) has been carrying/could come
  5. E) has been carried/has come

8-   After he ……. his restaurant, he ……. hard every day to make it successful, so his business became a popular eating place.

  1. A) has opened/will work
  2. B) was opened/will be working
  3. C) was opening/had worked
  4. D) had opened/worked
  5. E) has been opened/is working

9-   When the new road around the town …….. the noise levels in our street

  1. A) was completed/dropped
  2. B) has completed/have dropped
  3. C) had been completed/drop
  4. D) completed/had been dropping
  5. E) will have completed/will drop

10- After better lighting ……. in the office, Jennifer’s headaches ……

  1. A) is installing/should disappear
  2. B) was installed/disappeared
  3. C) had been installed/have disappeared
  4. D) will have installed/is disappearing
  5. E) installed/was disappearing

11- The tourists ……. about the way in which they ……. by the tour operators during the trip.

  1. A) can complain/were treating
  2. B) were complained/are being treated
  3. C) are complaining/have treated
  4. D) have been complained/are treated
  5. E) complained/had been treated

12- I wonder whether the electrical store ……. us tomorrow for the delivery of the freezer or not,

  1. A) is charged B) will charge
    C) has charged D) is being charged
    E) will be charged

13- The Prince Henry car ……. by Vauxhall in 1911.   Today only eleven …….. all of which are priceless.

  1. A) introduced/are existing
  2. B) was introduced/exist
  3. C) have been introduced/existed
  4. D) had introduced/have existed
  5. E) used to introduce/will exist

14-I ……. about the famous poet Celin’s tragic personal life while I ……. information for my essay.

  1. A) am learning/researched
  2. B) have learnt/had researched
  3. C) learnt/was researching
  4. D) will learn/have been researched
  5. E) was learnt/had been researching

15- According to archaeological records,  chickens ……. for the first time in the cities of the Indus Valley in about 3000 BC.

  1. A) had domesticated
  2. B) have been domesticated
  3. C) were domesticating
  4. D) used to domesticate
  5. E) were domesticated

16- The origin of April Fool’s Day, the first day of April, is uncertain, but it …….. to arrival of spring in late March, when nature …….. to “fool” humanity with changes in weather.

  1. A) has been related/has said
  2. B) may be related/is said
  3. C) ought to relate/has been said
  4. D) relates/is saying
  5. E) can be related/will say

17- Generally, Mr Eames …….. fay his colleagues, but he ……. to be aware of this fact.

  1. A) isn’t liked/doesn’t seem
  2. B) doesn’t like/hasn’t seemed
  3. C) didn’t like/didn’t seem
  4. D) hasn’t liked/won’t have seemed
  5. E) won’t have liked/didn’t seem

18-I know you ……. my cosmetics again as right now, I ……. my perfume in the room.

  1. A) are used/am smelling
  2. B) used/could have smelt
  3. C) have been using/can smell
  4. D) were used/must be smelling
  5. E) are using/have smelt

19- This is the fifth time I ……. a phone call for a hairdresser’s. I wonder if our number  ……. by mistake in a hairdresser’s advertisement.

  1. A) am receiving/is printing
  2. B) was received/was printed
  3. C) had received/were printing
  4. D) have received/has been printed
  5. E) will have received/printed

20- Every year, more than 200.000 acres of forest ……. in the USA by fires in a single summer.

  1. A) are destroyed
  2. B) have been destroying
  3. C) will have destroyed
  4. D) were destroying
  5. E) ought to have destroyed

21- Serving as president of the National American Women Suffrage Association, Carrie Chapman Catt …….. success in 1920 when women ……. equal rights to vote in the US.

  1. A) achieved/were given
  2. B) had achieved/were giving
  3. C) would have achieved/had given
  4. D) could achieve/have been given
  5. E) has achieved/would be given

22- The disease of cattle, Texas Fever, ……. in the Western Hemisphere during the Spanish colonisation of Mexico, but by 1980, it ……. completely from the US.

  1. A) had introduced/was eradicated
  2. B) introduced/was eradicating
  3. C) must be introduced/could be eradicated
  4. D) has been introduced/had eradicated
  5. E) was introduced/had been eradicated

23- Salt ……. in Salzkammergut, Austria, since prehistoric times, but the town ……. most of its income today from tourism.

  1. A) was being mined/is gaining
  2. B) was mined/has been gained
  3. C) has been mined/gains
  4. D) is being mined/gained
  5. E) will be mined/has gained

24- I really hate ……. by salespeople when I’m shopping.

  1. A) to have pestered B) being pestered
    C) to pester D) pestering
    E) having pestered

25- Don’t forget us all as soon as you

  1. A) were promoting
  2. B) will promote
  3. C) were promoted
  4. D) have been promoted
  5. E) will be promoting

26- The plants in the hall……. after by the caretaker, who ……. them every day.

  1. A) are looking/is watering
  2. B) were being looked/has watered
  3. C) have been looked/is watered
  4. D) are looked/waters
  5. E) will have looked/watered

27- A: What have you done to your wrist?

B: I ……. off a cliff face while I ……. on Saturday.

  1. A) fell/was climbing
  2. B) was falling/climbed
  3. C) had fallen/have climbed
  4. D) have fallen/was climbed
  5. E) fall/would be climbing

28- When she …….. her husband, Silvia ……. herself to weave rush seats, and now she repairs them for her livelihood.

  1. A) was divorced/has taught
  2. B) has divorced/was teaching
  3. C) is divorced/will be taught
  4. D) divorced/taught
  5. E) was divorcing/had been taught

29- I……. able to calculate quotations for customers since the company procedure ……. to me.

  1. A) will be/has explained
  2. B) have been/was explained
  3. C) was/had explained
  4. D) should be/were explaining
  5. E) am/will have explained

30- At the end of the training session, you ……. a test. Students who pass ……. to scuba dive in the open seas.

  1. A) are given/have allowed
  2. B) have given/have been allowed
  3. C) will be given/will be allowed
  4. D) had been giving/are allowed
  5. E) have been giving/will have allowed

31- Oh gosh! You ……. meeting Leonardo Di Caprio in real life. I wish I had been you.

  1. A) could have excited
  2. B) must have been excited
  3. C) might have been exciting
  4. D) should have excited
  5. E) are supposed to be excited

32- The garden of our house …….. from the farm next door by a stream.

  1. A) is separated B) separates
    C) will separate D) has separated
    E) separated

33- So long as you ……. them a reasonable price, I’m sure they the tiles from you.

  1. A) have been given/bought
  2. B) give/will buy
  3. C) had been giving/are buying
  4. D) will give/are bought
  5. E) are given/have been buying

34- Hopefully, I ……. comfortable in my job by the time I ……. my training.

  1. A) have felt/was finishing
  2. B) was feeling/was finished
  3. C) am going to feel/am finished
  4. D) will have felt/finished
  5. E) will be feeling/finish

35- Why is it always regarded as so funny when someone …….. in the face with a cream-pie?

  1. A) was slapping
  2. B) is slapped
  3. C) will have slapped
  4. D) has slapped
  5. E) had been slapped

36- I ……. him only when he ……. himself to be a decent manager.

  1. A) have trusted/was proved
  2. B) had trusted/has proved
  3. C) will trust/proves
  4. D) trust/proved
  5. E) trusted/had been proved

37- Are you sure you ……. your sun hat? It looks as if it ……. quite hot.

  1. A) haven’t needed/has been getting
  2. B) aren’t needed/has got
  3. C) won’t need/is going to get
  4. D) hadn’t needed/was getting
  5. E) don’t need/had been getting

38- Festivals and holidays ……. since ancient times.

  1. A) have been celebrated
  2. B) are being celebrated
  3. C) might have celebrated
  4. D) were celebrated
  5. E) are supposed to celebrate

39- We ……. into our new flat until the electricity ……. .

  1. A) wouldn’t move/was connecting
  2. B) shouldn’t move/has connected
  3. C) don’t move/will be connected
  4. D) haven’t moved/was connected
  5. E) can’t move/is connected

40- The police suspected that the drugs ……. in the basement, but they ……. any.

  1. A) are storing/aren’t finding
  2. B) were stored/didn’t find
  3. C) could have stored/won’t find
  4. D) had been stored/don’t find
  5. E) will be stored/weren’t found

41- Carrots ……. to be good for your eyesight.

  1. A) are believed B) have believed
    C) believe D) will believe
    E) will be believed

42- Aunt Sue …….. on by now. Let’s telephone the hospital and inquire how she is.

  1. A) should have operated
  2. B) must have been operated
  3. C) might be operating
  4. D) ought to be operating
  5. E) will have operated

43- We ……. something to eat and drink when we have cleared up because we …… for five hours without a break.

  1. A) were needed/had been working
  2. B) needed/have been working
  3. C) are needed/are going to work
  4. D) will need/will have been working
  5. E) need/are working

44- Their salesman ……. that all their cars ……. with air conditioning.

  1. A) was claimed /will be supplied
  2. B) is claimed/had been supplied
  3. C) claims/are supplied
  4. D) will claim/have supplied
  5. E) has claimed/are supplying

45- The original Mill House …….. down in the 19th century, and afterwards, it ……. with striking red bricks.

  1. A) was burnt/was rebuilding
  2. B) burnt/was rebuilt
  3. C) would burn/rebuilt
  4. D) has burnt/has been rebuilt
  5. E) had been burning/had rebuilt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TEST YOURSELF 4

 

 

1-50. sorularda, cümlede bırakılan boşluğu uygun şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz

l-    By the end of the year, everybody who ……. unemployed for over two years ……. on a training scheme.

  1. A) is/will be sending
  2. B) was/had been sending
  3. C) has been/will have been sent
  4. D) had been/has been sent
  5. E) will be/is going to send

2-   The point on the surface of the Earth directly above the focus, the point where the first movement …,.., place, ……. the epicenter of an earthquake.

  1. A) takes/is called
  2. B) has taken/has called
  3. C) will be taken/has been called
  4. D) was taken/was called
  5. E) is taking/will have called

3-   The Richter Magnitude Scale, which ……. upon the amount of energy released by the rock movements rather than upon surface damage, ……. earthquakes on a 1 to 10 scale.

  1. A) bases/has graded
  2. B) has based/was graded
  3. C) was based/is graded
  4. D) will be based/graded
  5. E) is based/grades

4-   Forms of bread ……. as food since prehistoric times. Probably, the first bread ……. from acorns or beechnuts.

  1. A) were used/has been made
  2. B) will have been used/was making
  3. C) have been used/was made
  4. D) are used/used to make
  5. E) were being used/is made

5-   Constantin Brancusi, who ……. by the French sculptor Rodin, ……. works in bronze, stone and wood.

  1. A) influences/was created
  2. B) was influenced/created
  3. C) influenced/has created
  4. D) has been influenced/is created
  5. E) will be influencing/is creating

6-   Thatched roofs ……. in London in 1212, but they ……. to be used elsewhere even today.

  1. A) are forbidden/are continued
  2. B) have been forbidden/will continue
  3. C) forbade/have been continuing
  4. D) were forbidden/continue
  5. E) had forbidden/have continued

7-   The city of Plovdiv, on the Maritsa River  in Bulgaria, ……. considerably in an earthquake in 1928.

  1. A) was damaged B) is damaged C) had damaged D) was damaging                       E) has been damaged

8-   All video cassettes ……. before they ……. to the hire shop.

  1. A) have to rewind/return
  2. B) should be rewound/are returned
  3. C) must have rewound/are returning
  4. D) will be rewound/were returned
  5. E) can rewind/are being returned

9-   Miguel de Cervantes ……. the idea for the novel Don Quixote while in prison. The second part of the story ……. one year before he died.

  1. A) was conceived/was completing
  2. B) had conceived/has completed
  3. C) used to conceive/completes
  4. D) has conceived/must be completed
  5. E) conceived/was completed

10- Mecca ……. by tens of thousands of pilgrims annually.

  1. A) has visited B) visits
    C) is visited   D) visited
    E) may be visiting

11- Molasses ……. as a by-product of sugar production. Several light and flavourful varieties ……. as table syrups.

  1. A) obtains/have been used
  2. B) is being obtained/wall be using
  3. C) was obtained/had used
  4. D) is obtained/are used
  5. E) has been obtained/are using

12- Mark ……. to let us Know that they ……. for the party.

  1. A) has phoned/will be delayed
  2. B) has been phoning/have delayed
  3. C) had been phoned/were delaying
  4. D) will be phoned/delayed
  5. E) is phoning/had been delayed

13- If the direct sunlight ……. you, I can draw the blinds.

  1. A) has been disturbed
  2. B) was disturbed
  3. C) was disturbing
  4. D) is disturbed
  5. E) is disturbing

14- Microorganisms ……. into bacteria, protozoans, algae, fungi and viruses, and the study of each ……. a separate specialty within microbiology.

  1. A) have classified/is formed
  2. B) will be classified/has been formed
  3. C) are classifying/has formed
  4. D) were classified/was formed
  5. E) are classified/forms

15- The city of Bremen, Germany, ……. into two sections: Altstadt and Neustadt. The two sections ……. by three bridges.

  1. A) is divided/are connected
  2. B) has been divided/are connecting
  3. C) was being divided/have connected
  4. D) was dividing/had been connected
  5. E) divides/connect

16- Mr Cartwright ……. at the moment for the promotion. I hope he gets the job as he ……. it.

  1. A) is interviewing/has deserved
  2. B) has been interviewed/is deserving
  3. C) is being interviewed/deserves
  4. D) will be interviewed/deserved
  5. E) interviews/will have deserved

17- If eating disorders they can be fatal.

  1. A) aren’t treating B) aren’t treated             C) weren’t treated     D) don’t treat                  E) haven’t treated

18- The manager would like these letters …….  out today.

  1. A) to have sent B) having sent
    C) to be sent D) to send
    E) are going to send

19- The guest rooms …… before your cousins from Canada visit us.

  1. A) will have to be redecorated
  2. B) used to be redecorated
  3. C) will have redecorated
  4. D) must have redecorated
  5. E) had been redecorated

20- The actress Coral Atkins was so appalled by the way children ……. in state homes that she ……. her own children’s home.

  1. A) are treating/was opening
  2. B) have been treated/is opened
  3. C) had treated/opens
  4. D) were treated/opened
  5. E) will be treating/is going to open

21- Coral Atkins devoted her life …. providing a home for unwanted children.

  1. A) with B) for C) to                    D) about
  2. E) in

22- I hope we ……. with lunch after the presentation as I haven’t brought any sandwiches.

  1. A) were served B) have been served
    C) serve D) are serving
    E) will be served

23- Professional microbiologists …….. in a wide variety of positions, but the majority …….. in universities, government agencies or industry.

  1. A) are employed/work
  2. B) used to employ/worked
  3. C) employ/have been worked
  4. D) were employed/will have worked
  5. E) can employ/should work

24- John ……. for his directness, but I think his remarks to David ……. as plain rude!

  1. A) has known/should be described
  2. B) is known/can be described
  3. C) knew/will be describing
  4. D) has been known/were describing
  5. E) knows/must have described

25- I ……. that the car is any good until I ……. it myself.

  1. A) haven’t been convinced/drove
  2. B) wasn’t convincing/was driving
  3. C) won’t be convinced/have driven
  4. D) wasn’t convinced/had been driven
  5. E) can’t be convinced/have been driven

26- The town of Balboa is situated on the site of a swamp, which ……. with the rocks dug out while the Panama Canal

  1. A) has been filled/was constructing
  2. B) has been filling/will be constructed
  3. C) was filling/had been constructed
  4. D) was filled/was being constructed
  5. E) will be filled/has been constructing

27- The tea tree ……. only in Australia, but recently people around the world ……. the oil for many medicinal purposes.

  1. A) grows/have been using
  2. B) was grown/were using
  3. C) has been grown/use
  4. D) is growing/will have used
  5. E) grew/had been used

28- Tom Thumb, the famous dwarf of the 19th century, was born Charles Sherwood Stratton, but later he ……. by his stage name.

  1. A) knew B) will know
    C) has been known             D) has known
    E) was known

29- Tom Thumb ……. parents of normal height, but he only ……. to a height of 3 feet 4 inches.

  1. A) has/had been grown
  2. B) had/grew
  3. C) is having/will be grown
  4. D) had had/will grow
  5. E) was having/has grown

30-After the workers ……. from their jobs at the factory, not many of them ……. jobs quickly.

  1. A) were dismissed/had been found
  2. B) have been dismissed /were finding
  3. C) dismiss/are finding
  4. D) will have dismissed/can find
  5. E) had been dismissed/found

31- Residents who live near the nuclear power plant worry that their children ……. to radioactivity.

  1. A) expose
  2. B) exposed
  3. C) will have exposed
  4. D) had exposed
  5. E) are being exposed

32- Our manager usually comes to work dressed ……. a three piece pinstriped suit.

  1. A) with B) on                              C) in                D) about
  2. E) for

33- The organisers claim that visitors ……. at the exhibits at the EXPO2000 exhibition in Hanover, Germany.

  1. A) will be amazed
  2. B) are going to amaze
  3. C) will have amazed
  4. D) have been amazing
  5. E) had amazed

34- When you ……. an advertisement, you ……. into account the type of people you want to be attracted to it.

  1. A) are being designed/must Lake .
  2. B) designed/had better take
  3. C) are designing/have to take
  4. D) will design/have been taken
  5. E) had designed/will be taking

35- The National Lottery ……. twice a week in the UK: Wednesday and Saturday.

  1. A) is drawn B) is drawing
    C) was drawing D) draws
    E) has drawn

36- At the beginning of the 2Oth century most solid waste …….. of by dumping it onto vacant land near where it ….. .

  1. A) had disposed/has generated
  2. B) has been disposed/generates
  3. C) will have disposed/is generating
  4. D) disposed/has been generated
  5. E) was disposed/was generated

37- Unlike many top tennis tournaments, the matches at Wimbledon are played …… grass courts.

  1. A) with B) about C) in                 D) on
  2. E) by

38-After I …… ants in the kitchen, I …… the crack in the wall with ant powder.

  1. A) had discovered/filled
  2. B) was discovered/was filled
  3. C) was discovering/should fill
  4. D) have discovered/was filling
  5. E) discover/have been filled

39- Many home appliances, like vacuum  cleaners or microwave ovens, ……. for their labour-saving or time-saving capabilities, while others ……. for their convenience.

  1. A) have chosen/will purchase
  2. B) are chosen/are purchased
  3. C) will be chosen/purchase
  4. D) are choosing/have purchased
  5. E) choose/will be purchased

40- Airliners …….. parachutes because it is impractical to instruct passengers in their use in an emergency situation.

  1. A) aren’t carried
  2. B) weren’t carrying
  3. C) won’t be carried
  4. D) don’t carry
  5. E) hadn’t carried

41- You …… for the name of the caller before you transfer any calls.

  1. A) used to ask
  2. B) have asked
  3. C) may have asked
  4. D) should have asked
  5. E) must ask

42- It’s surprising that, of the few Viking helmets that ……. in excavations so far, none …… horns.

  1. A) were found/may have
  2. B) were finding/had
  3. C) have been found/have
  4. D) had found/were having
  5. E) are found/are having

43- The enormously heavy bill which …. the shoveler bird its name ……. for feeding on the surface of ponds and lakes.

  1. A) was given/had been adapting
  2. B) has been given/will be adapted
  3. C) was giving/has adapted
  4. D) gives/is adapted
  5. E) will give/had been adapted

44- Because air navigation is concerned with direction and distance, the plane must be equipped ……… devices for measuring these factors.

  1. A) about B) with C) by               D) on
  2. E) from

45- Of the many methods that are available today, only radio navigation ……. for all-weather flying.

  1. A) has been using
  2. B) will have used
  3. C) can be used
  4. D) had been used
  5. E) could have used

46- According to the autopsy results, the victim was shot in the back ……. a semi automatic hand gun ……. a left-handed person.

  1. A) for /from B) from/with C) in/about                   D) with/by
  2. E) by/for

47- Although very often the autopsy …… only with forensic, or legal, medicine in the determination of the cause or details of death from foul play, it …… a number of other purposes as well.

  1. A) is associated/serves
  2. B) has been associated/is served
  3. C) associated/was serving
  4. D) was associated/has been served
  5. E) had associated /served

48- The community centre can be used ……. meetings of the club whenever needed.

  1. A) with B) about C) by              D) from
  2. E) for

49- The manufacturer was ……. with excitement at receiving his first large order.

  1. A) influenced B) considered C) depressed     D) filled
  2. E) covered

50- After his brother made his fortune on the stock market, Scott was convinced ……. the wisdom of investing his money in stocks and shares.

  1. A) with B) from C) for               D) at
  2. E) of

 

51-60. sorularda, verilen Türkçe cümlenin İngilizce dengini bulunuz.

 

51- Fransız yazar Albert Camus’un romanları ve oyunları duygusuz, anlamsız bir evreni yansıtır.

  1. A) In his novels and plays, the French author Albert Camus wrote mainly about an indifferent, nonsensical universe.
  2. B) The novels and plays of the French author Albert Camus reflect an indifferent, meaningless universe.
  3. C) Albert Camus’s novels and plays are often set in an imaginary, nonsensical universe.
  4. D) The French author Albert Camus wrote many plays and books about an indifferent, meaningless universe.
  5. E) Albert Camus, the French author, has a selection of novels and plays describing an indifferent, absurd universe.

 

 

52- Duyduğuma göre, Brown’ların evi, hepsi evde bir filme dalmışken soyulmuş.

  1. A) According to what I’ve heard, the Browns’ house was burgled while they were all at home absorbed in a film.
  2. B) I heard that the Brown’s house was actually burgled while they were all at home watching a film.
  3. C) The Browns were so involved in a film that, apparently, they didn’t even hear some burglars break into their house.
  4. D) I was surprised to hear that the Browns’ house was broken into when they were all at home intently watching a film,
  5. E) Apparently, thieves slipped into the back of the Browns’ house while they were all watching a film on television,

53- Bölgedeki personeli korumak ve hassas enstrümanların güvenliğini sağlamak için nükleer reaktörlerin işletilmesinde büyük dikkat gerekmektedir,

  1. A) The safety of personnel and the protection of sensitive instruments are of great importance during the operation of nuclear reactors.
  2. B) During the operation of nuclear reactors, extreme care should be taken by the personnel in the area to protect the sensitive instruments.
  3. C) In the operation of nuclear reactors, great care is required to protect the personnel in the area and to secure the safety of the sensitive instruments.
  4. D) When operating nuclear reactors, the personnel have to take great care with safety procedures as the instruments are highly sensitive.
  5. E) They ought to take great care over the safety of personnel and the protection of the sensitive instruments in the area of the nuclear operations.

 

 

 

 

54- Eskiden Ortak Pazar ya da Avrupa Topluluğu diye bilinen, Avrupa’nın ekonomik ve politik entegrasyonu için kurulmuş organizasyon, 1993’te Avrupa Birliği adını almıştır.

  1. A) Founded in 1993, the European Union, formerly the Common Market or the European Community, aims to promote economic and political integration throughout Europe.
  2. B) The European Union, renamed in 1993, which had been formerly known both as the Common Market and the European Community, serves to promote economic and political integration of Europe.
  3. C) Inl993, the European Community, formerly known as the Common Market, took the name European Union and began to promote both political and economic harmony within Europe.
  4. D) Formerly known as the Common Market or European Community, the organisation founded for the economic and political integration of Europe took the name European Union in 1993.
  5. E) The institution which has promoted economic and political integration of Europe since 1993 used to be known as the Common Market, and later, the European Community.

55- Sığırlar önce Asya’da evcilleştirilmiş olmalı; çünkü en eski sığır kemikleri, oradaki yerleşim bölgelerinde bulunmuştur.

  1. A) According to evidence in the form of ‘ bones, Asians were most likely the first people to domesticate cattle.
  2. B) The practice of domesticating cattle most likely originated in Asia, where the oldest cattle bones have been found.
  3. C) Cattle bones which have been found in Asia are believed to be from the oldest examples of domesticated animals.
  4. D) Because very old bones have been discovered in settlements in Asia, cattle might have been first domesticated there.
  5. E) Cattle must have been domesticated in Asia first, for the oldest cattle bones have been found in settlements there.

56- Dünya Bankası’nın amacı, üye ülkelerdeki ekonomik gelişmeyi destekleyecek projeleri finanse etmektir.

  1. A) The World Bank promotes economic development throughout the world by financing projects.
  2. B) The purpose of the World Bank is to finance projects that promote economic development in member nations.
  3. C) The member nations use the World Bank to finance projects which promote economic development.
  4. D) The World Bank aims to promote economic development in member nations by financing worldwide projects.
  5. E) The World Bank was set up to encourage development in the economies of member nations by financing projects.

57- Gilbert Stuart, özellikle George Washington’ın parlak renkli portreleriyle tanınır.

  1. A) George Washington was a favourite subject of Gilbert Stuart’s luminously coloured portraits.
  2. B) Gilbert Stuart is especially known for his luminously coloured portraits of George Washington.
  3. C) Well-known artists, particularly Gilbert Stuart, painted some luminous portraits of George Washington.
  4. D) The famous artist Gilbert Stuart’s portraits of George Washington are all luminously coloured.
  5. E) Gilbert Stuart’s best-known work is a luminously coloured portrait of George Washington.

58- Zor durumlardaki davranış biçiminin, insanın gerçek karakterini açığa çıkardığı söylenir.

  1. A) It is believed that a person’s behaviour under pressure is a test of his or her strength of character.
  2. B) People say that how a person behaves in difficult times can show his or her true strength of character.
  3. C) Often people don’t act their true selves when they are faced with great difficulties.
  4. D) It’s said that the way one behaves in difficulties reveals one’s real character.
  5. E) A person’s true character is evident in his or her behaviour at times of real trouble.

59- Sence yeni program gelecek ay bu zamanlar uygulamaya konmuş olur mu?

  1. A) Do you think the new schedule will have been introduced by this time next month?
  2. B) You think the new schedule will be introduced about this time next month, don’t you?
  3. C) In your opinion, the new schedule should be introduced by this time next month, shouldn’t it?
  4. D) Do you believe that they will have introduced the new schedule by the end of next month?
  5. E) I believe we will have been introduced the new schedule before this time next month, don’t you?

60- Özel diyetler ve daha bilimsel bakım sayesinde hayvanat bahçelerinde eskiden olduğundan çok daha fazla yavru doğmaktadır.

  1. A) A combination of special diets and scientific care has led to an increase in the number of baby animals born in zoos.
  2. B) The increase in births of animals in zoos recently is due mainly to special diets and more scientific care.
  3. C) Thanks to special diets and more scientific care, many more baby animals are being born in zoos than in the past.
  4. D) In the past, very few baby animals were born in zoos, but recently, this has improved due to scientific care and special diets.
  5. E) The baby animals bom in zoos today are given special diets and scientific care, which results in more of them surviving than they did in the past.
61-70, sorularda, verilen ingilizce cümlenin Türkçe dengini bulunuz.

61- In world markets, the bigger South American bananas are preferred over the African varieties.

  1. A) Dünya piyasalarında daha çok, Afrika türlerine göre daha irice olan Güney Amerika muzu rağbet görmektedir..
  2. B) Dünya piyasalarında, Afrika’daki türlerine tercih edilen Güney Amerika muzu daha iridir.
  3. C) Dünya piyasaları, Afrika’daki türlerine göre daha irice olan Güney Amerika muzunu tercih etmektedir.
  4. D) Dünya piyasalarında en çok rağbet gören muz, Afrika türlerinden daha iri olan Güney Amerika muzudur.
  5. E) Daha iri olan Güney Amerika muzu, dünya piyasalarında, Afrika türlerine tercih edilmektedir.

62- Many forms of anemia are acquired, which shows that they are not due to genetic disorders but develop after birth.

  1. A) Bulgular göstermiştir ki aneminin, doğuştan gelen genetik bozukluklardan kaynaklanmayıp sonradan gelişen pek çok türü vardır.
  2. B) Pek çok anemi türü sonradan ortaya çıktığına göre, bu hastalığın bazı türleri genetik bozukluktan kaynaklanmıyor, daha çok doğduktan sonra gelişiyor.
  3. C) Aneminin pek çok türü genetik bir bozukluktan kaynaklanmayıp sonradan edinildiği için bu hastalığın doğduktan sonra geliştiği söylenebilir.
  4. D) Aneminin pek çok türü sonradan edinilmektedir ki bu da onların genetik bozukluktan dolayı olmadığını, doğduktan sonra geliştiğini göstermektedir.
  5. E) Bazı anemi türleri genetik bir bozukluktan kaynaklanmayıp doğduktan sonra ortaya çıkmaktadır ki bu da onların sonradan edinildiğini gösterir.

63- At yesterday’s committee meeting, very interesting suggestions were made while the programme for the coming season was being discussed.

  1. A) Komitenin dünkü toplantısında, önümüzdeki sezonun programıyla ilgili çok ilginç öneriler tartışıldı.
  2. B) Dünkü komite toplantısında, gelecek sezonun programı tartışılırken çok ilginç öneriler yapıldı.
  3. C) Komite, dünkü toplantısında, gelecek sezonun programını görüşürken çok ilginç öneriler getirdi,
  4. D) Dünkü komite toplantısının gündemi, ilginç önerilerin tartışıldığı gelecek sezonun programıydı.
  5. E) Çok ilginç önerilerin yapıldığı gelecek sezonun program tartışması dünkü komite toplantısında yapıldı.

64- The police think that this assault case is connected with the murder committed last week in the dockyards.

  1. A) Polis, bu saldın olayının geçen hafta tersanede işlenen cinayetle bağlantılı olduğunu düşünüyor.
  2. B) Polise göre, bu saldın olayıyla geçen hafta tersanede işlenen cinayet arasında bağlantı olabilir.
  3. C) Polis, geçen haftaki tersane cinayetiyle bu saldın arasında bağlantı olduğundan kuşkulanıyor.
  4. D) Polis, bu saldın olayının geçen hafta tersanede işlenen cinayetle ilişkisi olabileceği kanısında.
  5. E) Polis, bu saldırı ile geçen hafta tersanede işlenen cinayet arasında bir bağlantı olduğunu zannediyordu.

65- Children learn to speak without any special training, but reading and writing need to be specially taught.

  1. A) Çocuklar konuşmayı özel bir eğitim olmaksızın öğrenirler ama okuma ve yazmanın özel olarak öğretilmesi gerekir.
  2. B) Çocuklar özel bir çaba sarfetmeden konuşmayı öğrenebilirler ancak okuma ve yazmanın öğretilmesi eğitimi gerektirir.
  3. C) Çocuklar konuşmayı öğrenmek için özel bir eğitim almazlar fakat okuma yazma öğrenmek için özel bir eğitime ihtiyaçları vardır.
  4. D) Çocuklar konuşmayı kendiliğinden Öğrendikleri halde okuma yazmayı ancak özel bir eğitimle öğrenebilirler.
  5. E) Çocuklar konuşmayı öğrenirken özel bir eğitim gerekmese de. okuma yazma öğrenebilmeleri için özel bir eğitim şarttır.

66- Over many centuries people have cleared away great expanses of forests for agriculture and settlement.

  1. A) Asırlardır büyük miktarlarda orman insanlar tarafından tarım ve yerleşim için yok edilmektedir.
  2. B) İnsanlar, asırlar boyunca ormanları büyük ölçüde tarım ve yerleşim için yok ettiler.
  3. C) Asırlar boyunca insanlar, büyük miktarlarda ormanı, tarım ve yerleşim için yok etmişlerdir.
  4. D) insanlar, asırlardan beri büyük miktarlarda ormanı yok ederek tarım ve yerleşim alanı yapmışlardır.
  5. E) İnsanların, tarım ve yerleşim için büyük orman alanlarını yok etme eylemleri asırlardan beri devam etmektedir.

67- According to Aztecs law, theft of corn from a field used to be punished by slavery or execution.

  1. A) Tarladan mısır çalına suçu, Aztek yasalarına göre, köle olmayı ya da idam edilmeyi gerektiriyordu.
  2. B) Aztek yasaları, tarladan mısır çalmayı kölelik ya da idamla cezalandırırdı.
  3. C) Aztek yasalarında, mısırın tarladan çalınmasının cezası kölelik ya da idam olurdu.
  4. D) Yasalara göre Aztekler, tarladan mısır çalanları köleliğe ya da idama mahkum ederlerdi.
  5. E) Aztek yasalarına göre. tarladan mısır çalmak kölelik ya da idamla cezalandırılırdı.

68- The relics left in caves have helped greatly in tracing the movements of early people and in understanding their lives.

  1. A) İlk insanların faaliyetlerinin takip edilmesinde ve onların yaşamlarının anlaşılmasında mağaralarda bırakılan kalıntılardan yararlanılmıştır.
  2. B) Mağaralarda bırakılan kalıntılar, ilk insanların etkinliklerinin izini sürmede ve onların yaşamını anlamada çok yardımcı olmuştur.
  3. C) Mağaralardaki kalıntılar sayesinde ilk insanların etkinliklerinin izini sürüp yaşam biçimlerini büyük ölçüde anlayabildik.
  4. D) İlk insanların mağaralarda bıraktıkları kalıntılar, onların etkinliklerini izlememizi ve yaşam tarzlarım anlamamızı sağlamıştır.
  5. E) İlk insanların faaliyetlerini izlemek ve yaşam tarzlarını anlamak için büyük Ölçüde mağaralardaki kalıntılar kullanılmıştır.

69- In ancient Egypt, not only humans but sacred animals, particularly cats, were also mummified.

  1. A) Eski Mısır’da kutsal hayvanlar olarak kabul edilen kediler, aynı insanlar gibi, mumyalanırdı.
  2. B) Eski Mısırlılar, yalnızca insanları değil, kedi gibi, kutsal kabul ettikleri hayvanları da mumyalıyorlardı.
  3. C) Eski Mısırlılar, kutsal olduğunu düşündükleri hayvanları, özellikle de kedileri, aynı insanlar gibi mumyalıyorlardı.
  4. D) Eski Mısır’da sadece insanlar değil, kutsal hayvanlar da, özellikle kediler, mumyalanıyordu.
  5. E) Eski Mısır’da insanların yanı sıra, özellikle kediler başta olmak üzere, kutsal hayvanlar da mumyalanmıştır.

70- As a breed, Holsteins are noted for producing the most milk, but their milk ranks among the lowest in butterfat percentage.

  1. A) Sütü yağ oranı bakımından en alt sıralarda yer almasına karşın, holstein cinsi, çok büyük miktarda süt verdiği için rağbet görmektedir.
  2. B) Cins olarak holsteinlar en fazla süt vermekle dikkati çeker ama sütleri yağ oranı bakımından en alt sıralarda yer alır.
  3. C) Cins olarak süt verimleri çok yüksek olsa da holsteinlar, sütlerindeki yağ oranının azlığı nedeniyle en alt sıralarda yer almaktadırlar.
  4. D) Süt verimlerinin yüksek oluşuyla dikkati çeken holstein cinsinin alt sıralarda yer almasının nedeni sütlerindeki yağ oranının azlığıdır.
  5. E) Holsteinlar, süt verimi çok yüksek bir cins olarak bilinir ama onlar sıralamada sütlerindeki yağ oranı bakımından en alttadır.

 

 

 

71-85. sorularda, verilen cümleye anlamca en yakın olan seçeneği bulunuz.

71- This morning I drove past a pheasant, which had been run over.

  1. A) I passed a pheasant, which someone had run over, in my car this morning.
  2. B) This morning I overtook the driver who had run down a pheasant in his car.
  3. C) Unfortunately, I ran over a pheasant in my car this morning.
  4. D) I couldn’t avoid running over a pheasant, which appeared in front of me so suddenly, this morning.
  5. E) I’m afraid 1 killed a pheasant this morning as I ran over it.

72- Due to a school boy’s protests, a hazard Warning sign has been erected at the point where ducks often cross the road.

  1. A) A school boy protested about the hazard warning sign, which had been put up at a place near a habitat of ducks.
  2. B) They pul up a hazard warning sign at the place which is frequently used by ducks to cross the road after the protests by a pupil.
  3. C) A school boy suggests that the ducks could be protected if they put a hazard warning sign on the road.
  4. D) A pupil from a nearby school put up a hazard warning sign at the side of the road in order to protect the ducks which often cross there.
  5. E) The hazard warning sign was erected to warn the school boys not to disturb the ducks which live near the side of the road.

73- Not being selected for promotion disappointed him.

  1. A) He will be disappointed if he is not chosen for promotion.
  2. B) To his disappointment, they gave the manager’s job to someone else.
  3. C) Me was disappointed when he was not chosen for promotion.
  4. D) He wasn’t promoted because his performance was so disappointing.
  5. E) His disappointment must have been connected with his colleague’s promotion.

74- Despite being criticised by journalists, the Millennium Dome has attracted thousands of visitors.

  1. A) Thousands of people have visited the Millennium Dome even though journalists criticised it.
  2. B) The Millennium Dome had received thousands of visitors before journalists criticised it.
  3. C) Many of the visitors to the Millennium Dome have criticised it to journalists.
  4. D) The criticism of journalists dissuaded thousands of people from visiting the Millennium Dome.
  5. E) The Millennium Dome has been criticised by thousands of journalists who have visited it.

75- In England, as in Turkey, many surnames are derived from the skills and professions of ancestors.

  1. A) Most sons in England, as in Turkey, are named after their father’s profession.
  2. B) Surnames in most countries, including England and Turkey, are based on the names of former skills and professions.
  3. C) Different from in Turkey, many of our ancestors in England were named after their skill or profession.
  4. D) Surnames in England can often be traced back to the skills and professions of ancestors, as is the case in Turkey.
  5. E) Many skills or professions in both England and Turkey are named after the surnames of the ancestors who carried them out.

76- This course of ours has been developed for users with no experience of Microsoft Excel.

  1. A) We believe that the people who developed this course have never used Microsoft Excel.
  2. B) We require you to have at least some experience of Microsoft Excel to take this course.
  3. C) During this course, we will help you develop your skills on Microsoft Excel.
  4. D) Your skills on Microsoft Excel will be enhanced during this course of ours.
  5. E) We have designed this course for people who have never used Microsoft Excel.

77- An effective antibacterial substance in crocodiles’ blood has just been discovered.

  1. A) They have very recently identified an effective antibody in crocodiles’ blood.
  2. B) Crocodiles have remarkable antibacterial substances in their blood.
  3. C) The latest discovery in the field of medicine is that crocodiles have an effective antibody in their blood.
  4. D) They have just started looking at crocodiles’ blood in order to find an antibody which fights resistant bacteria.
  5. E) Scientists have concluded that crocodiles’ blood must contain antibodies.

78- Generally, scientists prefer to keep the details of their research secret until something has been proved.

  1. A) Scientists often worry about public reaction to their research if they haven’t proved something with concrete evidence.
  2. B) In general, up until they have proved something, scientists would rather not disclose details of their research.
  3. C) Usually, people would like to learn the details of scientists’ research even before they have proved their theories.
  4. D) Scientists don’t have to release information about their work until they have proved something.
  5. E) Generally, scientists keep their findings to themselves, especially when they are difficult to explain to the public.

79- Before Mozambique can be restored to normal, considerable investment is required.

  1. A) It’s normal that Mozambique requires significant investment in order to acheive a higher standard of living.
  2. B) The fate of Mozambique can only be altered with sizeable investment.
  3. C) Normally, stability in Mozambique cannot be achieved without some investment from overseas.
  4. D) They consider investing large sums to help relieve the suffering in Mozambique.
  5. E) Mozambique will need significant investment before the country can return to normal.

80- In Greek mythology, Medusa transformed whoever looked into her eyes to stone.

  1. A) According to Greek myth, anyone who glanced into the eyes of Medusa was turned to stone.
  2. B) The ancient Greeks believed that Medusa was capable of turning people to stone by looking at them.
  3. C) Medusa in Greek myth was a monster who turned lots of people into stone by glancing at them.
  4. D) It’s believed that Medusa in Greek mythology was turned into stone when people looked into her eyes.
  5. E) Medusa is a Greek goddess who is believed to turn anything she looks at to stone.

 

81- Despite a great deal of improvements in public transport, congestion on the roads in Birmingham is getting worse.

  1. A) The problem of Birmingham’s congested roads could be solved with significant improvement to public transport.
  2. B) A great deal of improvements in public transport are needed in order to relieve the congestion on Birmingham’s roads.
  3. C) Public transport has been improved considerably, yet the roads in Birmingham are getting more and more congested.
  4. D) More roads are needed in Birmingham to relieve the congestion, which has been increasing due to inadequate public transport.
  5. E) Congestion in Birmingham could not be reduced until they built new roads and improved public transport a great deal.

82- The current English national football team manager used to be a player for Liverpool.

  1. A) At the moment, he manages both the English national football team and Liverpool.
  2. B) Before he managed the English national football team, he managed Liverpool.
  3. C) At one time the person currently managing the English national team played for Liverpool.
  4. D) He used to play for Liverpool, but now he only plays for the Englishnational football team.
  5. E) Currently, he combines managing the English national football team with playing for Liverpool.

83- Every year, our local florist donates the flowers for the charity’s annual concert.

  1. A) The flowers for the yearly charity concert are always donated by the florist in our neighbourhood.
  2. B) This year, the florist in our neighbourhood supplied the flowers for the charity’s annual concert.
  3. C) Our local florist didn’t charge the charity for the flowers which she provided for their concert.
  1. D) Every year, the charity asks the florist in our neighbourhood to donate some flowers for their concerts.
  2. E) Some of the profits from the flowers sold by our local florist go to fund the charity’s annual concert.

84- Why this girl was sacrificed on the mountain summit will probably remain a mystery for ever.

  1. A) It appears that it will take some time to prove why this girl was sacrificed on the mountain summit,
  2. B) The reason for this mountain top sacrifice of a girl has to be discovered.
  3. C) It isn’t yet clear why such a sacrifice of a young girl on a mountain top took place.
  4. D) It is likely that the reason for the sacrifice of this girl on the top of the mountain will never be known.
  5. E) We only have vague theories about. why these sacrifices of girls took place on mountain tops.

85- Tom Higdon was dismissed from his job as a teacher in 1911 for suggesting that the children of farm workers should be educated.

  1. A) Tom Higdon was fired from his job as a teacher in 1911 when he refused to educate the children of agricultural workers.
  2. B) In 1911, the teacher Tom Higdon was fired because he proposed the education of children of farm workers.
  3. C) Tom Higdon’s suggestions in 1911 that the children of farm workers didn’t deserve to be educated led to his dismissal.
  4. D) In 1911, Tom Higdon was fired from his post as a teacher for teaching the children of farm workers who shouldn’t have been educated.
  5. E) After being fired from his teaching position in 1911, Tom Higdon suggested that the children of farm workers ought to be educated.

 

 

 

 

 

TEST YOUR VOCABULARY

 

 

1-   The grass shouldn’t be ……. today as the ground is too wet at the moment.

  1. A) harvested B) mowed C) picked                  D) walked                                E) chopped

2-   According to health and safety ……… for hotels, there must be a fire extinguisher on every floor.

  1. A) bookings B) reservations C) regulations               D) disasters                                  E) accounts

3-   The chemical spill ……… the river and killed a lot of fish.

  1. A) combined B) demolished C) demoralised        D) corrupted                             E) contaminated

4-  There were two ……. for president of the club: the former president and last year’s safety officer.

  1. A) fighters B) wrestlers C) tutors             D) candidates                            E) pupils

5- The present Queen ……. her father, King George VI, to the British throne.

  1. A) succeeded B) pretended C) derived                       D) ascended                            E) beat

6-   Most of my credit card bill was the Expenses for my business trip to Paris — the …… was for petrol.

  1. A) remainder B) whole C) ruin               D) closure                                 E) portion

7-   The screws had been loose for ages, but yesterday the chair ……. when Ali, who is really fat, sat on it.

  1. A) deflated B) collapsed C) capsized       D) blew up                                 E) crashed

8-   We asked for a/an ……. from two companies for building an extension to our house. In the end, we chose the cheaper company.

  1. A) quotation B) evolution C) receipt                   D) promotion                      E) auction

9-   When the passer-by had a heart attack, Paula knew that she had to ……. his clothing, so she immediately undid his tie.

  1. A) wrinkle B) tighten C) enlarge                  D) loosen                                   E) fold

10- The police chief announced that the pickpocket was not working alone. He was a member of a street ……. .

  1. A) post B) party C) band                      D) team                                     E) gang

11- The shopkeeper was ……. by the Mafia until he agreed to pay them some ‘insurance’ money every week.

  1. A) threatened B) employed C) murdered        D) robbed                                  E) praised

12- Of course, I didn’t enjoy my time in hospital, but the other ……. on my ward were very friendly, so at least, I didn’t feel lonely.

  1. A) employees B) patients C) relatives             D) enemies                                 E) delegates

13- Students can get a ten percent ……. in this sports shop if they carry their student cards.

  1. A) decrease B) affair                           C) discount              D) calculation                               E) reception

 

 

14- The original plan included a club trip to the Lake District, but as several other events exceeded their budget, they had to …….. this idea.

  1. A) carry B) associate C) capture                      D) apply                                 E) abandon

15- Geoff got ……. from Brown’s Bradford branch to their head quarters in Reading.

  1. A) sacked B) transferred C) divided                    D) altered                                E) resigned

16- Following reports that children had been mistreated in children’s homes in Wales, the government ……. an official investigation immediately.

  1. A) cancelled B) launched  C) ascended       D) happened                              E) rotated

17- According to my …,.,., carpet for our living room, which measures 3 metres by 7 metres, would cost £420 if we chose this carpet at £2O per square metre.

  1. A) excavations B) tastes                            C) renovations              D) preferences                       E) calculations

18- Our bathroom is painted blue and it has blue and white …… around the sink and bath.

  1. A) ceilings B) gates C) pavements            D) tiles                                   E) chimneys

19- The …….. about the number of prisoners in jail in America in last week’s Guardian newspaper was written by Duncan Campbell.

  1. A) volume B) photograph C) article             D) documentary                     E) video

20- After the children have gone home, the caretaker ……. the floor in each classroom and locks up.

  1. A) sweeps B) rinses C) takes               D) folds                                     E) messes

21- There was a man standing outside the shopping mall handing out …….. about the new Italian restaurant.

  1. A) bookings B) classes C) reports                       D) directories                          E) leaflets

22- During the rescue operation that followed the earthquake, …….. hospitals in tents were set up in the area.

  1. A) permanent B) fragile C) makeshift        D) resort                                   E) refuge

23- The boy fell into the river, and unfortunately, he …….. . It was a terrible tragedy.

  1. A) drowned B) dived C) skated             D) floated                            E) swam

24- Mining is a very dangerous …….. as many people die doing it each year.

  1. A) idea B) occupation C) vacation                    D) construction                      E) possession

25- When Bob learnt that he had to work on Saturday, he was …….. because he had been looking forward to some time with his family.

  1. A) humorous B) furious                                C) hopeless                D) penniless                        E) powerless

26- Olivia’s house was ……. damaged in the flood, and it cost her thousands of pounds to repair it.

  1. A) regularly B) offensively                   C) slightly            D) defensively                        E) extensively

 

 

 

 

27- The insurance company …….. my car at £4,000, so if it gets stolen, they will pay me this amount.

  1. A) value B) sell C) buy                       D) praise                                         E) drive

28- No one knows the …….. number of people who demonstrated in the capital, but the police estimated that there were about 125,000.

  1. A) average B) sizeable C) total             D) approximate                          E) possible

29- The rugby player had …….. his ankle so badly that he had to be carried off the pitch on a stretcher.

  1. A) wrinkled B) folded C) trained                  D) sprained                                E) mended

30- I really liked the blue long-sleeved jacket, but they didn’t have it in my …….. .

  1. A) colour B) shade C) shape                    D) volume                                E) size

31- Sheep shearers don’t usually get paid per hour. They normally get a certain amount for each …… .

  1. A) fur B) cover C) scarf                D) fleece                                E) coat

32- Jessie’s eye is ……. . Do you think someone has punched him in the eye?

  1. A) swollen B) short-sighted C) sharp             D) concentrated                        E) blinking

33- The grape …….. in the South of France was particularly good last year.

  1. A) result B) harvest           C) profit                      D) bundle                              E) event

34- In order to apply for a UK passport, the authorities need to see a/an …….. birth certificate. They will not accept a photocopy.

  1. A) master B) anonym  C) primitive      D) primary                                E) original

35- I’m really sorry, but I was very clumsy and …….. broke this vase.

  1. A) purposely B) cautiously C) accidentally       D) strongly                               E) carefully

36- Last year’s earthquake was an awful ……. that most residents will never forget.

  1. A) mishap B) casualty C) adventure                 D) catastrophe                         E) accident

37- I’m ……. to my neighbour, who takes me to hospital for tests whenever it is necessary.

  1. A) humoured B) opposed C) forced                    D) obliged                                 E) distressed

38- The managers were very ……. with Roy’s performance and promoted him to area sales manager.

  1. A) impressed B) involved                              C) disappointed            D) covered                              E) discouraged

39- The station is …… to the airport by a special mono-rail link.

  1. A) equipped B) limited C) provided                  D) furnished                           E) connected

40- Jimmy bought his computer …….. for work, but he finds it quite useful for writing personal letters, too.

  1. A) occasionally   B) absolutely                          C) primarily       D) suitably                              E) sufficiently

 

 

 

APPENDIX

 

PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS WITH PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES

 


A          be   absorbed in

be   accustomed to                                           be   acquainted with                                         be   addicted to                                    be   amazed at                                      be   annoyed with someone                  be   annoyed at/about something                      be   associated with                              be   astonished at

B         be  based on

be   bored with                                     be  blessed with

 

C         be   committed to

be  composed of

be   concerned about

be   confused with

be   connected to /with

be   convinced of

be   coordinated with

be   crowded with                                be   covered with/in

 

D         be   dedicated to                                              be   delighted at/with

            be   derived from

            be   disgusted at/with

            be   devoted to

be   disappointed with/at

be   discriminated against

be   divorced from

be   done with

be   dressed in

 

E         be  engaged to

be  equipped with

be   excited about

be   exposed to

 

F         be  filled with

be  finished with

be  furnished with

 

 

I          be   impressed with

be   interested in

be  involved in

 

K         be  known for

 

L        be   limited to

 

M       be  made of (if there is only physical change in the raw material)

be  made from (if the raw material changes chemically as well as physically)

be  made out of (if you alter an item, and use it with a different aim)

be  married to

 

O         be  obliged to someone

be  opposed to

 

P          be  pleased about/with

be  prepared for

be provided with

 

R          be   related to

be  remembered for

 

S           be   satisfied with

be   scared of

be   separated from

be   shocked at

be   surprised at

be   synchronized with

 

T          be  thrilled at/with

be  terrified of

be  tired of/from

be  troubled with

 

U          be  upset with someone

be used to

 

W       be  worried about

 

 

 

 

ELS 2001/4 ANSWER KEY

 

 

 

 

 

Exercise 1 (pg. 3)

  1. is being mowed 2.is mowed 3.was mowed 4.was being mowed 5.has been mowed 6.had been mowed 7.will be mowed 8.is going to be mowed 9.will have been mowed

Exercise 2 (pg. 4)

1.was brought to Istanbul in 1895 2.are still being asked for 3.have been searched, your luggage will be passed 4.has been contaminated by cyanide from a Romanian gold mine 5.was competed for by four candidates 6.had not been stolen by grave robbers 7.was put forward by the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle centuries ago 8.was painted by Toulouse Lautrec in 1894 9.was discovered by Luis Vaez de Torres in 1606  10.was heavily bombed by the Allies during World War II 11.is used for industrial purposes  12.will be paid compensation by the council  13.hadn’t been received   14.will have been collected by the time the lottery is drawn    15.is being plagued by a teenage gang 16.have been intimidated by members of the gang  17.are going to be provided by the Local Health Authority  18.are cared for by a specialist team of doctors and nurses  19.is best remembered today 20.will be written by the regional manager

Exercise 3 (pg. 6)

  1. are produced in the UK and in Turkey 2.was transferred from Leeds United to Manchester United

3.was kicked by a Manchester United striker during last Saturday’s match 4.was written by George Elliot 5.has been worked out by scientists all over the world from many plant and animal remains

  1. was designed by Christopher Wren 7.was carried out on St Paul’s Cathedral last year, 8.are provided with a car by the company 9.has been delayed 10.is used by a lot of teenagers 11.is being increased 25 percent 12.was sent special delivery 13-was sent by Mr Green personally 14.was shot by a six-year-old boy in February 2000 15.were stolen during WWII

Exercise 4 (pg. 8)

  1. Were these calculations made by Leonardo Da Vinci? 2.Which particular event is being referred to in section three of the report? 3. In 19th century England, who were the styles of Ottoman tiles copied by? 4. How many species of monkey are kept here? 5.How was his tyre punctured? 6. Who has this ridiculous newspaper article been written by? 7.Has our rubbish been collected? 8.Are the windows cleaned by the caretaker once a week? 9.When was General Pinochet released by the Home Secretary? 10.What has been dropped from the plan? 11.Who was interviewed by him yesterday? 12. Who was he interviewed by yesterday?  13.Why is carpet being laid in the kitchen? 14.Is all the carpet going to be laid today?  15.When are the leaflets we need going to be sent to us?

Exercise 5 (pg. 9)

1.passive form is possible but not natural (…you could be told of…) 2….when this sentence was written in a letter… 3.no change 4.A career as an artist had been opposed by his father.  5.However, he was allowed to go to London to study art in 1811, after his work was praised by Gilbert Stuart. 6…., he found that Americans were not interested in buying paintings.  7.He realised that very little could be earned from painting portraits.  8.Morse was inspired to invent the telegraph by a chance conversation while he…  9.He was told by a fellow passenger about European experiments in electromagnetism. 10.Morse remarked, “If the presence of electricity can be made visible in any part of the circuit, I see no reason why intelligence cannot be transmitted by electricity.”  11.no change 12.no change  13.Thus, years of work and study were required to perfect his device.   14.His determination was admired.   15.He was given practical help by the industrialist Alfred Vail, physicist Joseph Henry and others.   16.passive form is possible but not natural (…a patent was applied for by him on…)  17.no change  18…., he was appropriated $30,000 by the United States Congress to build aline…   19…., the first message was flashed over this wire.  20.no change 21.Use for the telegraph was quickly found by newspapers, railroads and businesses.  22. After Western Union had been founded in 1856, wires were soon strung from coast to coast.  23.no change 24.The code of dots and dashes used in sending messages is still known as the Morse code, in honour of its inventor. 25.When he died in 1872, on April 2, public memorial meetings were held across the nation.

 

 

Exercise 15 (pg. 26)       

1.would prefer the children to be supervised…  2. want to be given an opinion on their daughter’s condition by a doctor.  3.just want to be given a chance.  4. are expected to deliver the furniture…/is expected to be delivered… 5.hates being overtaken…  6.asked to be promoted to manager.  7. need to be provided.  8.likes being challenged 9.needs to be obtained…. 10.are not allowed to drive cars…/don’t allow cars to be driven…/are not allowed to be driven…

Exercise 16 (pg. 29)

1.It is assumed that she turned down…/She is assumed to have turned down…  2.1t is said that he knows…/He is said to know more than anyone…  3.It is suspected that he resigned…/He is suspected to have resigned…  4.It is believed that West Bromwich is…/West Bromwich is believed to be…  5.It is claimed that the company has…/The company is claimed to have…  6.It is expected that the company will sell…/The company is expected to sell…  7.It was observed that children in the Sudan were suffering…/Children in the Sudan were observed to be suffering… 8.It is reported that fighting has broken out…/Fighting is reported to have broken out… 9.It is understood that the government has introduced…/The government is understood to have introduced…   10.lt is expected that 50,000 people will lose. ../50,000 people are expected to lose their jobs…

Exercise 17 (pg. 30)

  1. a) l.was born 2.was became 4.was spent 5.seldom saw 6.was brought 7.1oved 8.gave 9.became 10.accompanied 11.had 12.was done 13.met 14.reasoned 15.be made 16.had anticipated 17.had permitted 18.were built (were being built) 19.decided 20.were made 21.became 22.1ed 23.was never defeated 24.was killed 25.was stabbed
  2. b) l.C E 3.B

Exercise 18 (pg. 31)

  1. a) l.rode 2.joined 3.was raised slept 5.started 6.rode 7.were lined 8.were waving (waved) 9.were shouting (snouted) 10.were woken 1 l.was surprised 12.was bordered (is bordered) 13.became (becomes) 14.rode 15.saw 16.had been moved (was moved) 17.had been threatened (was threatened) 18.was 19.had been cycling 20.had covered 21.were exhausted 22.stopped 23.had been entombed (were entombed) 24.found 25.raised (had raised) 26.1earnt (had learnt)
  2. b) l.E A 3.B

Exercise 19 (pg. 32)

  1. a) l.is divides 3.is 4.begin 5.launched 6.were not welcomed 7.have been 8.was opened 9,has so far been welcomed 10.is suspended 11.is 12.be accommodated 13-are expected 14.are employed 15.is divided 16.are sponsored 17.focuses 18.is sponsored 19.were lent 20.are covered
  2. b) l.C C 3.D

Exercise 20 (pg. 33)

  1. a) l.is transmitted is 3.is believed 4.suffered 5.originated 6.accompanied 7.was named 8.was also known 9.are exposed 10.is estimated 11.has become 12.worked 13.became 14.was diagnosed 15.had never been 16.had driven 17.became 18.had never been 19.had unloaded 20.became 21.is assumed 22.were carried 23.were released
  2. b) A 2.B   3-D

Exercise 21 (pg. 34)

  1. a) l.is going to be erected (is being erected/will be erected) 2.was 3.was born 4.was educated 5.became 6-broke travelled 8.applied 9.was not granted 10.applied 11.was recruiting 12.was denied 13.was not 14.went 15.established 16.went 17.went 18.was featured 19.was raised 2O.published 21.spent 22.had become 23.had been awarded 24.died 25.have been named
  2. b) l.B C 3.E

Exercise 22 (pg. 35)

  1. a) l.is situated 2.were once described 3.was founded 4.were written are still preserved 6.were educated 7.live 8.contains 9.are looked 10.are encouraged 11.is considered 12.come 13.have 14.find 15.are provided 16.are encouraged 17.is equipped 18.was opened 19.enter 20.gain
  2. b) D 2.A   3.B
ANSWER KEY to EXAMPLES FROM ÖYS/YDS

1-B  2-D  3-A  4-C  5-E  6-B  7-A  8-C  9-A  10-C  11-A  12-B

 

 

 

 

 

Exercise 6 (pg. 11)

l.was given the calendar/was given to him 2.will be told to the customers/will be told lies 3-will be given a pay rise/will be given to you  4.is going to be sent to us/are going to be sent a quotation S.were taught to Kate/was taught the basics of dressmaking 6.was presented with a beautiful retirement gift/was presented to their teacher 7.were provided for the victims of the earthquake/were provided with tents 8.was given a free T-shirt/was given to each volunteer tree planter

Exercise 7 (pg. 12)

1.is held/starts/lasts/walk/run/is allowed/is referred (has been referred) 2.fell/led/were made/were killed/died/hadn’t been built 3.is being questioned/was painted/appear/is valued/was painted/remained/was taken/suffered/crashed/ destroyed 4.take off/won’t be delayed 5.were rescued/had hit (hit) 6.has been shown 7.held/raised/was presented 8.caused/fell/were pushed /arrived /saved/was expected/was severely criticised 9.had been working/was recalled 10.was removed/could not be saved/died 11.are continually encountered/are eventually affected (will be eventually affected) 12.are found/have been named/are located 13.were offered/was filled/found/ate 14.looked/was hidden/hadn’t been mowed 15.were fitted/haven’t hung 16.are…doing/am being interviewed (am going to be interviewed/will be interviewedj/really want 17.have just been given/have dialled 18.are exported/grows 19.died/has been known 20.was officially opened/had been selling

Exercise 8 (pg. 14)

1.impose 2.be imposed 3.be destroyed 4.have been switched/leave 5.be worn 6.be recalled. 7.be operated 8.have been sold 9.always be rewritten 10.rewrite 11.find/have been thrown 12.buy/damage 13.have explained 14.be made/be washed 15.have priced/only sell 16.send/be converted 17.be relied/have taken 18.provide 19.have bought 20.have been left

Exercise 9 (pg. 15)

3.is heavily tarnished 4.was bored 5.is decorated/are all covered 6.is chipped 7.were exhausted 8.was insured 9.is concealed 10.is situated 11.was situated 12.is burnt 13.are still damaged 14.is divided 15.was annoyed 16.was broken 17.is dented 18.was crowded 19.was lost 20.was dyed

Exercise 10 (pg. 17)

1.about 2.for 3.from 4.at 5.to 6.for 7.from 8.with 9.with 10.to 11.to 12.against 13.about 14.with 15.with 16.with 17.to 18.with 19.with 20.to

Exercise 11 (pg. 18)

1.E 2.B 3.D 4.D 5.C 6.A 7.B 8.E 9.C 10.A 11.E 12.D 13.B 14.A 15.D 16.E 17.B 18.C 19.A 20.B

Exercise 12 (pg. 21)

2.get dressed 3.gets depressed 4.got more and more frightened 5.got promoted 6.gets confused 7.are both getting excited 8.gets embarrassed 9.will get delayed 10.were getting divorced 11.am getting upset 12.got damaged 13.will get encouraged 14.will get better acquainted  15.often get involved

Exercise 13 (pg. 23)

l.B  2.C  3.C 4.E  5.B  6.D  7.A 8.C  9.B   10.A  11.A  12.D   13.E  14.B   15.A

Exercise 14 (pg. 24)

I.He couldn’t be dissuaded from handing in his resignation by any of his colleagues. 2.His life couldn’t have been saved by anyone.  3…that they really shouldn’t have been paid anything.  4.No one in my family is interested in… 5.No one has been given any explanations yet.  6…, but nothing could be proved.  7.Nothing must be disturbed until…  8.Charlie couldn’t be beaten by anyone that day.  9.Nothing should be left unattended at the airport.   10.This chess tournament hasn’t been won by anyone from…

 

 

 

TEST  YOURSELF   1

 

1.B

 

2.C

 

3.C

 

4.D

 

5.E

 

6.A

 

7.C

 

8.A

 

9.A

 

10.B

 

11.C

 

12.C

 

13.D

 

14.E

 

15.A

 

16.D

 

17.E

 

18.E

 

19. B

 

2O. C

 

21.D

 

22.E

 

23.A

 

24.C

 

25.B

 

26.E

 

27.D

 

28.B

 

29.A

 

3O.A

 

31.C

 

32.A

 

33.E

 

34.B

 

35.D

 

TEST  YOURSELF   2

 

 

 

 

l.D

 

2.E

 

3.B

 

4. D

 

5.A

 

6.C

 

7.E

 

8.D

 

9.B

 

1O.C

 

ll.B

 

12. B

 

13. D

 

14.A

 

15.A

 

16.D

 

17.C

 

18.C

 

19.E

 

20.A

 

21.B

 

22.D

 

23. E

 

24.D

 

25. B

 

26.A

 

27.C

 

28.E

 

29.D

 

30.B

 

31.C

 

32. A

 

33.B

 

34.C

 

35.D

 

TEST  YOURSELF  3

 

l.B

 

2.B

 

3.C

 

4.A

 

5.D

 

6.E

 

7.C

 

8.D

 

9.A

 

1O.B

 

ll.E

 

12.B

 

13.B

 

14.C

 

15.E

 

16.B

 

17.A

 

18.C

 

19.D

 

2O.A

 

21.A

 

22.E

 

23. C

 

24.B

 

25.D

 

26.D

 

27.A

 

28.D

 

29.B

 

30.C

 

31.B

 

32.A

 

33.B

 

34. E

 

35.B

 

36.C

 

37.C

 

38.A

 

39.E

 

4O.B

 

41.A

 

42.B

 

43.D

 

44. C

 

45.B

 

TEST  YOURSELF   4

 

l.C

 

-2.A

 

3.E

 

4.C

 

5.B

 

6.D

 

7.A

 

8.B

 

9.E

 

1O.C

 

ll.D

 

12.A

 

13.E

 

14.E

 

15.A

 

16.C

 

17.B

 

18.C

 

19.A

 

20. D

 

21. C

 

22.E

 

23.A

 

24.B

 

25.C

 

26.D

 

27.A

 

28.E

 

29.B

 

3O.E

 

31.E

 

32.C

 

33.A

 

34. C

 

35.A

 

36.E

 

37.D

 

38.A

 

39.B

 

40.D

 

41.E

 

42.C

 

43.D

 

44.B

 

45.C

 

46.D

 

47.A

 

48.E

 

49.D

 

50.E

 

51.B

 

52.A

 

53.C

 

54.D

 

55.E

 

56.B

 

57.B

 

58.D

 

59.A

 

60. C

 

61.E

 

62.D

 

63.B

 

64.A

 

65.A

 

66.C

 

67.E

 

68.B

 

69.D

 

7O.B

 

71. A

 

72.B

 

73.C

 

74.A

 

75.D

 

76.E

 

77.A

 

78.B

 

79.E

 

80.A

 

81. C

 

82.C

 

83.A

 

84.D

 

85.B

 

TEST  YOUR VOCABULARY

 

l.B

 

2.C

 

3.E

 

4.D

 

5.A

 

6.A

 

7.B

 

8.A

 

9.D

 

10.E

 

11.A

 

12.B

 

13.C

 

14.E

 

15.B

 

16.B

 

17.E

 

18.D

 

19.C

 

20.A

 

21.E

 

22.C

 

23.A

 

24.B

 

25.B

 

2G.E

 

27.A

 

28. C

 

29.D

 

3O.E

 

31.D

 

32.A

 

33.B

 

34.E

 

35.C

 

36.D

 

37.D

 

38.A

 

39.E

 

40. C

 

 

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