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YDS LYS 5 ÇALIŞMA SERİ 6

TIKLA İNDİR

 

PART 1     NOUN CLAUSES       2                                                             PAGE

INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………………     2

1-1     NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH

A QUESTION WORD ……………………………………………………………………    2

1-2     NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH

“WHETHER… OR NOT”, “IF… OR NOT… “……………………………..    8

1-3     NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH “THAT” ………………………..   10

1-4     NOUN CLAUSES AS OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION …………..  14

1-5     TENSE RELATIONS BETWEEN THE

MAIN VERB AND THE NOUN CLAUSE ………………………………………..  15

1-6     ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT NOUN CLAUSES   …..   17

1-7     QUESTION WORDS FOLLOWED BY INFINITIVES ……………………..  18

1-8     “-EVER” WORDS IN NOUN CLAUSES   …………………………….  19

TEST YOURSELF 1 …………………………………………………………………………….  22

PART 2     INDIRECT SPEECH   …………………………………………………………..         29

INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………     29

2-1     REPORTING STATEMENTS ……………………………………………….    29

2-2      REPORTING QUESTIONS ………………………………………………………….    35

2-3     REPORTING IMPERATIVES   …………………………………………….     36

2-4     REPORTED SPEECH (MIXED TYPES)  ………………………………………     38

PART 3     AUXILIARY VERBS IN SHORT ANSWERS  ………………………….       40

3-1     “TOO” AND “EITHER”  ……………………………………………………………..     40

3-2     “SO” AND “NEITHER/NOR” ………………………………………………………     40

3-3     AUXILIARY VERBS IN SHORT QUESTIONS  …………………………..      43

3-4     “SO” AND “NOT” REPRESENTING A “THAT CLAUSE” ……………       43

3-5     QUESTION TAGS ……………………………………………………………………..     46

EXAMPLES FROM ÖYS/YDS ………………………………………………………….   48

TEST YOURSELF 2  …………………………………………………………………………..      51

TEST YOUR VOCABULARY   ……………………………………………………………   61


P A R T    1

N O U N   C L A U S E S

 

I N T R O D U C T I O N

Noun clause bir cümlede isim gibi işlev gören cümleciktir. Yani cümlede özne ya da nesne görevinde bulunabilir.

I don’t know the answer. (object)

noun

I don’t know      what the answer is. (object)

noun clause

I don’t know her address. (object)

noun

I don’t know where she lives. (object)     noun clause

Our discussion was private. (subject)

noun

What we talked about was private. (subject)          noun clause

Her address is unknown. (subject) noun

Where she lives is unknown. (subject) noun clause

Noun clause’ları üç ayrı grupta inceleyebiliriz:

1-     Noun clauses beginning with a question word (what, why, who, when, etc.)

2-     Noun clauses beginning with whether or not/if or not

3-     Noun clauses beginning with that

1-1    NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH A QUESTION WORD

Soru sözcüğü ile başlayan bir soruyu, noun clause biçimine dönüştürmek için öncelikle o cümleyi soru olmaktan kurtarmamız gerekir. Bunun için de soru cümlesi düzenini düz cümle düzenine dönüştürmeliyiz. Bilindiği gibi İngilizce soru cümlesi Yardımcı fiil + özne + yüklem formülü ile oluşturulur. Düz cümle ise Özne + yardımcı fiil + yüklem düzeniyle kurulur.

Question:           Why is he coming tomorrow?

Noun clause:    Why he is coming tomorrow is a secret.

Question:           What time does he start work?

Noun clause:     I don’t know what Lime he starts work.

Question:         When did he leave the country?

Noun clause:    When he left the country is still unknown.

Question:          Where are you going on holiday?

Noun clause:    Where we are going on holiday isn’t certain yet.

Question:          What are you going to buy for him?

Noun clause:    I haven’t decided yet what I am going to buy for him.

Question:          When did you buy that sweater?

Noun clause:    I can’t remember when I bought this sweater.

Question:          What have they done about this case?

Noun clause:    I have no idea what they have done about this case.

Eğer bir soru sözcüğü cümlenin öznesini soruyorsa, o soru cümlesinde özne olarak bir başka sözcük bulunmadığı için, cümleyi düz cümle biçimine dönüştüremeyiz. Bu nedenle, soru cümlesi ile noun clause’un sözcük dizimi aynı olur.

Question:          Who is coming tomorrow?

Noun Clause:    I don’t know who is coming tomorrow.

Question:          What is happening in that country?

Noun Clause:    What is happening in that country doesn’t concern me.

Question:          Whose daughter has passed the exam?

Noun Clause:    I haven’t heard whose daughter has passed the exam.

Question:          How many students are going to take the university exam?

Noun Clause:    I don’t know exactly how many students are going to take the university exam.

Simple Present Tense ve Simple Past Tense ile özneyi sorarken, “do, does” ya da “did” yardımcı fiilleri kullanılmaz.

Question:          Who comes to the office first?

Noun clause:     I don’t know who comes to the office first.

Question:          Who came to the office first this morning?

Noun clause:    I don’t know who came to the office first this morning.

Question:          Who locks the doors in the evening?

Noun clause:     I don’t know for sure who locks the doors in the evening.
Question:          Who locked the doors yesterday evening?

Noun clause:     I don’t remember who locked the doors yesterday evening.

Question:          What happens here at the weekend?

Noun clause:    Please tell me what happens here at the weekend.

Question:          What happened here yesterday?

Noun clause:     Please tell me what happened here yesterday.

Eğer aynı soru sözcüklerini kullanarak cümlenin nesnesini soruyorsak, “do, does” ya da “did”

yardımcı fiilleri kullanılır.

Who visits him every day? (“Who” özneyi soruyor.)

Onu her gün kim ziyaret ediyor?

I don’t know who visits him every day.

Onu her gün kimin ziyaret ettiğini bilmiyorum.

Who/whom does he visit every day? (Cümlede nesne durumundaki insanı sorarken “who” yerine “whom” da kullanabiliriz.)

O her gün kimi ziyaret ediyor?

I don’t know who/whom he visits every day.

Onun her gün kimi ziyaret ettiğini bilmiyorum.

Who visited him yesterday? (“Who” özneyi soruyor.)

Dün onu kim ziyaret etti?

I don’t know who visited him yesterday.

Dün onu kimin ziyaret ettiğini bilmiyorum.

Who /whom did he visit yesterday?

O dün kimi ziyaret etti?

I don’t know who/whom he visited yesterday.

Onun dün kimi ziyaret ettiğini bilmiyorum.

Who/whom did she go to the party with?

(With whom did she go to the party?)

I don’t know who/whom she went to the party with.

with whom she went to the party.

“Who, what, whose” gibi soru sözcükleriyle sorabileceğimiz şu soru tiplerine de dikkat ediniz:

Who are        those girls?

verb         subject

I don’t know who    those girls     are.            subject       verb

Who   is       that man?

verb       subject

I don’t know who    that man     is.

subject     verb

What        is        this substance?

verb         subject

Do you know what        this substance    is?

subject         verb

Whose     is        that car?             verb       subject

Do you know whose   that car     is? subject    verb

Whose book   is       this?     (or Whose     is      this book?)

verb   subject                        verb       subject

I don’t know whose book    this        is.    OR

subject   verb

I don’t know whose    this book     is.

subject       verb

Soru sözcüğüyle başlayan bir noun clause oluşturabilmek için, bu sıraladığımız kuralları dikkate alarak, örneklerde kullandığımız soru sözcüklerinin yanı sıra diğer bütün soru sözcüklerini de kullanabiliriz: which, how, how many, how much, how often, how long, etc.

EXERCISE   1    :    Change the question in parentheses to a noun clause.

1-   (What is the government saying about the incident?)   Do you know what the government is saying about the incident?

2-   (Why are the police at Mrs. Thomas’s house?)      I wonder why the police are at Mrs. Thomas’s house.

3-   (How can we help him with his financial problems?)  We don’t know  …………………………………………………………………………………………………… .

4-  (Where should I hang my coat?) Could you tell me ……………………………………………….?

5-  (Where will the meeting be held?) Has the manager told you ………………………………….?

6-  (Whose suggestion was this?) I would like to know …………………………………………….. .

7-  (Which universities offer courses in public relations?) I am trying to find out ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. .

8-   (How long has this been happening?) The engineer wants to know ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. .

9-   (Who shot the security guard?) Did anyone see ………………………………………………..?

10- (Who was the security guard shot by?) Did anyone see ………………………………………..?

11- (When will they move into their new house?)  ……………………………………… depends on the sale of their old one.

12- (How does she manage on her old-age pension?) I have no idea ……………………………..

13- (How much would he charge for decorating the house?)  Do you know ………………………………………………………………………………………………….?

14- (What was he hoping to achieve by behaving like that?) I can’t imagine …………………………………………………………………………………………………

15- (When did he start this course of medication?)  I need to know …………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

16- (Where did they pat the posters?) Do you remember ……………………………………………?

17- (How shortsighted is our manager?) Can you believe ……………………………………………?

18- (Which supermarket do you buy your groceries from?)  I’d like to learn …………………………………………………………………………………………………  .

19- (What is the difference between the cheap one and the expensive one?) I can’t see …………………………………………………………………………………………………   .

20- (How long did it take you to knit this cardigan?)   I wonder …………………………………………………………………………………………………

EXERCISE   2 :  Make a question using the given sentence. The words in parentheses should be the answer to the question you make. Then change the question to a noun clause.

1-  The children were making (Mother’s Day cards).                      Question: What were the children making?                                   Noun clause: Did you see what the children were making?

2-  Your car is worth (£4000).                                                         Question: ………………………………………………………………….?                    Noun clause: The insurance company needs to know …………………………………………………………………………………………..

3-  You need to learn (Microsoft Excel and Word) software  packages.         Question: ………………………………………………………………… ?                    Noun clause: Has the boss told you …………………………………….

4-   Diana’s dress was designed by (Elizabeth Emanuel).                 Question: …………………………………………………………………?                  Noun clause: We are all dying to know …………………………….

5-  Mr. Casserley has gone to Leicester (to see a customer).                 Question: ……………………………………………………………….?                      Noun clause: The boss wants to know ……………………………..

6-  The match starts (at 7.30).                                                            Question: ……………………………………………………………..?                            Noun clause: We can listen to the radio to find out …………

7-  Fitting the carpet costs (£100) extra.                                                Question: ……………………………………………………………..?                                Noun clause: Can you ask the dealer ……………………………………….?

8-  I have lost (6 kilos) since I started jogging in the mornings.                      Question: ………………………………………………………………………….?   Noun clause: Can you guess …………………………………………………..?

9-  I found out your telephone number (by phoning directory inquiries).                             Question: …………………………………………………………………?                                             Noun clause: I’m curious about………………………………………………

10- ‘Madame Bovery’ was written by (Gustave Fontaine).                                                    Question: …………………………………………………………………….?                                                   Noun clause: I wish I could have remembered in the library …………………………………………………………………………………………………

11- (1 million pounds) has been given to the Colombian government to help the fight against the drug dealers.                                                                                                                    Question: …………………………………………………………………….?                                                   Noun clause: I was surprised to hear ……………………………………………………………. .

12-You are having your operation at (the American Hospital).                                           Question: ………………………………………………………………..?                                                            Noun clause: Give us a phone call to let us know …………………………………………….. .

13-The children are going to (play basketball) after the picnic.                                                      Question:   ………………………………………………………………?                                                       Noun clause: I don’t know ……………………………………………

14-Joan and Eric are going (to Skegness) for their holiday.                                                        Question: …………………..,…………………………………………………?                                                  Noun clause: Do you know ………………….,……………………………………………………….?

15- She didn’t tell Sam about the party (because she wanted it to be a surprise).                                    Question: …………………………………………………………………..?                                                         Noun clause: I can’t imagine …………………………………………………………………………

16-The ruins are (2,000 years) old.                                                                                             Question: …………………………………………………………………….?                                                      Noun clause: Does the leaflet state ……………………………………………………………….?

17-You can buy telephone cards (at the Post Office).                                                           Question: ………………………………………………………………………?                                                   Noun clause: Excuse me, can you tell me ………………………………………………………….?

18-They are going to send their son to (King Edward High School).                                            Question: ……………………………………………………………………?                                                           Noun clause: Have they decided ……………………………………………………………………..?

19- You met (the National Sales Manager and the Personnel Manager) at the head office.  Question: …………………………………………………………………….?                                                Noun clause: I’m curious about……………………………………………………………………… .

20-A disaster in Ethiopia was averted (by sending food aid).                                              Question: ……………………………………………………………………………..?                                           Noun clause: The reporter is explaining ………………………………………..

 

1-2     NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH “WHETHER OR NOT” or “IF…OR NOT”

Yardımcı fiille başlayan bir soruyu noun clause’a dönüştürürken, noun clause’un başına “whether” ya da “if” getirilir ve soru cümlesi, düz cümle biçimine çevrilir. “Or not” whether’dan hemen sonra gelebilir (whether or not) ya da noun clause’un sonunda yer alabilir (whether … or not). Ancak “or not” “if”den hemen sonra kullanılmaz. Sadece noun clause’un sonunda yer alabilir (if…or not). Her iki cümlede de “or not” kullanmayabiliriz ve bu durumda anlam değişmez.

–    Is she coming to the party?

–     I wonder  whether she is coming to the party or not.

whether or not she is coming to the party.

whether she is coming to the party.

if she is coming to the party or not.

if she is coming to the party. (Onun partiye gelip gelmeyeceğini merak ediyorum.)

Eğer “noun clause” cümlede özne durumunda ise sadece “whether” kullanılır, “If” bu şekilde cümle başında kullanılmaz.

Whether she is coming to the party or not   isn’t certain yet. Whether or not she is coming to the party isn’t certain yet. Whether she is coming to the party isn’t certain yet.                                              (Onun partiye gelip gelmeyeceği henüz belli değil.)

   Do we have to return our assignments by Monday?

–    I don’t know whether we have to return our assignments by Monday.

–   May I leave early today?

–   I’d like to learn if I may leave early today.

–   Can you help me with my English homework?

–   I wonder if you can help me with my English homework.

–   Did she pass the exam?

–    I don’t know whether or not she passed the exam.

NOTE:     “Whether or not” kalıbının koşul cümlesinde ve noun clause’da kullanımı arasındaki farklılıklara ve Türkçe’ye çevirisine dikkat ediniz.

1-   “Whether or not”, koşul cümlesinde yan cümleyi, noun clause’da ise cümlenin öznesini ya da nesnesini oluşturur.

I will go to the theatre whether he comes with me or not. (Conditional) (O gelse de gelmese de, tiyatroya gideceğim.)

I don’t know whether he will come to the theatre with me or not. ( Noun Clause) (Onun benimle tiyatroya gelip gelmeyeceğini bilmiyorum.)

2-   “Whether or not” koşul cümlesinde kullanıldığı zaman bazı tense kısıtlamaları vardır:

future tense kullanılmaması gibi. “Whether or not” noun clause’da kullanıldığı zaman tense

kısıtlaması yoktur.

She would support him whether he were (was) right or not. (conditional)

I don’t know whether he was right or not. (noun clause: “he”den sonra “were” kullanılmaz.)

The result will be the same whether we attend tomorrow’s meeting or not. (conditional: “whether” in bağlı bulunduğu cümlede future tense kullanamayız.) (Yarınki toplantıya katılsak da katılmasak da sonuç aynı olacak.)

I haven’t decided yet whether I will attend tomorrow’s meeting or not. (noun clause) (Yarınki toplantıya katılıp katılmayacağıma henüz karar vermedim.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EXERCISE   3    :    Change the question to a noun clause.

1-  Is he enjoying his new job?

I’m not sure ……………………………………………………………………………………….. .

2-  Could I pay you on Friday?

I wonder ……………………………………………………………………………………………..

3  Does she still work at the University of Technology?

Do you know …………………………………………………………………………………..?

4-  Has she accepted the job yet?

I don’t know …………………………………………………………………………………………… .

5-  Did they agree to our terms?

He hasn’t told me …………………………………………………………………………………… .

6-  Should we inform the police?

We can ask the insurance company …………………………………………………………….

7-  Does she work in the same department as Kate?

I’ll ask my sister ……………………………………………………………………………………….

8-  Can the shop deliver the sofa by Friday?

We need to know …………………………………………………………………………………….. .

9-  Have the windows been cleaned this week already?

The new cleaner is asking ………………………………………………………………………….

10-Are they going to repair the television under the guarantee?

…………………………………………………………………………. hasn’t been confirmed yet.

EXERCISE   4    :    Change the question to a noun clause.

1-  Where are we meeting before the match?

George is going to decide …………………………………………………………………………. .

2-  Was he disappointed about losing the race?

Do you know ……………………………….„……………………………………………………….?

3-  What were they doing in the warehouse?

Did the manager find out………………………………………………………………………….?

4-  Who did Veronica marry?

I’m not in the least interested in ………………………………………………………………. .

5-  Which resort in Turkey did the travel agent recommend?

I can’t remember …………………………………………………………………………………….

6-  Has the butler polished the silver yet?

Can someone find out……………………………………………………………………………..?

7-  How much money has Richard made with his new business?

……………………………………………………………………………… is none of our business.

8-  Did he do it on purpose?

I wonder ………………………………………………………………………………………………..

9-  Why is the shop closed at such an early hour?

I don’t know ………………………………………………………………………………………..

10-Will the heroin’s deception be discovered?

I’m waiting for the second episode to see ……………………………………………………

 

1-3   NOUN CLAUSES BEGINNING WITH “THAT”

Düz cümleleri noun clause biçiminde kullanırken, noun clause’un başına “that” getirilir. Eğer noun clause cümlede nesne durumundaysa “that” kullanmayabiliriz.

Statement:        She doesn’t like pop music.

Noun clause:    We know that she doesn’t like pop music.                            We know she doesn’t like pop music.

(Onun pop müziğini sevmediğini biliyoruz.)

Statement:        He is the best of all.

Noun clause:    I’m sure that he is the best of all.                                                           I’m sure he is the best of all.

Eğer noun clause cümlede özne durumundaysa, noun clause’un başındaki “that” kaldırılamaz.

Statement:        He committed the crime.

Noun clause:    That he committed the crime is obvious.                                     (Suçu onun işlediği açık.)

Statement:       He can’t win the election.

Noun clause:    That he can’t win the election is known.                                        (Onun seçimleri kazanamayacağı biliniyor.)

Ancak “that clause”un bu şekilde cümlenin başında özne olarak kullanılması pek yaygın değildir. Onun yerine, cümleye “It” ile başlayıp noun clause’u ortada kullanmak daha yaygındır.

It is obvious that he committed the crime.

It is obvious he committed the crime.

(Suçu onun işlediği açık.)

It is known that he can’t win the election.

It is known he can’t win the election.

(Onun seçimleri kazanamayacağı biliniyor.)

Statement:        She will pass the exam.

Noun clause:    That she will pass the exam is certain.

It is certain that she will pass the exam.

(Onun sınavı geçeceği kesin.)

“That clause”u yaygın olarak:

  1. a) Bazı sıfatlardan sonra
  2. b) Bazı isimlerden sonra
  3. c) Bazı fiillerden sonra
  4. d) “The fact” ile kullanabiliriz.
  5. a) “That clauses” after certain adjectives:

Sorry, glad, happy, afraid, surprised, disappointed, pleased, sure, etc. gibi duygu ya da tavır bildiren sıfatlardan sonra “that clause” kullanabiliriz.

Statement:       You passed the exam.

Noun clause:    I’m glad (that) you passed the exam.

Statement:        I hurt his feelings.

Noun clause:    I’m sorry (that) I hurt his feelings.

Statement:        She couldn’t get the job.

Noun clause:     I’m surprised that she couldn’t get the job.

Sonu -ing ve -ed ile biten bazı sıfatlardan sonra “that clause” kullanımı oldukça yaygındır. Surprised, amazed, pleased gibi sonu -ed ile bitenler, ancak bir canlının duygularım ifade edebileceği için “I, You, We, They, Peter, My mother” gibi öznelerle kullanılırlar. Surprising, amazing, pleasing gibi sonu –ing ile bitenler ise olayların durumunu ifade ettikleri için özne olarak “it” gerektirirler.

It is very surprising that she was dismissed from her job.

(İşinden atılması çok şaşırtıcı.)

I’m very surprised that she was dismissed from her job.

(Onun işten atılmasına çok şaşırdım.)

‘It’s pleasing that you’ve made good progress in English.

(İngilizce’de iyi bir ilerleme kaydetmeniz memnuniyet verici.)

I’m pleased that you’ve.made good progress in English.

(İngilizce’de iyi bir ilerleme kaydetmenize memnun oldum.)

True, strange, fair, unfair, unfortunate, obvious, apparent, too bad, likely, unlikely gibi sıfatlarla da “that clause” yaygın olarak kullanılır.

It’s likely (that) there will be another rise in prices soon.

It’s apparent/obvious (that) some small businesses will go bankrupt after the recent economic crisis.

It’s unfair (that) women still don’t have the same rights as men.

It’s true (that) smoking gives rise to certain respiratory diseases.

  1. b) “That clauses” after certain nouns:

Miracle, pity, shame, wonder, relief, a good thing, fact, belief, theory, impression gibi isimlerden sonra “that clause” kullanabiliriz.

It’s a wonder (that) she survived_the accident.

It’s a miracle (that) the child didn’t get killed when he fell from the fifth floor.

It’s a widely accepted belief (that) the two major conservative parties should be united to come to power.

It’s my impression (that) television reduces the interest in reading.

(Benim izlenimim o ki televizyon, okumaya olan ilgiyi azaltıyor.)

It’s a great shame (that) some nations spend an enormous amount of money on arms while others starve to death.

It’s a good thing (that) your parents are quite understanding to you on this occasion.

“That clauses” after certain verbs:

Bazı fiiller, kendilerinden sonra noun clause alabilirler. Bu cümlelerde noun clause, yüklemin nesnesi durumundadır

 

I know his         ambition.

noun

I know       (that) he will try anything to attain his ambition.

noun clause

I will prove his   innocence.

noun

I will prove         that he is innocent.

noun clause

(Onun masum olduğunu ispatlayacağım).

 

Yaygın olarak “that clause” alan fiiller şunlardır:

acknowledge                                  fear                                 realise (wh)

add                                                feel                                  reckon

admit                                             find out (wh)                  recognize

advise                                            forget (wh)                      recommend

allege                                             guess                              remark

announce                                       grumble                          remember (wh)

answer                                           guarantee                        remind

appear                                           happen                           reply

argue                                             hear (wh)                        report

arrange (wh) *                               hope                               request

assume                                          imagine (wh)                   resolve

assure                                            imply                              reveal (wh)

beg                                                 indicate                           say (wh)

believe (wh)                                   inform                            see (wh)

claim                                              insist                               seem

command                                       know (wh)                      sense (be aware of)

complain                                       learn (wh)                       show (wh)

confess                                          mean                               state (wh)

confirm                                          notice (wh)                     stipulate

consider (wh)                                 object                              suggest (wh)

declare                                           observe                           suppose

decide (wh)                                    occur to + object            suspect

demand                                          order                               teach

demonstrate                                   perceive                          tell (wh)

deny                                              point out                        think (wh)

determine                                       predict                            threaten

discover                                         presume                          turn out

doubt (wh)                                     pretend                           understand (wh)

estimate (wh)                                 promise                          urge

expect                                            propose                          warn

explain (wh)                                  prove (wh)                      wish

wonder (wh)

 

*       Yanında (wh) bulunan fiiller, bir soru sözcüğüyle ya da whether ile başlayan bir noun clause da alabilirler.

The teacher claims that he cheated during the exam.

I assume that the meeting will have to be cancelled.

Everybody in the   company thinks   that   Mr.   O’Neil will make   a successful manager.

The result of the exam indicates that you didn’t study hard enough.

He never admits that he has made a mistake.

She will soon realise that she has just lost   the chance of making a career by rejecting this post.

Appear, seem, happen, occur ve turn out fiilleri özne olarak “It” kullanmayı gerektirir.

It appears that we will face terrible conditions on this expedition.

It seems to me that this child will be an artist when he grows up.

(Bana öyle geliyor ki bu çocuk büyüyünce ressam olacak.)

It occurs to me that his action was deliberate.

It turned out that he had a number of accomplices in the robbery.

“Yapacağımız” bir şey için söz vermek anlamına gelen “promise” ve “bir şeyin olacağını önceden tahmin etmek” anlamına gelen “predict” fiilleri, noun clause’da future tense kullanmayı gerektirir.

She promises that she will be more careful next time.

The villagers predict that the harvest will be good this season.

Temel cümlenin yüklemi past tense ise noun clause’da “will“in past biçimi “would” kullanılır.

She promised that she would be more careful next time.

(Bir dahaki sefere daha dikkatli olacağına söz verdi.)

The villagers predicted that the harvest would be good this season.

Beg, command, decide, demand, determine, order, resolve, urge, insist ve suggest fiilleri ile noun clause’da daha çok “should” kullanılır. Temel cümlenin yüklemi past tense olduğunda da noun clause’daki “should” aynı kalır.

I suggest that you should go to a doctor.

(Doktora gitmeni öneririm.)

He demanded that I should be on time for work.

(İşe vaktinde gelmemi istedi.)

We decided that we  should work overtime to meet the increasing demand.

The doctor insists that I should stop smoking.

 

  1. d) Noun clauses with “the fact”

Bir “that clause”u çoğu zaman “the fact that” biçiminde kullanabiliriz. “The fact that’li cümle, özne ya da nesne durumunda olabilir.

Statement:       She couldn’t pass the exam. That disappointed us.

Noun clause:   The fact that she couldn’t pass the exam disappointed us.

(Onun    sınavı    geçememesi    bizi    hayal    kırıklığına uğrattı.)

Statement:       The Independence War was won with great difficulty.

Noun clause:    Yesterday in   class   we   discussed   the   fact   that   the Independence War was won with great difficulty.

Statement:       She cheated in the exam. That made the teacher furious.

Noun clause:    The fact that she cheated in the exam made the teacher furious.

Eğer “the fact that” cümlesi, son örnekte olduğu gibi, cümlenin öznesi durumundaysa, “the fact that” yerine sadece “that” de kullanabiliriz.

That she cheated in the exam made the teacher furious.

Eğer “that clause”, bir preposition’ın nesnesi durumunda ise bu noun clause yalnızca “that” ile başlatılamaz. Bu durumdaki bir “noun clause” “the fact that” kullanmayı gerektirir. (Bkz. 1-4)

We are not worried about the fact that she comes home late from work.

1-4   NOUN CLAUSE AS OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION

Bir preposition’dan sonra noun clause gelebilir.

She takes no notice of my    warnings.

noun

She takes no notice of    what I say.

noun clause

Your question isn’t related to    this subject.

noun

Your question isn’t related to   what we are discussing now.

noun clause

She is very excited about    the holiday resort.

noun

She is very excited about    where we arc going to spend our holiday.

noun clause

She hasn’t told me anything about   her decision.

noun

She hasn’t told me anything about whether she will come or not. (“if” bu şekilde bir preposition’dan sonra kullanılmaz.)                                                               (Gelip gelmeyeceği konusunda bana bir şey söylemedi.)

She is very concerned about   the firm’s financial problems.

noun

She is very concerned about     whether the firm can overcome its financial problems.

noun clause

“That clause” bir preposition’dan sonra “the fact that” biçiminde kullanılır.

Statement:       He was devastated by the tragic news.

Noun clause:   Yesterday we   talked   about   the   fact   that   he was devastated by the tragic news.

Statement:       She is the author of two well-known books.

Noun clause:    I’m interested in the fact that she is the author of two well-known books.

Statement:       Her boss will award her with a raise in salary.

Noun clause:    She is very excited about the fact that her boss will award her with a raise in salary.

1-5   TENSE   RELATIONS   BETWEEN  THE  MAIN  VERB  AND   THE   NOUN CLAUSE

Noun clause’un tense’i ile temel cümlenin tense’i arasındaki ilişkiyi iki bölümde inceleyebiliriz.

  1. a) Temel cümlenin yüklemi Present Tense ise,
  2. b) Temel cümlenin yüklemi Past Tense ise.
  3. a) Noun clause as the object of a verb in Present Tense

Eğer temel cümlenin yüklemi “I think, I have thought” gibi bir present tense ise ya da “I will say, I’m going to say” gibi bir future tense ise, noun clause’un tense’i ile aralarında mantıklı bir uyum olması gerekir. Yani yüklemin kısıtlayıcı bazı özellikleri yoksa eğer (örneğin suggest, recommend, promise, predict gibi fiiller belli tense’leri gerektirir), noun clause’un tense’i present, past ya da future olabilir.

Statement:       He goes abroad very often.

Noun clause:    I think (that) he goes abroad very often.

Statement:        He is going/is going to go/will go abroad soon.

Noun clause:     I think (that) he is going/is going to go/will go abroad soon.

Statement:        He has just gone abroad.

Noun clause:    I think (that) he has just gone abroad.

Statement:        He went abroad last week.

Noun clause:    I think (that) he went abroad last week.

Statement:       He had just left the office when I got there.

Noun clause:    I think (that) he had just left when I got there.

Temel cümlenin yüklemi present olduğu zaman noun clause’da Past Perfect kullanımı, “after, before, by the time, etc.” gibi zaman bağlaçları kullanarak zamanı netleştirdiğimiz takdirde mümkündür. Yüklem present iken noun clause’da “will’in past biçimi “would” kullanılmaz. Ancak, “would like, would prefer, would rather” gibi anlamı present ya da future olan yapılar ve 2. ve 3. type “if clause” ile kullanılan “would” ve “would have done” kullanılabilir.

I think (that) she would succeed if she tried.

I think (that) she would have succeeded if she had tried.

I think (that) she would rather go to the theatre than to the cinema.

I think (that) she would like to be invited to the party.

I think (that) they had just shipped the order when we called to remind them.

Bu tense kuralları, soru sözcüğüyle ya da whether/if ile başlayan noun clause’lar için de geçerlidir.

I don’t know    when she will leave Istanbul.                                                                   why she left so hurriedly.                                    if she wants to come with us.             whether she heard the news.                   what she has been doing there for an hour. who left the office last yesterday.

I have discovered      why she refused our invitation.

when she will leave on holiday.                               how she managed to persuade him.     which countries she has been to.

She will find out      what he was doing there at the time.          why he wants to resign.                               how long he has been living in this city. which one he would rather choose. whether he will attend the meeting or not.  if he completed the job he had been given.

They haven’t announced yet    where the party will be held.

who took over the firm.                                          what has been going on here.                           who/whom they are going to award the              prize to.

  1. b) Noun Clause as the object of a verb in Past Tense

Temel cümlenin yüklemi “I thought, I had thought” gibi Past ya da Past Perfect Tense ise, noun clause’un tense’i eylemin oluş zamanını ifade eden tense’in bir derece past biçimidir. Yani will yerine would, can yerine could, have done yerine had done, did yerine had done gibi.

Statement:       They have finished writing their report.

Noun clause:    I noticed (that) they had finished writing their report.

Question:         When will he come?

Noun clause:    He wondered when he would come.

Question:         Is she going to come with us?

Noun clause:    He wanted to know whether/if she was going to come with us.

 

 

I know (that) he can pass the exam without much effort.

(Fazla çaba harcamadan sınavı geçebileceğini biliyorum.)

I knew (that) he could pass the exam without much effort. (Fazla çaba harcamadan sınavı geçebileceğini biliyordum.)

I don’t know for sure what she bought for you.

(Sana ne aldığını kesin olarak bilmiyorum.)

I didn’t know for sure what she had bought for you.

(Sana ne aldığım kesin olarak bilmiyordum.)

I’ve just learnt (that) she is coming soon.

(Onun yakında geleceğini henüz öğrendim.)

I had just learnt (that) she was coming soon.

(Onun yakında geleceğini henüz öğrenmiştim.)

Ancak noun clause genel bir doğruyu ya da doğa kanununu ifade ediyorsa, temel cümlenin yüklemi past olduğunda da noun clause’un tense’i present olabilir.

After the experiment, we found out that different fluids have different boiling points.

Should, had better, ought to, would rather, would prefer ve would like, temel fiil past olduğumda da aynı kalır. May, might biçiminde, have to ve must ise had to biçiminde değiştirilir.

I think she would rather stay at home.

(Evde kalmayı tercih edeceğini zannediyorum.)

I thought she would rather stay at home.

(Evde kalmayı tercih edeceğini zannediyordum.)

I suggest that he should look for another job.

(Başka bir iş aramasını öneriyorum.)

I suggested that he should look for another job.

(Başka bir iş aramasını önerdim.)

She knows (that) she must/has to help her mother.

(Annesine yardım etmek zorunda olduğunu biliyor.)

She knew (that) she had to help her mother.

(Annesine yardım etmek zorunda olduğunu biliyordu.)

1-6   ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT NOUN CLAUSES

Noun clause’larda dikkat etmemiz gereken bir diğer nokta, fiillerin alabilecekleri noun clause tipleridir. Çünkü her fiil. üç tip noun clause alamayabilir. Sadece soru tipinde (soru sözcüğüyle ya da whether/if ile başlayan) noun clause alabilen, sadece “that clause” alabilen ya da her iki tip noun clause ile kullanılabilen fiiller vardır.

Örneğin, “zannetmek” anlamında “think” sadece “that clause” alabilir. Çünkü bir şeyin “ne zaman olacağını, nasıl olacağını, olup olmayacağını” zannedemeyiz. Ancak bir şeyin “olduğunu, olacağını” (that clause) zannedebiliriz.

I think (that) she will give up her job.

I don’t think (that) she will go on working under these conditions.

I thought (that) she would refuse our offer.

I didn’t think (that) she would accept our offer.

Ancak “think”, ”I can’t think” biçiminde kullanılırsa, “Bir neden düşünemiyorum, anlamıyorum” anlamına gelir ki soru sözcüğüyle başlayan bir noun clause alabilir.

I can’t think why she refused our offer.

I can’t think why she won’t come with us.

Ask, want to know gibi bazı fiiller ise “that clause” almazlar. Bu fiilleri ancak bir soru sözcüğüyle ya da wether/if ile başlayan noun clause’larla kullanabiliriz. Çünkü “bir şeyin olacağını (that clause)” soramayız. Bir şeyin “ne zaman olacağını, nasıl olacağını, nerede olacağını,” ya da bir şeyin “olup olmayacağını” sorabiliriz.

I will ask him what he will do with so much money.                She asks where we are going to meet.                                                  I asked him whether he liked the meal.                                       She wants to learn if I will join them.

Tell, understand, explain, know, etc. gibi fiiller ise üç tip noun clause ile de kullanılabilirler.

He told me (that) he couldn’t understand the lesson.

I will tell you tomorrow whether I will come with you or stay home.

He hasn’t told me yet where we are going to meet.

I know (that) she doesn’t trust me.

I know when she will leave on holiday.

I don’t know whether/if she will be interested in our offer.

She understood by his remarks (that) he wouldn’t lend her the money.

She didn’t understand why he had refused to lend her some money.

I couldn’t understand whether/if she was sincere in her attitude towards me.

Bu farklı kullanımları göz önüne alarak, örneklerde kullandığımız fiiller ya da yaygın olarak bilinenler dışındaki fiillerle karşılaştığınız zaman, fiilin alabileceği noun clause tipini belirlemede size önerebileceğimiz yöntem, temel cümlenin yüklemi ile noun clause’daki anlam arasında mantıksal bir bütünlük sağlamanızdır.

1-7   QUESTION WORDS FOLLOWED by INFINITIVES

Soru   sözcüğüyle  ya  da   “whether” ile  başlayan  noun  clause’ları,  belli  kurallar  dahilinde kısaltarak, Question word + infinitive biçiminde ifade edebiliriz.

Kısaltma yapabilmemiz için öncelikle, temel cümlenin öznesi ile noun clause’un öznesi aynı olmalıdır.

I don’t know what I should do in this case.

I don’t know what to do in this case.

(Bu durumda ne yapacağımı bilmiyorum.)

Özneler farklı ise kısaltma yapamayız.

I don’t know what you should do in this case. (no change)

(Bu durumda ne yapacağını bilmiyorum.)

Eğer bu cümleyi “… what to do” biçiminde kısaltırsak, “… ne yapacağımı …” anlamına gelir ki cümlenin anlamını değiştirmiş oluruz.

 

Temel cümledeki yüklemin nesnesi ile (indirect object) noun clause’un öznesi aynı kişi ise yine kısaltma yapabiliriz.

I can tell you how you can get to the station.              I can tell you how to get to the station. (İstasyona nasıl gideceğini söyleyebilirim.)

Can you show me how I can start this machine?                        Can you show me how to start this machine?                          (Bu makinayı nasıl çalıştıracağı bana gösterebilir misin?)

Whether” ile başlayan noun clause’ları da aynı kurallara göre kısaltabiliriz, (“if” bu şekilde kısaltma için kullanılamaz.)

I can’t decide whether I should stay home or come with you. I can’t decide whether to stay home or (to) come with you.

They wondered whether they should buy an expensive present or a

cheap one.                                                                                                         They wondered whether to buy an expensive present or a cheap one.

Kısaltma yaparken, noun clause’da kullanılan tense’i de dikkate almalıyız.  Bu kısaltma her tense ile mümkün değildir. Should ya da can/could ile kurulmuş cümleleri kısaltabiliriz.

She told me where I could get fresh vegetables.                             She told me where to get fresh vegetables.

I don’t know who /whom I should invite to the party.                        I don’t know who/whom to invite to the party.

I think I know how I can overcome this situation.                     I think I know how to overcome this situation.

1-8   “-EVER” WORDS in NOUN CLAUSES

WHOEVER }  

mean any person

WHICHEVER } mean any thing
WHOMEVER WHATEVER
WHEREVER  

 

 

means any place WHENEVER   means any time
HOWEVER means any way (manner)      

Whoever ve whomever“kim olursa olsan,  her kim isterse” anlamına gelir.  Noun clause’un öznesi durumundaysa sadece whoever,   nesnesi durumundaysa whoever ya da whomever kullanabiliriz.

–    Who should I give this book to?

–    It doesn’t matter to me. You can give it to whoever needs it. (Whoever noun clause’un öznesidir.)                                                                                                (Kitabı, kimin ihtiyacı varsa ona verebilirsin.)

 

 

 

–   Who should I give this book to?

–    It doesn’t matter to me. You can give it to whoever/whomever you like.   (Whoever/whomever  noun   clause’un   nesnesi   durumundadır. Çünkü noun clause’un öznesi “you“dur.)                                                       (Kitabı, sen kime istersen ona ver.)

Whoever/whomever I spoke to said they didn’t like the party.                 Whoever took my dictionary should return it right away.                        Whoever wants to come with us should make his decision now.                       I think I have the freedom to talk to whoever /whomever I like.

Wherever, “neresi olursa olsun, canın nereye isterse…” anlamına gelir.

–    Where should I put this vase?

–    You can put it wherever you think is suitable.

–    Where shall we go on holiday this summer?

–    I haven’t a special place in my mind. We can go wherever you want.

–    I must talk to her at once. Try to find her wherever she is.

However, “istediğin gibi yap, nasıl istersen öyle yap” anlamına gelir.

–    Students in high school have to wear a uniform in Turkey, but in Europe there is no  such  rule.  Students  may dress however they please. (Öğrenciler istedikleri gibi giyinebilirler.)

–    How would you like your egg?

–    However you cook the egg is all right with me.

(Yumurtayı nasıl pişirirsen pişir benim için uygundur.)

However“ın bu kullanımı ile “but” anlamındaki kullanımı arasındaki farka dikkat ediniz.

You can furnish the house however (any way) you like.                                               (Evi istediğin gibi döşeyebilirsin.)

I don’t want to interfere in your choice about the furniture;  however (but), I prefer modern style.

(Mobilya konusundaki seçimine karışmak istemiyorum ama ben modern stili tercih ederim.)

Whatever ve whichever, “ne istersen, hangisini istersen” anlamını verir. Burada Önce, “what” ile “which” arasındaki farkı netleştirmek gerekir.

Which”  sınırlı bir grup içinde tercih yaparken  “hangisi” anlamını verir.  “What“da ise sınır yoktur.

–    What languages can you speak? (Bu soruyu sorarken bütün dilleri göz önüne alıyoruz.)

–    Which   European   languages   can  you   speak?   (Avrupa   dilleri   ile sınırlıyoruz.)

–    What should I wear to the party?

–    Which of my evening dresses should I wear to the party?

What ile which arasındaki bu fark, whatever ve whichever için de geçerlidir.

–    We shall try to do whatever is needed to make your stay an enjoyable one.

–    There are three rooms left at the hotel. You can choose whichever you want.

–    Here are the box of tools. You can take whichever one suits your requirement.

–    Think over your words. Don’t just say whatever comes into your mind.

Whenever, “ne zaman istersen, istediğin zaman” anlamını verir.

–    Shall we leave now?

–    It’s up to you. We can leave whenever you want.

(Ne zaman istersen/istediğin zaman gidebiliriz.)

–    You don’t have to stay till the end of the programme.

You may leave whenever you wish.

EXERCISE   5    :    Complete the sentences by using “-ever” words.

1-   Cecil, my childhood friend, never fails to visit me ………………….. he comes to England on business.

2-   A friend of mine is a florist and she was really busy on St. Valentine’s Day. ………………….. she managed to get all the deliveries out, I just can’t imagine.

3-   ………………….. is working in the restaurant tonight must polish the glasses.

4-   We can’t decide whether to go to Turkey, Egypt or Greece, but………………….. one we

choose, I’ll need some new summer clothes.

5-   ………………….. you give this vase to, I’m sure they will love it. It’s so beautiful.

6-   ………………….. you do when you retire, it won’t be as stressful as international

negotiations.

7-   Working for the Foreign Office, he never knows from one year to the next which country he will be working in, but………………….. he works, he is provided with accommodation

and a car.

8-   I like all of the colours you’ve mentioned, so you can paint the living room ………………….. colour you like best.

9-   I feel really sorry for Janet. She is in love with Jeff, but………………….. she does to draw his attention, he just ignores her.

10- ………………….. I arrange the ornaments on this shelf, they just seem to look like clutter.

 

 

 

 

T E S T   Y O U R S E L F   1

 

 

 

 

1-   I think Jeremy’s aunt lives ……. they went for their honeymoon.

  1. A) what B) who C) when   D) that                           E) where

2-   The high value of the pound at the moment explains ……. manufacturers and exporters are suffering.

  1. A) when B) where
    C) why D) who
    E) how long

3-   I’m sure I’m not the first to notice ………. your daughter is a very talented artist, especially for her age.

  1. A) who B) that C) what  D) when                           E) where

4-    …….. we rent this shop again next year depends on the amount of profit we make.

  1. A) When B) Who                C) Whom           D) Whether                      E) Which

5- We are not sure yet ………. we want to spend on flowers at our wedding.

  1. A) how B) how long C) how often       D) how much                   E) how far

6-   It wasn’t until he refused to help his mother organise his aunt’s funeral that I realised …….. selfish Mike is.

  1. A) how B) what C) why     D) which                   E) when

7-   Will you ask the salesman to explain ……… they ordered their next year’s supply from our competitors?

  1. A) who B) whom C) where  D) what                          E) why

8-   I would like to know ………. the trains will be running normally during the public holiday.

  1. A) whom B) who                   C) whether D) what                          E) which

9-   The main question on the exam asked us to explain …….. glaciers were formed.

  1. A) how B) how much C) how far         D) how long                    E) however

10- I’m sorry, I don’t know …….. department Mrs Green works in.

  1. A) where B) when C) who       D) which                      E) how

11- My sister-in-law collects Victorian cheese dishes and buys one ……. she sees one for sale in an antique shop.

  1. A) whatever B) whenever C) whichever      D) however                      E) whoever

12-I can’t see ………. the purpose of the new shopping centre is, There are more than enough in town already!

  1. A) who B) what               C) why   D) which                         E) where

13- Do you have any idea about …….. I should send my letter of resignation to?

  1. A) what B) why C) how     D) whom                          E) when

14- I’m not sure ……. the branch manager is the right person to send it to.

  1. A) when B) whom
    C) where D) which
    E) whether

15-I can’t remember ……… people were killed in the explosion, but it was quite a few.

  1. A) how much B) how far
    C) how long                      D) how often
    E) how many

 

16- We can’t decide …….. to do at the weekend. Have you got any interesting suggestions?

  1. A) where B) how C) what   D) which                         E) when

17- I’m not sure ……… this sweater will fit my daughter. Can I exchange it for a larger size if it is too small?

  1. A) whether B) how C) when     D) who                           E) whom

18- Thousands of cattle have starved to death ……… the drought in Ethiopia started.

  1. A) how B) since C) when D) which                           E) why

19-I don’t know ……… month you should plant tulip bulbs. Why don’t you ask a florist?

  1. A) which B) when C) why    D) whose                               E) how

20- ……… Ethiopia is at war with Eritrea has meant many Western nations are reluctant to send food aid to avert widespread famine,

  1. A) How B) When C) What                          D) The fact that              E) Whether or not

21- For the last few weeks, medical teams ……… day and night in an effort to find out exactly what ……… this terrible illness, but they’ve had little success so far.

  1. A) are working/will cause
  2. B) have worked/will have caused
  3. C) have been working/is causing
  4. D) will have worked/will be caused E) were working/had been caused

22- The police were investigating who …….. the gate to the factory open the night before the robbery.

  1. A) is leaving B) has left C) had left        D) was left                     E) will be left

23- How you look after yourself following your operation …….. whether you recover completely or not.

  1. A) was determining
  2. B) had determined
  3. C) is determined
  4. D) has been determined
  5. E) will determine

24- Today with ‘mail merge’ computer software, the same letter can be addressed to 100 different people at the touch of a button, so a secretary today ……… in hours what it ……… days to do 50 years ago.

  1. A) should have accomplished/may take
  2. B) could accomplish/takes
  3. C) accompli shed/will have taken
  4. D) can accomplish/used to take E) accomplishes/has been taking

25- I’m not sure whether I …….. able to speak German confidently when I ……… there next month as I haven’t practised for so long.

  1. A) am/will go B) have been/went C) will be/go  D) was/had gone
  2. E) should be/am going

26- It has been confirmed recently ……… using mobile phones can cause brain damage.

  1. A) if B) that                          C) what  D) when                            E) where

27- I couldn’t believe ……… hot chill powder Margaret had used in her curry. I could hardly eat it.

  1. A) how much B) how long C) how far           D) how often                      E) how few

28- I’ve lost count of …….. times the children have watched their ‘Toy Story’ video.

  1. A) whether B) whatever
    C) how many         D) whenever
    E) how much

29-I would like to know ……… bag this is because it’s occupying my seat.

  1. A) how B) whom C) where  D) which                          E) whose

 

 

 

30- I might be able to tell you …….. channel the film is on if I can remember …….. I put the newspaper.

  1. A) which/where B) where/when C) what/how                     D) whom/which               E) whose /that

31- Mrs Holliday …….. that the buildershad made a terrible job of her extension.

  1. A) commanded B) appeared C) requested                       D) predicted                       E) grumbled

32- The police ……… that the attack on the man was racially motivated.

  1. A) suspected B) arranged                    C) estimated                       D) guaranteed                  E) ordered

33- My husband and I eat at the Draper’s restaurant ………. we go shopping in Shrewsbury.

  1. A) whenever B) however C) wherever                       D) whichever                   E) whoever

34- The professor ……… that the nutritionist said chocolate was healthy only because she is employed by one of the biggest chocolate company.

  1. A) wondered B) argued C) wished                         D) pretended                     E) commanded

35- The Royal Ballet are attempting to recreate the ballet “Dante Sonata”. Luckily for the producer, some of the former dancers ……… how the dance was performed fifty years ago.

  1. A) allege B) hope                              C) remember                  D) reply                             E) predict

36- The accused man …….. that he acted in self-defence.

  1. A) suspected B) expected                       C) occurred                     D) resolved                       E) claimed

37- Yes, that is …….. I want you to behave in public.

  1. A) what B) since                               C) which                      D) how                       E) why

38- Enjoyment of the film ‘Erin Brockovich’ rather depends on …….. you like Julia Roberts or not.

  1. A) what B) whether                        C) if                               D) how                             E) when

39- Donating some of your wages to a charity will not only help unfortunate people, but it will also give you a sense of pleasure, ……… charity you support.

  1. A) whoever B) whenever                         C) whichever               D) however                          E) wherever

40- I guessed from the shape of the package ……… my birthday present was a cassette.

  1. A) which B) what C) when                        D) that                                E) how

41- Helen will be working as a representative for Thomson’s Holidays in Turkey, but  she doesn’t know exactly ………  she will be posted.

  1. A) what         B) why                                  C) who                           D) where                              E) how

42- It’s important to find out ……… she is actually allergic to.

  1. A) how   B) when                                 C) where                    D) why                                 E) what

43- The fans were sent home because the police …….. that the violence could escalate.

  1. A) proposed B) ordered                            C) feared                      D) hoped                                 E) replied

 

 

 

 

44- In the United Kingdom, the law ….. that cars must be tested for safety every year.

  1. A) threatens B) stipulates C) teaches          D) notices                               E) guesses

45- The results of the survey ……… that George Bush junior would win the election.

  1. A) warned B) indicated C) considered      D) requested                      E) assumed

46- You really have to go to Australia for the conference …….. .

  1. A) whether or not you are scared of flying
  2. B) if your manager goes instead of you
  3. C) which town is it being held in
  4. D) how long it will take to get there
  5. E) who will be presenting the new proposals

47- …….. will become clear later.

  1. A) Whenever he goes to visit his family in Ireland
  2. B) When will the new owners take over the car factory.
  3. C) Since the businessmen decided to buy this loss-making factory
  4. D) How the new ownership will affect the

Employees

  1. E) Who will the boss appoint as the new manager

48- …….. was his only desire.

  1. A) Whether there would ever be peace in his country
  2. B) If he could manage to afford a Mercedes Benz
  3. C) Without the compassion shown to them by the community
  4. D) That his family could live without fear of persecution
  5. E) Although they had managed to arrive

in Miami safely

49- ……… so it will probably take me longer than usual to get to work.

  1. A) I couldn’t remember where I had put the shampoo
  2. B) My sister has bought a much faster car
  3. C) The reporter has just remarked that two lanes of the highway are closed
  4. D) The fact that she slows down at every junction
  5. E) Jennifer implied that I should buy a faster car as soon as possible

50- The environmentalist argues

  1. A) how is the environment going to be affected if a nuclear accident should occur
  2. B) that genetically modified salmon are a threat to the wild species
  3. C) whether they will allow this species to be grown in the UK
  4. D) which could possibly breed with wild salmon
  5. E) who believes genetically modified fruit poses a danger to the human health

51- The Foreign Minister refused to comment on ……… .

  1. A) whether we would withdraw food aid

if the human rights abuses continued

  1. B) why hasn’t the government done something about these human rights abuses
  2. C) how can they allow these abuses to happen without doing anything
  3. D) ever since a breakdown in law and order developed in the area
  4. E) the situation is now completely out of control in the area

52- The airline didn’t explain

  1. A) that the plane will stop to get fuel
  2. B) why the plane had been delayed
  3. C) that wasn’t very nice of them
  4. D) what time did we leave Heathrow Airport
  5. E) how long does it take us to get to Istanbul

53- The police underestimated

  1. A) when so many police officers leave the police force
  2. B) particularly which politician had the

terrorists targeted

  1. C) how many demonstrators would turn up
  2. D) the fact was that the situation was out of control
  3. E) whenever there is a football match in the town

 

54- Do you know .…….?

  1. A) how much sugar does he lake
  2. B) where is Patricia going on holiday
  3. C) since Sonia was back from holiday
  4. D) is Freddie coming to dinner tonight
  5. E) how Julia likes her coffee

55- Yesterday at school, we learnt ……..

  1. A) how glass is made
  2. B) what is the procedure in making porcelain
  3. C) that was extremely interesting
  4. D) whether we enjoy it or not
  5. E) which concerned the teacher most of all

 

56- Naturally, you’re very upset about what’s happened, but now we must focus on what we can do from now on.

  1. A) Seni bu kadar çok üzen şeyin ne olduğuna değil, bundan sonra ne yapabileceğimiz konusuna yoğunlaşmaya çalışıyorum.
  2. B) Olanlar konusunda çok üzülmen doğal, ama şimdi asıl düşünmemiz gereken bundan sonra ne yapacağımızdır.
  3. C) Bütün bu olan bitenlerden sonra çok üzülmeni doğal karşılıyorum, ancak artık yapılabilecekler üzerine yoğunlaşalım.
  4. D) Doğal olarak, olanlar konusunda çok üzgünsün, ama artık bundan sonra ne yapabileceğimiz üzerine yoğunlaşmalıyız.
  5. E) Olanlar karşısında bu kadar çok üzülmeni doğal bulsam da, artık bundan sonra ne yapabileceğini düşünmen gerektiğine inanıyorum.

57- As a helicopter has no wing to stay in the air, its rotating blades provide lift and movement through the air.

  1. A) Helikopterin havalanması, havada durması ve harekeli dönen pervanesince sağlanmaktadır çünkü tüm bunları yapmaya yarayan kanatları yoktur.
  2. B) Helikopterin kanatlan olmadığından, havalanmasını, havada durmasını ve hareketini sağlayan dönen pervanesidir.
  3. C) Helikopterin havada kalmasını sağlayacak kanatları yoktur; bu yüzden havalanması ve havadaki hareketi döner pervanesi tarafından sağlanır.
  4. D) Helikopterin havalanmasını ve hareketini sağlayan pervanesi, onun kanatlan olmadığı için havada durmasını da sağlamaktadır.
  5. E) Helikopterin havada durması için kanatları olmadığından,

havalanmasını ve havada hareketini dönen pervanesi sağlar.

58- It’s known that, though the author attained fame and wealth in the later years of his career, he suffered great poverty in the earlier years.

  1. A) Yazar, kariyerinin ileriki yıllarında şöhreti ve parayı yakaladıysa da, ilk yıllarında büyük yoksulluk çektiği bilinmektedir.
  2. B) İlk yıllarını büyük yoksulluk içinde geçirdiği bilinen yazar, kariyerinin ileriki yıllarında şöhrete ve paraya kavuşmuştur.
  3. C) Şöhreti ve parayı ancak kariyerinin ileriki yıllarında yakalayabilen yazarın. ilk yıllarında büyük sıkıntı çektiği bilinmekteydi.
  4. D) Yazar, kariyerinin son yıllarında şöhrete ve paraya kavuşmuştur, ancak ilk yıllarında yaşadığı büyük yoksulluğu herkes bilir.
  5. E) Bilindiği gibi yazar, kariyerinin ilk yıllarında büyük yoksulluk çektiyse de. ileriki yıllarında şöhreti ve parayı yakalamıştır.

59- When I last met her, she appeared still very angry and said that she would never forgive him.

  1. A) Onu en son görüşümde, hala çok öfkeliydi ve onu kesinlikle bağışlamadığından sözediyordu.
  2. B) Onunla son karşılaştığımda, hala çok öfkeli görünüyordu ve onu asla affetmeyeceğini söylüyordu.
  3. C) En son görüştüğümüzde, çok öfkeliydi ve onu hala affetmemiş görünüyordu.
  4. D) Onu son gördüğümde, hala çok öfkeli olduğundan ve onu asla

bağışlamayacağından söz ediyordu.

  1. E) En son karşılaştığımızda ona karşı hala çok öfkeliydi ve onu hiçbir zaman affetmeyecek gibi görünüyordu.

 

 

 

 

60- Because the part of the brain involved in memory is also involved in emotions, it is not surprising that emotions can affect a person’s memory.

  1. A) Beynin hafızayla ilgili bölümünün duygularla da ilişkisi olabileceği için, kişinin hafızasının duygular tarafından etkilenmesi şaşırtıcı değildir.
  2. B) Duyguların kişinin hafızasını etkilemesine şaşmamak gerekir: çünkü beynin hafızayla ilgili bölümü duygularla da bağlantılı olabilir.
  3. C) Beynin hafıza ile ilgili bölümü duygularla da ilgili olduğu için, duyguların kişinin hafızasını etikileyebilmesi şaşırtıcı değildir.
  4. D) Kişinin hafızasının duyguları etkileyebilmesi şaşırtıcı değildir; çünkü beyindeki hafıza ile ilgili bölüm duygularla da ilişki içindedir.
  5. E) Beynin hafıza ile ilgili bölümünün duygularla ilgisi bilindiği için, duyguların kişinin hafızasını etkilemesine şaşırmamak gerekir.

61- Hükümet vakit geçirmeden bir şeyler yapmalı; çünkü bölgedeki insanlar için barınma sorunu katlanılmaz bir hal aldı.

  1. A) Residents who are finding the problem of accommodation in the area intolerable are demanding that the government should act without delay.
  2. B) Problems of accommodation have become intolerable for the people in the area, but the government is delaying doing anything about it.
  3. C) It is vital that the government should act without delay to solve the problems of accommodation in the area as the situation is becoming intolerable.
  4. D) The government must do something without delay as the problem of accommodation has become intolerable for the people in the area.
  5. E) The government made a speedy response to the problem of accommodation in the area, which had developed to intolerable levels.

62- Aynı anda bu kadar çok orman yangı­nının çıkması, yangınların nedenleri konusunda kuşku uyandırdı.

  1. A) Police were suspicious about the causes of the forest fires, particularly because they had ignited simultaneously.
  2. B) Suspicion arose regarding the cause of the fires when several forest fires broke out around the same time.
  3. C) The fact that so many forest fires broke out simultaneously aroused suspicion as to the causes of the fires.
  4. D) They were treating the circumstances surrounding the outbreak of forest fires as suspicious because several fires started at the same time.
  5. E) Because several fires ignited in the forest at the same time, the police believe that the circumstances are suspicious.

63- İki yıldır aynı şirkette çalışıp birbirimizle hiç karşılaşmamamız çok tuhaf.

  1. A) It’s very strange that we’ve been working in the same company for two years and have never met each other.
  2. B) If is funny that we could have been working in the same company for two years, but had not actually met each other.
  3. C) We have been working for the same company for two years, but, strangely, have only just met each other.
  4. D) it’s quite odd that we managed to work for the same company for two years without ever meeting each other.
  5. E) It’s rather strange that we worked in the same factory for two years before meeting each other.

64- Senin sınavlardaki hatan, soruları yanıtlamaya başlamadan önce açıklamaları dikkatle okumamandır.

  1. A) You make so many mistakes in exams because you don’t read the questions properly before you start answering them.
  2. B) Where you go wrong in exams is that you don’t read instructions carefully before you start answering the questions.
  3. C) You would do better in exams if you read the instructions carefully before you started to answer the questions,
  4. D) Your mistake in the exam is to start answering the questions before you read all the instructions carefully.
  5. E) Your biggest mistake about exams is – that you start answering the questions before you read the instructions thoroughly.

65- Doğum günü hediyesi olarak ona almayı düşündüğüm bluzun aynısını almış olması ne büyük tesadüf değil mi? ‘

  1. A) Wouldn’t it have been a disaster if I had bought her that blouse for her birthday as she already has an identical one?
  2. B) Coincidentally, she bought exactly the same blouse I was thinking of buying her as a birthday present.
  3. C) What a mistake it would have been to buy her the blouse as a birthday present as she has just bought an identical one.
  4. D) She was wearing the same blouse as I had bought her as a birthday present, which was a very unfortunate coincidence.
  5. E) What a big coincidence it is that she bought exactly the same blouse I was thinking of buying her as a birthday present, isn’t it?

66- As there were four of us, it was more economical to buy a group ticket.

  1. A) We knew that four people could travel on a group ticket, which would be more cost effective.
  2. B) We purchased a group ticket because, being four of us, it worked out cheaper that way.
  3. C) I saved some money by buying a ticket which is valid for four visits.
  4. D) All four of us should buy a season ticket in order to save money,
  5. E) A group ticket is designed for four people to use, so it is very economical.

67-I had no idea what to buy my sister for her birthday, so I asked my mother for her suggestion.

  1. A) My mother had no suggestions about what I should buy for my sister’s birthday, so I don’t know what I’m going to get.
  2. B) Having no idea what to buy my sister for her birthday, I asked my mother to buy something for me.
  3. C) I asked my mother what she thought would make a nice present for my sister’s birthday, as I couldn’t think of anything.
  4. D) I didn’t know what 1 should get as a birthday present for my sister, but, luckily, my mother gave me some useful ideas.
  5. E) I never know what to get my sister for her birthday, but my mother usually gives me a suggestion, which works out quite well.

68- They maintain that this issue will be discussed at the forthcoming council meeting.

  1. A) Their claim was that this matter had already been discussed at the previous council meeting.
  2. B) They claimed that they were going to discuss this matter at the council meeting, but they didn’t.
  3. C) It is necessary that this topic should form the focus of the discussion at the next council meeting.
  4. D) They asserted that there was a need for this topic to be discussed at the impending council meeting.
  5. E) They claim that there will be a discussion about this topic at the next meeting of the council.

69- We were a little disappointed to find that the mayor himself had not attended the award ceremony.

  1. A) The fact that the mayor was not present in person at the award ceremony disappointed us a little.
  2. B) The mayor had promised to attend the award presentations, but he was unable to in the end
  3. C) What disappointed us most about the ceremony was that the awards were not presented by the mayor himself.
  4. D) As we expected, the mayor didn’t attend the award ceremony, which did not disappoint us at all.
  5. E) By not going to (he ceremony, the mayor disappointed both the audience and the award winners.

70- It took a long time for us to find the answer to what had seemed a simple question.

  1. A) Sometimes the simplest questions take the longest time for us to answer.
  2. B) It took them quite a long time to think of an answer to the simple question we asked them.
  3. C) We spent some time looking for an answer until we realised how simple the question actually was.
  4. D) It appears to be a very simple question, but people have been trying to answer it for a long time.
  5. E) We spent a lot of time looking for an answer even though we had considered the question to be an easy one.
GOOD LUCK!

 

 

P A R T    T W O

I N D I R E C T   S P E E C H

 

INTRODUCTION

Birinin söylediği sözü iki şekilde aktarabiliriz: dolaysız (direct) ve dolaylı (indirect).

Dolaysız anlatım (direct speech), kişinin ağzından çıkan ifadeyi aynen aktarmaktır. Söz iki tırnak arasında yer alır ve “She said, she asked, etc.” gibi ifadelerle aktarılır. Bu ifadeler aktarılan sözden önce ya da sonra yer alabilir.

He said, “I don’t like horror films.”                “I don’t like horror films,” he said.                  He asked, “Do you like horror films?”         “Do you like horror films?” he asked.

Dolaylı anlatım (indirect speech), kişinin ağzından çıkan ifadeyi aktarırken bazı değişiklikler yapmayı gerektirir (pronoun, tense, etc. changes).

George                :    I don’t like horror films.
George said (that) he didn’t like horror films.
George                :     Do you like horror films?
George asked me if/whether I liked horror films.

Dolaylı anlatımı, aktarılan cümlelerin yapısı açısından şu üç grupta inceleyebiliriz:

1- Reporting Statements

2- Reporting Questions

3- Reporting Imperatives

2-1   REPORTING STATEMENTS

Düz cümleleri aktarırken en çok kullanılan aktarma sözü “tell” ve “say”dir. “Tell”den sonra mutlaka sözün kime söylendiğini belirtmemiz gerekir. He has told me…, I will tell him…We told them…, etc. “Say”den sonra hemen cümle gelir. He said (that) …. I will say (that.) …. etc. “Say”den sonra bir zamir kullanmak istersek. “He said to me, She said to us, etc.” gibi. zamirden önce “to” kullanmak zorundayız. Ancak “say”in bu kullanımı, Indirect Speech’de pek yaygın değildir.

Eğer aktarma sözü, “She always tells us, She has just told me, She will tell us” gibi Simple Present, Present Perfect ve Simple Future ise, aktarılan cümlenin tense’inde bir değişiklik yapılmaz. Sadece gerekli zamir değişiklikleri yapılır.

Paul : I am not so keen to see that film.                                                                        Paul says (that) he is not so keen to see that film.                                                  Paul has told us (that) he is not so keen to see that film.                                       Paul will tell you (that) he is not so keen to see that film.

Eğer aktarma sözü Simple Past ya da Past Perfect ise (I told him, he had told us, etc.), zamir değişikliklerinin yanı sıra, tense ve zaman zarflarında da değişiklik yapılır. Direct cümlenin zamirlerini değiştirirken, sözü kimin söylediğini ve bu sözü kimin kime aktardığını dikkate almalıyız.

Ayşe: I will help you tomorrow.

Ayşe told me (that) she would help me the following day.

Ayşe told her mother (that) she would help her the following day.

Ayşe told her brother (that) she would help him the following day.

  1. a) Tense Changes in Reported Speech
Direct Speech Reported Speech
Simple Present………………………………………… Simple Past

“I never get up late.” he said. He said (that) he never got up late.

Present Continuous  ………………………………… Past Continuous

“I’m working on my thesis,” he said.  He said {that) he was working on bis thesis.

Present Perfect   ………………………………………. Past Perfect

“I’ve applied for a job.” he said.          He said (that) he had applied for a job.

Present Perfect Continuous   ………………………Past Perfect Continuous

“I’ve been working for two hours,” he said.         He said (that) he had been working for two hours.

Simple Past   ……………………………………………Past Perfect

“I stayed at home last night,” he said.            He said (that) he had stayed at home the previous night.

Past Continuous …………………………………….. Past Perfect Continuous

“I was working in Ankara last year,” he said.     He said that he had been working in Ankara the previous year.

am/is/are going to   ………………………………….. was/were going to

shall/will   ………………………………………………. should/would

should/would   ………………………………………… should/would

can  ………………………………………………………… could

could   ……………………………………………………. could

must, have to   …………………………………………. had to

must, have to (future necessity) …………………. must/had to/would have to

must (deduction) ……………………………………… must

don’t have to    …………………………………………. didn’t have to

mustn’t   ………………………………………………….. wasn’t, weren’t to do/mustn’t

should/ought to/had better …………………………. should/ought to/had better

may  ……………………………………………………….. might

might   …………………………………………………….. might

used to   …………………………………………………… used to

 

Direct  cümledeki  “I/We shall”,  indirect cümlede  “He/She/They would” olur.  Ancak indirect cümlede özne I/We olarak kalıyorsa “I/We should/would” kullanılır.

I shall meet my friends tomorrow.”

Ali told me (that) he would meet his friends the following day.

I shall meet my friends tomorrow.”                                                                      “I told my mother (that) I should/would meet my friends the following

day.

Direct cümledeki would, would rather, would prefer, would like, would hate gibi yapılar, indirect cümleye aynen aktarılır.

“I would rather stay home than go out today.”

My mother said that she would rather stay home than go out that day.

“I would like to invite you to dinner one evening.”

I told my friend that I would like to invite him to dinner one evening.

Type-1 if clause, indirect cümleye bir derece past yapılarak aktarılır. Type-2 ve Type-3 ise aynen

aktandır.

“We shall/will spend the day out if it is nice tomorrow.”

She said that they would spend the day out if it was nice the following day.

“I would do the same if I were you.”

She told me that she would do the same if she were me.

”I wouldn’t have behaved like that if I had been in your position.”

She said that she wouldn’t have behaved like that if she had been in my position.

Must ve have to present bir anlam taşıyorsa had to biçimine dönüşür.

“I must/have to get up very early on weekdays.”

She said that she had to get up very early on weekdays.

Must ve have to (will have to) future bir anlam taşıyorsa genellikle would have to biçimine dönüştürülür. Ancak sözün aktarıldığı sırada direct cümledeki gelecek zaman kavramı artık geçmiş durumda ise would have to yerine had to da kullanılabilir. Future bir anlam taşıyan must indirect cümleye değiştirilmeden de aktarılabilir.

“I must/have to/will have to get up very early tomorrow.”

Last week, Sue left the party early, because she said she must/had to/would have to get up very early the following day.

“I must/have to/will have to study harder next year.”  (spoken in 1995)

She said that she must/would have to study harder next year.                             (reported in 1995)

Tahmin bildirirken kullandığımız must, indirect cümleye aynen aktarılır.

“He must be stupid to refuse their offer.”

She said that he must be stupid to refuse their offer.

Zaman bağlaçlarının bulunduğu cümlelerde. Past Tense ve Past Continuous Tense normalde indirect cümleye aynen aktarılır. Ancak, Past Tense’i Past Perfect Tense biçiminde de aktarabiliriz.

“I was studying English when you phoned me.”

She told me that she was studying English when I phoned/had phoned her.

“I saw an old friend of mine while I was driving home yesterday.”

He said he saw an old friend of his while he was driving home the day before.

Doğa kanunları, sürekli geçerliliği olan genel doğrular ve kurallar aktarılırken tense değişikliği yapılmaz.

“The earth revolves round the sun.”

The teacher explained to his students that the earth revolves round the sun.

  1. b) Expressions of time and place in Reported Speech
Direct Indirect
today   …………………………………………………. that day

tonight …………………………………………………. that night

yesterday  …………………………………………….. the day before/the previous day

the day before yesterday   ………………………. two days before/earlier

last week/month/year/night   …………………… the previous week/month/year/night (the week etc. before)

yesterday morning/afternoon/evening   …….. the previous morning/afternoon/evening

a year/month/week ago   …………………………. a year/month/week before, the previous year/month/week

two years/months/weeks ago ……………………. two years/ months /weeks before/earlier

tomorrow  ………………………………………………. the next day/the following day

the day after tomorrow …………………………….. in two days’ time

next week/month/year  …………………………….. the following week/month/year

now   ……………………………………………………… then /immediately

 

“I’ll phone you tomorrow,” he said to me.

He told me that he would phone me the next day/the following day.

“I’m going to visit my relatives today,” she said.

She said she was going to visit her relatives that day.

“He left home half an hour ago,” his mother said to me.

His mother told me he had left home half an hour before.

He said, “I’m leaving Istanbul the day after tomorrow.”

He said he was leaving Istanbul in two days’ time.

Zaman zarflarındaki bu değişme her zaman aynı olmayabilir. Sözün aktarıldığı zamanı da dikkate almamız gerekir. Örneğin sözün söylendiği gün ile aktarıldığı gün aynı ise “today” değişmez.

“I may come home late today.”

Sue told me this morning that she might come home late today.

On   Saturday   Sue   said,   “I’m   starting my   new job   the   day   after tomorrow.”

Eğer bu sözü Cumartesi günü aktarıyorsak:

Sue told me that she was starting her new job in two days’ time.

Pazar günü aktarıyorsak:

Sue told me that she was starting her new job tomorrow.

Pazartesi günü aktarıyorsak:

Sue told me that she was starting her new job today.

Direct cümledeki this/these indirect cümleye genellikle that/those ya da the biçiminde aktarılır. Here ise there biçiminde ifade edilir.

  1. c) Say and tell

Direct cümleyi aktarırken, “say“, cümlenin başında ya da sonunda yer alabilir.

Sue said, “I didn’t like the film.”

“I didn’t like the film,” Sue said.

Say cümlenin sonunda yer aldığı zaman devrik olabilir.

“l didn’t like the film,” said Sue.

Say’den sonra sözün kime söylendiğini belirtmek istersek say + to kullanılır ve bu kullanım, sadece cümlenin sonunda yer alabilir. Cümlenin başına gelmez ve devrik yapamayız.

“I didn’t like the film,” Sue said to me.

Direct cümleyi aktarırken “tell” de kullanabiliriz. Ancak “tell” den sonra sözün kime söylendiğini belirtmemiz gerekir ve tell, cümlenin sonunda yer alabilir.

”I didn’t like the film,” Sue told me.

Tell lies, tell stories ve tell the truth ifadelerinde, sözün kime söylendiğini belirtmek zorunlu değildir.

She told (me) lies.

Grandma told (the children) stories.

Will you tell [me) the truth?

Indirect cümleyi aktarırken “say” ya da “tell + object” cümlenin başında kullanılır. “Say + to + object” kullanımı da mümkündür ancak çok yaygın değildir.

Sue said (to me that) she hadn’t liked the film. Sue told me (that) she hadn’t liked the film.

“Tell someone about something/about doing something”, bir konuda bir şeyler anlatmak anlamındadır. “Say” bu şekilde kullanılmaz.

He told me about his trip to Alanya.

He told us about travelling around Turkey.

Cümleleri aktarırken “tell” ve “say” in yanı sıra başka fiiller de kullanabiliriz. Bu fiiller cümleyi yakınma, itiraz, gözlem vb. gibi anlamları da ilave ederek aktarmamızı sağlar. Bu şekilde yaygın olarak kullanılan fiiller şunlardır:

add                     boast                        object                     remind + object

admit                  complain                  observe                  reply

announce            deny *                       point out               scream

answer                grumble                    promise                 shout

argue                  inform                      protest                   whisper

assure + object   murmur                    remark                   yell

 

*     Deny fiilinden sonra gelen cümle olumsuz olamaz. Ancak direct cümle olumsuzdur.

 

“I can’t finish all this work by lunch time.”

She protested that she couldn’t finish all the work by lunch time.

“We will get married as soon as school is over.”

They announced that they would get married as soon as school was over.

“You will really feel comfortable at that hotel.”

The travel agent assured us that we would really feel comfortable at that hotel.

“I didn’t steal the money.”

He denied that he had stolen the money.

“I’m beginning to get bored here.”

Sue whispered that she was beginning to get bored there.

EXERCISE   6    :  Put the following sentences into Reported Speech. Pay attention to whether the reporting verb is in the Present or Past.

1-   “I’m fascinated and I have never seen such a well-preserved Roman ruin.”

Upon reaching the site, Heidi remarked that ………………………………………………….. .

2-   “Their defence won’t be strong enough for them to win tomorrow,”

My brother has only just pointed out that ………………………………………………………. .

3-   “I’ll mend your bicycle the moment I have some free time.”

My father promised two weeks ago that …………………………………………………………. .

4-   “I can run ten miles easily.”

William boasted that …………………………………………………………………………………… .

5-   “The incident hasn’t been reported properly by the newspapers.”

The politician claims that …………………………………………………………………………….. .

6-   “I left Turkey two years ago.”

The young lady answered that ………………………………………………………………………..

7-   Mum may not have roasted the chicken long enough.

My brother whispered that …………………………………………………………………………….

8-   “I don’t think they’ll serve us a decent breakfast at this hotel tomorrow morning.”

Mum grumbles that ……………………………………………………………………………………. ‘.

9-   “I have been working here for ten years and know the best way to do the end of month balance.”

The accounts assistant yelled that …………………………………………………………………..

10- “You should drink some water during exercise.”

The aerobics teacher reminds us frequently that ………………………………………………. .

11- “My grandfather doesn’t seem to be aware of what is going on around him.”

Sally said that …………………………………………………………………………………………….. .

12- “I want to see the manager immediately.”

A young lady entered the shop and told the assistant angrily that ………………………… .

13- “I paid a fortune for this blouse and it’s faded after just one wash.”

She complained to the manager that ………………………………………………………………. .

14- “I expect to get a complete refund for this.”

She continued that ……………………………………………………………………………………… .

15- “I’m sorry. We can’t give you a refund, but you can exchange it with another item in the shop.”

The manager apologised and said that……………………………………………………………  .

 

2-2   REPORTING QUESTIONS

Soru cümlelerini aktarırken tense, yer ve zaman zarflarına ilişkin değişiklikler için izlenecek kurallar, düz cümleleri aktarırken uyduğumuz kurallarla aynıdır. Ancak, soru cümlelerini aktarırken “say” ve “tell” yerine, ask, inquire, wonder, want to learn, want to know gibi fiiller kullanılır. Bu fiillerden ask, nesne alabilir. Diğerleri almaz.

“Why didn’t you come to the party?”

She asked (me) why I hadn’t come to the party.

She inquired/wondered/wanted  to know why I hadn’t  come to the party.

Soru sözcüğüyle başlayan soruları aktarırken, aktarma sözünden sonra soru sözcüğü gelir ve soru cümlesi düz cümle biçimine dönüştürülür.

“Why are you leaving so early today?”

My mother asked me why I was leaving so early that day.

“What time is it?”

A child in the street asked me what time it was.

Yardımcı fulle başlayan soruları aktarırken, aktarma sözünden sonra if ya da whether kullanılır ve soru cümlesi düz cümle biçimine dönüştürülür.

“Are you coming with us?”

She asked me if/whether I was coming (going) with them.

“Can you speak English?”

A tourist stopped me in the street and asked if/whether I could speak English.

Eğer temel cümlenin fiili, Simple Present, Present Perfect ya da Future Tense ise soru cümlesinin tense’i aynı kalır. Sadece gerekli zamir değişiklikleri yapılır.

“Are you coming with us?”

She is asking me if/whether I’m coming (going) with them.

“Why did you refuse my offer?”

He has asked me twice so far why I refused his offer.

EXERCISE   7    :   Put the following sentences into Reported Speech. Pay attention to the tense of the reporting verb.

1-   “Did you enjoy the concert last night?”

I asked my sister …………………………………………………………………………………

2-   “Are you experiencing any pain?”

Grandmother, the nurse is asking you …………………………………………………………. .

3-   “When will the final be played?”

I inquired ………………………………………………………………………………………….

4-   “Could you keep it until tomorrow for me?”

I asked the shop assistant………………………………………………………………………. .

5-   “When do you have to hand the essay in by?”

My father asked me ……………………………………………………………………….

6-   “Who is responsible for organising the meeting?”

The secretary wanted to know ……………………………………………………………………..

7-   “How many ‘Pokemon’ cards have you collected?”

My friend looked at my cards and asked enviously ………………………………………….

8-   “Why did your wife abandon you?”

His mother wondered ………………………………………………………………

9-   “Have you heard about the murder?”

I asked my father ……………………………………………………………………

10- “When did you defrost the freezer last?”

The cleaner asked me ………………………………………………………………

11- “How much is the entrance fee to the zoo?”

William telephoned and asked …………………………………………………..

12- “How much longer are you going to produce cars at a loss?”

The reporter asked the chairman of Rover ……………………………………

13- “Can you take me to the hospital next Tuesday?”

My mother asked me ……………………………………………………………….

14- “Were the conditions good on the slopes today?”

The hotel receptionist asked us ………………………………………………….

15- “Which terminal are you landing at?

As there are four at Heathrow, I asked my cousin …………………………

16- “Have you typed the proposal that I need to take with me tomorrow?”

The salesman asked the secretary ……………………………………………..

17- “Are you aware that many shops accept dollars in Istanbul?”

The travel agent asked me ………………………………………………………..

18-“What did your husband just say?”

My aunt asked me ……………………………………………………………………

19- “Which charities are helping with the relief effort?

The reporter has asked the minister …………………………………………..

20- “Can someone tell me what’s going on here?”

Upon reaching the crowd, the police officer asked …………………………

2-3   REPORTING IMPERATIVES

Emir cümlelerini aktarırken, tell, order, command, ask gibi fiiller, emrin kime verildiğini gösteren bir zamir ile birlikte kullanılırlar. He told me, I asked him (rica etmek, istemek anlamında), They ordered me, etc. Say” fiili, bu şekilde emir cümlesi aktarırken kullanılmaz.

Olumlu emir cümleleri to + verb infinitive, olumsuz emir cümleleri :                                                              not to + verb infinitive biçiminde aktarılır.

Direct:        “Study your lessons regularly,” the teacher said to us.
Indirect:       The teacher told us to study our lessons regularly.

Direct:        “Don’t try to cheat during the exam.” she said to us.
Indirect:       She told us not to try to cheat during the exam.

Eğer bir cümle emir cümlesi biçiminde başlayıp devamında bir cümlecik (clause) alıyorsa, o cümleciğin tense’ini bir derece past yapmamız gerekir. Ancak, temel cümlenin tense’i present ya da future ise bu tense değişikliği yapılmaz.

Study regularly if you want to pass the exam.”

The teacher told us to study regularly if we wanted to pass the exam.

Don’t release your seatbelts until after the plane has fully landed.”

The air-hostess told the passengers not to release their seatbelts until after the plane had fully landed.

The teacher always tells us to study regularly if we want to pass exams.

An   air-hostess   usually   tells   the   passengers   not   to   release   their seatbelts until after the plane has fully landed.

Emir cümlesi biçiminde kurulan cümleler bazen uyarı, öğüt, teşvik etme, öneri vb. gibi anlamlar ifade edebilirler. Bu durumda bu cümleleri, cümlenin ifade ettiği anlama göre advise, encourage, warn, beg, implore, forbid, recommend, remind, request, urge, etc. gibi fiillerle de aktarabiliriz.

“Don’t play with matches.”

I warned my son not to play with matches.

“Speak slowly and clearly if you don’t want to be misunderstood.”

She advised me to speak slowly and clearly if I didn’t want to be misunderstood.

“Don’t use my car again.”

My father ordered me not to use his car again, or

My father forbade me to use his car again.

“Don’t forget to phone Ann later today.”

Sue reminded me not to forget to phone Ann later that day. or

Sue reminded me to phone Ann later that day.

“Try once more.”

My friends encouraged me to try once more.

“Come to the picnic with us.”

She invited/asked me to come (to go) to the picnic with them.

“Don’t hit the children.”

His wife begged/implored him not to hit the children.

“Help me, please, with this heavy suitcase.”

An old lady asked/requested me to help her with the heavy suitcase.

EXERCISE   8   :    Put the following sentences into Reported Speech.

1-   “Don’t eat these chocolates as they are for our guests.”

My mother forbade us ………………………………………………………………………………….. .

2-   “Don’1 expect drivers to stop at pedestrian crossings in Rome.”

The tour guide advised us …………………………………………………………………………….. .

3-   “Don’t give the dog sweets, Johnny.”

Johnny’s mother told him …………………………………………………………………………….. .

4-   “Don’t touch the furniture with your sticky fingers.”

The mother told her young child ……………………………………………………………………..

5-   “Don’t look up lots of words. Try to guess the meaning from the context.”

Our English teacher instructed us …………………………………………………………………..

6-   “Let me do the washing up for you.”

Janet urged her mother ……………………………………………………………………………….. .

7-   “Roll your sleeve up, please.”

The doctor instructed me …………………………………………………………………………….. .

8-   “Make sure you always have change in the cash register.”

The area manager asked us …………………………………………………………………………. .

9-   “Empty the contents into a cup, add water and stir well.”

The instructions on the packet simply tells us …………………………………………………. .

10- “Don’t jump into the pool.”

The lifeguard told the boys ……………………………………………………………………………

11- “Call the doctor if you are worried about her.”

Her husband told Kate ……………………………………

12- “Keep your wrist loose all the time. Don’t get tense.

My badminton instructor advised me ………………..

13- “Put all your litter in the bins.”

The teacher on duty in the canteen reminded us …

14- “Tell me when the picture is straight.”

Jim asked me ………………………………………………..

15- “Don’t swim in the river.”

Our parents forbade us …………………………………..

2-4   REPORTED SPEECH (MIXED TYPES)

Aktaracağımız ifadeler bazen arka arkaya İki cümle, iki soru, iki emir cümlesi ya da bir soru + bir düz cümle, bir soru + bir emir cümlesi vb. gibi karışık olarak bir arada bulunabilir. Bu durumda, her bir ifadeyi kendine özgü fiillerle aktarabiliriz. Yani düz cümleler için tell say, remark, explain, etc., soru cümleleri için ask, want to know, inquire, wonder, etc.; emir cümleleri için ise ask, tell order, etc. gibi fiiller kullanabiliriz.

  1. a) Statement + Statement

“My son hasn’t returned from school yet. I have to wait at home until he comes.”

She said/told me that her son hadn’t returned from school yet and that she had to wait at home until he came.

Aktarılan cümlelerin her ikisi de düz cümle olduğu için bir tane aktarma sözü yeterlidir. İki cümle arasında “and that” kullanılır. Eğer iki cümle arasında but, so, because, as, or gibi başka bir bağlaç varsa, o zaman and yerine cümlenin kendi bağlacı kullanılır.

“I have to study hard or I will fail the test.”

She said that she had to study hard or she would fail the test.

“I liked the book but I didn’t like the film much.”

She said that she had liked the book but she hadn’t liked the film much.

  1. b) Question + Question

“Why are you still at home? Does your lesson start later today?”

My mother asked me why I was still at home and if/whether my lesson started later that day.

  1. c) Question + Imperative/Imperative + Question

“Why are you still waiting? Start your work without delay.”

The boss asked the employees why they were still waiting and told them to start their work without delay.

“Do it as I told you. Do you have any more questions?”

The manager told the secretary to do it as he had told her and asked if she had any more questions

 

  1. d) Statement + Question / Question + Statement

“It’s very hot in here. Can I open the window?”

I said that it was very hot in there and asked if I could open the window.

“What time is it? I don’t want to miss the news programme on TV.”

She wanted to know what time it was and said that she didn’t want to miss the news programme on TV.

  1. e) Statement + Imperative/Imperative + Statement

“I’m very keen on my freedom. Don’t interfere in my business.”

She told her parents that she was very keen on her freedom and told them not to interfere in her business.

“Don’t involve me in this case. I don’t want to get into trouble.”

He told us not to involve him in that case and said that he didn’t want to get into trouble.

EXERCISE   9   :    Put the following sentences into Reported Speech, using the Simple Past of the reporting verb.

1-   “Could you post this letter? I want her to receive it by the weekend.”

He ……………….. me ………………………………………… as ……………………………………….

2-   “Don’t walk about after dark! It is dangerous around the city.”

I ……………. my daughter ……………………………… because ……………………………………

3-   ”What do you think the problem with the car is? Does it need a service?”

She …………….. her husband …………………………… and ……………………………………….

4-   “I can’t understand how to insert a graph into my file. Can you explain how to do it?”

My colleague ……………………………………… and ………………………………………………….

5-   ‘”Erin Brockovich’ sounds like a good film. Which cinemas is it showing at?

My friend …………………………………….. and ……………….. me ………………………………..

6-   “This course will only cover the basic procedures of ‘Microsoft Word’; however, more advanced training is available.”

The instructor ……………….. us ……………………………… but………………………………….

7-   “Don’t go out with your hair wet. You will catch pneumonia.”

My mother ………………. me …………………………. or else ……………………………………….

8-   “Buy this expensive perfume. You have been working very hard lately. You deserve it.”

Jack ……………….. his sister …………………………………………………. because

……………………………………………. and …………………………………………………..

9-   “1 haven’t enough cash with me. Do you accept credit cards?”

The customer ……………….. the sales assistant………………….……..…………….. and ……………………. him ……………………………………………… .

10- “Tidy your room. I can’t even see the floor.”

His mother ……………….. Joe ……………………………………………. because ………………………………………………

3-1   TOO and EITHER

  1. a) İki olumlu cümle, bir öğeleri hariç, aynı anlamı taşıyorsa, ikinci cümlenin sonuna “too” “Too” cümleye “de, da” anlamı verir.

They have a pet dog at home. They have a cat, too.

He raises sheep on his farm. He raises chickens, too.

Bu durum iki olumsuz cümle için söz konusuysa, ikinci cümlenin sonuna “either” eklenir.

They don’t keep birds at home. They don’t keep fish, either.

He doesn’t raise cows on his farm. He doesn’t raise pigs, either.

  1. b) Eğer iki cümlenin, özneleri hariç, diğer öğeleri aynı ise, ikinci cümlede tekrardan kaçınmak için, olumlu cümlelerde Subject + auxiliary verb + too, olumsuz cümlelerde Subject + auxiliary verb + either kullanılır. Yardımcı fiil, birinci cümledeki tense’in yardımcı fiili olmalıdır.

My parents live in Germany. My sister does, too.

I understood the lesson perfectly. Other students did, too.

Jill was in a hurry. Her parents were, too.

I don’t like fish at ail. My sister doesn’t, either.

You are not old enough to get married. Your boyfriend isn’t, either.

I didn’t quite understand the lesson. The others didn’t, either.

  1. c) Too ve either, anlamca uyumlu olan ama farklı sözcüklerden oluşan cümlelerin sonuna da gelebilir.

He is very successful in his school subjects. He shows the same success in his social life, too.

She isn’t very popular with her schoolmates. She isn’t liked much by her teachers, either.

  1. d) Bazen iki cümle, anlamca aynı olmasına rağmen,cümlelerin biri olumlu, diğeri olumsuz olabilir. Bu durumda, ikinci cümle yapı olarak olumluysa too, olumsuzsa either kullanılır.

I hate martial arts, such as judo and karate.

I don’t like football, either.

3-2   SO and NEITHER / NOR

İki cümle anlamca aynı fakat özneleri farklıysa, “de, da” anlamını, olumlu cümleler için so, olumsuz cümleler için neither ya da nor ile verebiliriz. Bu yapılar, kendilerinden sonra devrik cümle alırlar:

So + auxiliary + subject, Neither / Nor + auxiliary + subject.

Kullanacağımız yardımcı fiil yine birinci cümledeki tense’in yardımcı fiilidir.

I like reading a lot, and so does my husband, (my husband does, too.)

I went to bed quite early last night, and so did my parents. (my parents did, too.)

 

They don’t like horror films, and neither/nor do I. (I don’t, either.)

I haven’t finished my report yet. and neither/nor has Sue./Sue hasn’t, either. (Note: Neither/nor kendileri olumsuz olduğu için, arada kullanılan yardımcı fiil olumludur.)

Birkaç   cümlecikten   oluşan   kompleks   cümlelerde   dikkate   almamız  gereken  yan   cümlenin yardımcı fiili değil, temel cümlenin yardımcı fiilidir.

I don’t think we can afford such an expensive car and neither does my husband.

–    I would forgive her if she apologized to us.

–    So would I. (I would, too.)

–    I thought the news was rather depressing.

–    So did I. (I did, too.)

–    I hadn’t believed him when he told us that he couldn’t pass the exam.

–    Nor had I.

Eğer   bizim   düşüncemiz   ya   da   durumumuz,   bir   başkasınınki   ile   çelişiyorsa   o   zaman so/neither/nor kullanamayız. Bu zıtlığa geçişi sağlamak için but kullanabiliriz.

I don’t like fish, but my husband does.

I didn’t allow him to go alone, but my father did.

She isn’t interested in art, but her husband is.

She has got a car, but her brother hasn’t.

He has a lot of hobbies, but his wife doesn’t.

They have been abroad, but I haven’t.

1 have to work for a living, but you don’t.

He had to show the content of his suitcase at the customs, but others didn’t.

They can afford a holiday abroad, but I can’t.

You must study hard for the exam, but I         needn’t.

don’t need to.
don’t have to.

You     needn’t work for a living, but I must/have to.

don’t need to               don’t have to

Bu zıtlığı though, although, even though gibi bağlaçlarla da vurgulayabiliriz.

Although/Though/Even though I don’t like fish, my husband does.

My father allowed him to go alone although/though/even though I didn’t.

Though ikinci cümlenin sonunda da kullanılabilir. Although ve even though bu şekilde cümle sonunda kullanılmaz.

I like watching films at the cinema, but I can’t go very often.                                  I like watching films at the cinema, I can’t go very often though.

I’m interested in sightseeing, but my husband isn’t.                                                    I’m interested in sightseeing, my husband isn’t though.

EXERCISE   10:    Use “so, neither/nor…” or “too, either” with an auxiliary to complete the sentences below.

1-   My mother-in-law loves looking after my children now and again and luckily. …………………….. my mother.

2-   Our local swimming pool isn’t open over the public holiday and, unfortunately, …………………….. the one in the centre of town.

3-   I couldn’t finish all the questions in the time they allocated for the exam, and some of
my classmates …………………… .

4-   We wanted to drive to the coast this weekend, but, as it’s a national holiday, the highway to the west coast is heavily congested, and the highway to the south coast

5-   I believe in keeping fit, and …………………….. my colleague, so we go to an aerobics class after work on Tuesdays and Thursdays.

6-   George won’t be staying late at the party tonight, and John ……………………… as they both have tests tomorrow.

7-   I wanted to start the decorating today, but the wallpaper I ordered hasn’t arrived, and …………………….. the paint. I’m really disappointed.

8-   The teacher has told me that the introduction of my essay needs improvement, and the conclusion …………………….. .

9-   Teachers should take some responsibility for the development of children, and …………………….. parents.

10-James might be interested in the debating society, and …………………….. Sophia.

11-I insist that you mustn’t give up hope, and …………………….. the rest of us.

12-I got very nervous on my wedding day, and …………………….. my husband.

13-I wouldn’t like to work in the accident and emergency department, and the other nurses on my ward …………………….. .

14-I hadn’t visited Bulgaria before the skiing holiday I spent there last winter, and …………………….. my husband.

15-Because of the sandals I was wearing, I couldn’t walk up the hill, and …………………….. some of the other tourists.

16-The manager told me yesterday that the financial accountant can sign orders and the branch manager …………………….. .

17- The government promised to reduce crime and unemployment, but the amount of crime hasn’t been reduced, and unemployment …………………….. .

18-When we visited the Millennium Dome, 1 liked the ‘Body Zone’ best, and …………………….. my sister.

19-I was shocked to learn that they gave him a life sentence, and …………………….. a high proportion of the population.

20-I wouldn’t have supported him if I hadn’t believed that he would succeed, and …………………….. my parents.

3-3   AUXILIARY VERBS in SHORT QUESTIONS

Biriyle sohbet ederken, karşımızdakinin söylediği sözlerle ilgilendiğimizi ifade etmek için Türkçe’de “Gerçekten mi?” ya da “A öyle mi?” gibi sözler kullanırız. Bunlar aslında soru değildir. Sadece konuşmanın akısını sağlayan sözlerdir.Türkçe’de. söylenen cümlenin zamanı ne olursa olsun “öyle mi?” sözünü kullanabiliriz. İngilizce’de ise söylenen sözün tense’ini ve cümlenin olumlu mu yoksa olumsuz mu olduğunu dikkate almak zorundayız. Eğer cümle olumlu ise soracağımız soruda da olumlu bir yardımcı fiil, olumsuz ise soruda da olumsuz bir yardımcı fiil kullanmamız gerekir.

–    I can’t go on holiday this summer.

–    Oh, really? Can’t you?

–    I can cook very delicious Chinese food.

–    Can you, really?

–     I have never been abroad.

–     Oh, haven’t you?

–     My son never drinks milk.

–     Oh, doesn’t he?

–    Sue is always talking too much?

–    Oh, is she? (note: sonda kullanılan özne I, you, he, they, etc. gibi bir zamir [pronoun] olmalıdır.)

Eğer konuşmanın devamında, o konudaki kendi düşüncemizi ya da durumumuzu ifade etmek istersek çeşitli yapılar kullanabiliriz.

–    I like horror films very much.

–    Do you? So do I./I do, too. (Öyle mi? Ben de. [severim]}

–     I like horror films very much.

–    Do you? I don’t. (Öyle mi? Ben sevmem.)                                                     (note:    Burada    “Neither/Nor  do  I”   kullanamayız.    Çünkü    onları kullanabilmemiz için bize söylenen cümlenin olumsuz olması gerekir.)

–    I don’t like horror films at all.

–    Don’t you? Neither do I/Nor do I/I don’t either. (Öyle mi? Ben de sevmem.)

–    I don’t like horror films at all.

–    Don’t you? I do. (Öyle mi? Ben severim.)                                                        (Burada “So do I” kullanamayız. Çünkü onu kullanabilmemiz için bize

söylenen cümlenin olumlu olması gerekir.)

3-4   SO and NOT REPRESENTING a THAT-CLAUSE

  1. a) Believe, expect, suppose, think, hope gibi fiillerden sonra ve I’m afraid, It seems/appears gibi yapılardan sonra bir that-clause yerine so ya da not kullanılır. Olumlu bir anlam için so, olumsuz bir anlam için not kullanılır. So ve not’ın bu kullanımı cümleyi tekrar etmekten kaçınmak içindir.

–    Will that party win the election?

–    I think     that party will win the election. (I think so.)

so

–    Do you think the teacher will postpone the exam?

–    I hope that she will postpone the exam. (I hope so.)

so

That-clause olumlu ise onun yerine so getirebiliriz.

I expect so/I believe so/I’m afraid so/It seems so, etc.

That-clause olumsuz ise onun yerine not getirebiliriz. Fakat “think” fiili ile olumsuzluğu ancak fiilin  kendisini olumsuz yaparak vurgulayabiliriz.

–    Will that party win the election?

–    I don’t think that party will win the election.

so

(I don’t think so.)

Expect, suppose ve believe fiillerini iki şekilde kullanabiliriz.

–    Has your brother found a solution?

–    I don’t expect/suppose/believe he has found a solution.

so

(I don’t expect so/ I don’t suppose so/ I don’t believe so.)

–    Has your brother found a solution?

–    I expect/suppose/believe he hasn’t found a solution.

not

(I expect not/ I suppose not/ I believe not.)

It appears/ seems yapısını da “it doesn’t seem/appear so” biçiminde olumsuz yapabiliriz.

–    Will she be able to pass the exam?

–    It doesn’t seem/appear that she’ll be able to pass the exam.

so

(It doesn’t seem/ appear so.)

Hope ve be afraid, ‘that-clause”un yerine not alır.

–    Is she coming with us?

–    I hope that she isn’t coining with us.

not

(I hope not.)

–    Have you been able to find tickets for the game?

–    I’m afraid I haven’t been able to find tickets for the game.

not

(I’m afraid not.)

  1. b) Bu yapılan kullanarak yanıt verirken bize yöneltilen sorunun yapısına dikkat etmeliyiz.

Olumlu anlam taşıyan “tag-question”a onaylayıcı yanıt vermek istersek “so”, olumsuz anlam taşıyan soruyu onaylıyorsak, “not” kullanabiliriz.

–    They can lend us some money, can’t they?

–    I think so/ I hope so/ I suppose so.

–    She won’t be late for the appointment, will she?

–    No, I don’t think so/ I hope not/ I suppose not.

–    She won’t be able to come with us, will she?

–    I’m afraid not.

–     She inherited a large sum from her father, didn’t she?

–    Yes, 1 think so.

Bir soru sözcüğü ile başlayan sorulara bu yapılan kullanarak yanıt veremeyiz. Çünkü bu sorular, açıklama ya da bilgi isleyen sorulardır.

–    How much money did she inherit from her lather?

–    A large sum.

Yardımcı  fiille başlayan  sorulara bu yapıları kullanarak yanıt verebiliriz.  Bu yanıt,  vermek istediğimiz anlama göre olumlu ya da olumsuz olabilir.

–    Is she satisfied with her salary?

–    I think so. (eğer memnun olduğunu zannediyorsak)

–    Is she satisfied with her salary?

–    I don’t think so. (eğer memnun olmadığını zannediyorsak)

–    Do we have to return our assignments tomorrow?

–    I’m afraid so. (eğer ödevlerimizi yarın teslim etmek zorundaysak)

–    Will you get a raise in your salary soon?

–    I’m afraid not. (eğer yakında zam almayacağımızı zannediyorsak)

  1. c)So“nun bu iki kullanımı dışında (So do I, So is my husband, etc., I think so, I don’t think so. etc.) iki kullanımı daha vardır.

1)        Eğer do fiili, daha önceki cümlede geçen bir fiilin yerine kullanılıyorsa, do nun nesnesi olarak so kullanılır.

I haven’t ironed your shirt yet, but I will do so after breakfast.

2)        So + subject + verb kalıbı, karşımızdakinin söylediği sözü onayladığımız anlamım verir.

A: H was cold yesterday.

B: So it was. (Evet, öyleydi.)

A: It will be hard work.

B: So it will. (Evet, öyle olacak.)

A: I hear that you have graduated from school. Then it means you can start working immediately.

B: So it does. I’ve started to look for a job already.

(Evet, öyle. İş aramaya başladım zaten.)

EXERCISE   11:    Answer the following questions using “I think so, I hope not, etc.”

1-   A: Are you staying for lunch? (be afraid]

B:  I’m afraid not.          I have too many things to do.

2-   A: Have they announced the winner? (believe)

B:  _I believe so.        I overheard Cedrick boasting about his win.

3-   A: Do they stock the same dress in my size? (expect)

B: ………………….. . They stock most sizes.

4-   A: Will I have to have any injections before I go to India? (suppose)

B: ………………….. . There are a lot of tropical diseases you can catch there.

5-   A: Do we need to have any vaccinations before we go to Tenerife? (hope)

B: ………………….. . I hate having injections.

6-   A: Shamrock’s shop isn’t closing down, is it? (appear)

B: ………………….. . They have a closing down sale on at the moment.

7-   A: The UK wants to host the 2006 World Cup, doesn’t it? (believe)

B: …………………… but I don’t know how much chance they have of actually hosting it.

8-   A: Is it true that another farmer has been murdered in Zimbabwe? (be afraid)

B: ………………….. . It was on the news this morning.

9-   A: So the situation is really out of control. (seem)

B: ………………….. . There has been a complete breakdown in law and order.

10- A: Jackson’s Washers Ltd. placed their order with our competitors, didn’t they? (appear)

B: ………………….. . Their secretary phoned just now and asked about our prices.

11- A: Do you think little Sonia needs some new shoes? (appear)

B: ………………….. . The ones she has now are quite tight.

12- A: David won’t have filled out his weekly movement sheet yet, will he? (expect)

B: ………………….. . He never fills any forms out on lime.

13- A: Were you able to repair my television set? (be afraid)

B: ………………….. . You’ll have to buy a new one.

14- A: Will you be meeting everyone in the hotel lounge after dinner? (suppose)

B: ………………….. . I’m tired, but I should take this opportunity to meet the rest of the sales team.

15- A: Are Nigel and Chris really moving to Australia? (seem)

B: ………………….. . An estate agent has just put a ‘For Sale’ sign up in the window of their flat.

3-5   QUESTION TAGS

Düz cümlenin sonuna, o cümledeki tense’in yardımcı fiili getirilerek, cümle soru cümlesine dönüştürülür. Olumlu cümlenin sonuna olumsuz yardımcı fiil; olumsuz cümlenin sonuna ise olumlu yardımcı fiil getirilir. Yardımcı fiilden sonra cümlenin öznesi, I, you, he, etc. gibi bir zamir (pronoun) olarak yazılır.

–    Your brother is still at university, isn’t he?

–    Yes, he is.

–    The Johnsons have been living here for a long time, haven’t they?

–    No, they haven’t. They’ve only been living here for two years.

–    You don’t like fish, do you? (Sen balığı sevmiyorsun değil mi?)

–     No. I don’t. (Hayır, sevmiyorum.)

–    Your son doesn’t drink milk much, does he?

–    Yes, he does.

Olumsuz cümle yapısındaki soruya yanıt verirken, “yes” ya da “no” ile vermek istediğiniz anlama dikkat ediniz.

–    You didn’t go to school yesterday, did you?

–    No, I didn’t. (I didn’t go to school.)

–   You didn’t go to school yesterday, did you?

–    Yes, I did. (I went to school yesterday.)

There is/are yapısıyla kurulan cümleler için yardımcı fiilden sonra yine there kullanılır.

–    There won’t be too many people at the party, will there?

–    No, there won’t.

–    There used to be a cinema here in the past, didn’t there?

–    Yes, there did.

–    There is too much traffic in Istanbul, isn’t there?

–    Yes, there is.

Cümlenin öznesi everyone (everybody), someone (somebody), no one (nobody), anyone (anybody) gibi belgisiz zamir ise, question-tag bölümünde özne olarak they kullanılır.

–    Everyone is here, aren’t they?        – Yes, they are.

–    No one wants to be poor, do they?    –  Of course they don’t.

–    I don’t think anyone will argue against our proposal, will they?

–    I don’t think so.

Cümlenin öznesi everything, something, nothing gibi bir özne ise, question-tag bölümünde özne olarak it kullanılır.

–    Something must be done immediately, mustn’t it?

–    I think you’re right.

–    Nothing has been done yet, has it?

–    I’m afraid not.

Cümlede no, none, neither, nothing, nobody, no one, scarcely, barely, hardly, hardly ever, seldom, never gibi olumsuz anlam taşıyan bir sözcük varsa, cümle anlamca olumsuz olduğu için, question-tag bölümünde yardımcı fiil olumlu olur.

You hardly ever participate in such events, do you?

Neither of your parents approve of your marriage, do they?

No student of his can answer this question, can they?

Nothing can be done in this case, can it?

None of them made a complaint, did they?

Sue seldom goes to the theatre, does she?

She could answer hardly any questions, could she?

They barely spoke to us, did they?

Olumlu ya da olumsuz emir cümlelerinde, question tag bölümünde will you kullanılır.

–    Don’t make any noise, will you?   – Okay, we’ll try not to.

–    Try to be on time for the date, will you?   –  I certainly will.

Let’s …… biçiminde kurulan cümlelerde question tag shall we‘dir.

–    Let’s meet in front of the cinema, shall we?    – Good idea.

–    Let’s play a game of tennis in the afternoon, shall we? – Why not?

EXERCISE   12:    Put a question tag on the end of each sentence.

1- It appears that most of the shops are closed today, ……………………?

2- You have lost some weight since I last saw you, ……………………?

3- As far as I can see, neither of his parents took any interest in his development, …………………….?

4- That’s Steve Wright, the sports presenter. This must be the right radio frequency for the football commentary, ……………………..?

5- I know you can’t play backgammon, but you can play chess, ……………………..?

6- I was going to invite you to the party, but you work on Saturdays. ……………………..?

7- Your sister works so hard that she hardly has any time to socialise, ……………………..?

8- During your stay, I expect you’d like to visit our production facilities, …………………….?

9- Nothing was mentioned about the attack on the restaurant owner during the news, …………………….?

10- Although it is a supermarket now, there used to be a cattle market here when we were  children, ……………………..?

11- No one objects to paying a contribution, which will be minimal, towards the Christmas party, …………………….?

12- Leave the document in the file on my desk, ……………………..?

13- As it was the historic centre of the town, they shouldn’t have closed the cattle market, …………………….?

14- None of the doctors at the hospital can do their best when they are exhausted, …………………….?

15- I’m sure everyone realises the importance of the director’s visit, ……………………..?

16- We had been looking forward to it for weeks, but, in the end, we hardly saw any of the race, …………………….?

17- Something in the sauce is quite bitter, …………………….?

18-I don’t imagine they have raised enough money, ……………………..?

19-I can’t believe anyone will come shopping in this awful weather, ……………………..?

20- Let’s celebrate by going to Pizza Hut if we get a good grade on the mid-term test, ……………………..?

 

1–     The manager will be in his office all afternoon.

cümlesinin dolaylı  (indirect)  biçimini elde etmek için.

The secretary told me that the manager   …………   in   his office   all afternoon.

ifadesinde boş bırakılan yere  aşağıdakilerden hangisi getirilmelidir?

  1. will have been
  2. would have been
  3. would be
  4. ill have
  5. would have had

(ÖYS 1988)

2-     Do you want me to turn off the radio?

cümlesinin dolaylı  (indirect) biçimini elde etmek için.

I asked my sister ………. me to turn off the radio.

ifadesinde  boş   bırakılan  yere  aşağı­dakilerden hangisi getirilmelidir?

  1. whether you wanted
  2. whether you want
  3. that she had wanted
  4. if she would have wanted
  5. if she wanted

(ÖYS 1988)

3-     Did she  tell you why the meeting on  Road safety was cancelled?

  1. Yol onarımı ile ilgili görüşmelerin neden kesildiğini sana açıkladı mı?
  2. Karayolu   yapımını    öngören kararın hangi    nedenlerle    ertelendiğini    sana iletmiş miydi?
  3. Yol güvenliğinin  sağlanması için yapılacak toplantıdan sana söz etmiş miydi?
  4. Karayolu güvenliği ile ilgili toplantının neden iptal edildiğini sana söyledi mi?
  5. İptal edilen toplantının, karayolu güvenliğini ilgilendirdiğini sana   niçin söyledi?

(ÖYS 1988)

4-    I can’t understand why the lawyer  hasn’t sent in his report.

cümlesinin  dolaylı   (indirect)   biçimini elde etmek için.

The director said he ………… in his report.

ifadesinde  boş  bırakılan  yere  aşağı­dakilerden hangisi getirilmelidir?

  1. couldn’t have   understood   why    the lawyer hadn’t sent
  2. can’t understand why the lawyer hasn’t sent
  3. couldn’t understand  why the lawyer didn’t send
  4. couldn’t understand   why   the   lawyer hadn’t sent
  5. can’t understand why the lawyer isn’t sending

(ÖYS 1989)

5-    Why are you so late? What is your  excuse?

cümlesinin   dolaylı   (indirect]  biçimini elde etmek için,

The officer wanted to know……….

ifadesinde   boş  bırakılan   yere  aşağı­dakilerden hangisi getirilmelidir?

  1. why I am so late and what the excuse is
  2. why I was so late and what my excuse was
  3. if I was so late and had an excuse
  4. that I was so late but had an excuse
  5. how late I was and if I had an excuse

(ÖYS 1989)

6-     The  captain  asked  me   whether  it was my first journey by ship.

  1. Kaptan bana bunun, gemiyle yaptığım ilk seyahatim olup olmadığını sordu.
  2. Kaplan, gemi ile yaptığım ilk seyahatimin nasıl olduğunu sordu.
  3. Kaptan bana, gemi ile ilk kez ne zaman seyahat ettiğimi sordu.
  4. Gemi ile    ilk    kez    seyahat    ettiğimi kaptana ilettim.
  5. Gemi ile yaptığım bu ilk seyahatimin nasıl geçtiğini kaptana anlattım.

(ÖYS 1989)

7-    Surely the children were told near the  lake.

  1. A) not to play B)   to have played
    C)  playing             D)  to have to play
    E)   to have been playing

(ÖYS 1989)

8-     James was disappointed when they didn’t win, and ………… was I.

  1. A) neither B)   too                                 C)   either         D)  also
  2. E) so

(ÖYS 1989)

9-     He won’t be bringing his wife with him, will he?

sorusunun cevabı aşağıdakilerden hangisi olabilir?

  1. I don’t expect so.
  2. Yes, that’s right.
  3. No, he is fond of her.
  4. Yes, he would have.
  5. I suppose he was.

(ÖYS 1989)

10-   The new secretary hasn’t used this type of computer before, so they are showing her ……. to use it.

  1. A) how B) why                              C) what   D) which
  2. E) who

(ÖYS 1990)

11-   “Don’t throw the paper on the floor.”

cümlesinin  dolaylı  (indirect)  biçimini elde etmek için,

The shopkeeper told the boy ….. on the floor.

ifadesinde  boş  bırakılan yere  aşağı­dakilerden hangisi getirilmelidir?

  1. that he had thrown the paper
  2. he threw the paper
  3. not to throw the paper
  4. not to have thrown the paper
  5. that he didn’t throw the paper

(ÖYS 1990)

12-   “Yes, I think so.” ifadesi aşağıdaki sorulardan hangisine cevap olabilir?

  1. Will Jane’s husband be there, too?
  2. What made him say that?
  3. She won’t be late, will she?
  4. If it isn’t Mary’s bicycle, whose is it?
  5. Why is Mark looking so worried?

(ÖYS 1990)

13-   I’ll be at home all day; so, you can come and see me ……. you want.

  1. A) whenever B) whichever                        C)  whoever       D) whatever                          E)  wherever

(ÖYS 1991)

14-   The teacher told us ……. the road when the lights were red.

  1. not to have crossed
  2. not to cross
  3. not having crossed
  4. crossing
  5. having to cross

(ÖYS 1991)

15-   Jane called to say she would come but might be half an hour late.

  1. Jane yarım saat önce telefon etti ve geç kalacağın) bildirdi.
  2. Jane, geç gelebileceğini bildirmek için aradığında yarım saat gecikmişti bile.
  3. Jane, yarım saat geç gelip gelemeyeceğini sormak İçin telefon etti.
  4. Jane, geleceğini, fakat yarım saat gecikebileceğim söylemek için telefon etti.
  5. Jane, yarım saat sonra geleceğini söylemek için aradı.

(ÖYS 1991)

16-   Jack  : Are we on the right road?

Jill     :  ……….

Jack   : What do you mean? Aren’t you sure?

Jill     : Well,   I’ve   only been   along this road once before.

  1. A) I’m afraid so. B)  We certainly are.
    C)  I think so         D) Yes, that’s right.
    E)   You should know.

(ÖYS 1991)

17-   The professor asked me ………

  1. why no objection has been shown to anybody leaving early
  2. if the results obtained from the study are significant
  3. that I can pass onto the next item on the agenda
  4. whether I am awarded a prize for my new discovery
  5. to help the newly recruited  research assistant with the experiment

(ÖYS 1992)

18-   Genellikle mevsim değişikliklerinin üzerimizde belli etkileri olduğu kabul edilir.

  1. Obviously, seasonal changes will have an effect on us.
  2. Seasonal changes generally do not agree with us.
  3. Certain results of the seasonal changes are quite agreeable.
  4. As far as we are concerned, the effects of seasonal changes are obvious.
  5. It is generally agreed that seasonal changes have certain effects upon us.

(ÖYS 1992)

 

 

 

19-  I’m afraid I can’t remember …… .

  1. if he would refuse to give any details
  2. unless they worked late yesterday
  3. until we got to the nearest station
  4. that I should finish it by lunch lime
  5. where Peter said he had put the files

(ÖYS 1993)

20-     It is well known …… .

  1. as mothers ought to be more patient with their children
  2. so you   would   save   a  great   deal   of money
  3. that the heating of most foods causes losses in the vitamin content
  4. if several friends will help me paint my house
  5. because Mark is so stubborn that it is useless to try to convince him

(ÖYS 1994)

21-   ………  I  meet John  he  complains about the neighbours.

  1. A) Whenever B) Whatever                      C) Whereas        D)   Whichever
  2. E) While

(ÖYS 1995)

22-   I’ve brought two newspapers. You can have ……… one you like.

  1. A) whenever B) whichever                     C)  however          D) whoever
  2. E) whatever

(ÖYS 1996)

23-   Most of the spectators seemed to enjoy the match, ……. .

  1. A) and neither did I B)   so I haven’t
    C)  if I do too                 D)   but I didn’t
    E)  as I am doing

(ÖYS 1996)

24-   Though I had given him some good advice on how to act, he didn’t listen to me, ……..?

  1. A) did he B)   had he                                  C)  had I     D)   hadn’t I
    E)   didn’t he

(ÖYS 1997)

25-   I didn’t realize ……. it would take me to get there on foot.

  1. A) so far B)  how much
    C)   how far            D)  so long
    E)   how long

(ÖYS 1997)

26-   Can you tell me ……… this bicycle  belongs to?

  1. A) what B)   whose                               C)  who                      D)  that
    E)  which

(ÖYS I997)

27-   She said she would apply for the scholarship after she had completed the teacher training course, ………?

  1. A) would she B)   didn’t she
    C)  hadn’t she                   D)  wasn’t she
    E) did she

(ÖYS 1998)

28-   The Parents’ Committee still can’t decide …. the construction of a new playground really is necessary.

  1. A) despite B)   so as
    C)  in case                        D) whether
    E)   so that

(ÖYS 1998)

29-   I can’t remember how many people wanted to be in the play, ……..?

  1. A) did you B) do they                               C) can you    D)  can’t I
  2. E) didn’t they

(YDS 1999)

30-   My mother keeps complaining that she  doesn’t feel well;  and I don’t……. .

  1. A) as well B)   neither                             C)  also           D)  too
  2. E) either

(YDS 1999)

31-   This is the first time you have ever driven a car, …….?

  1. A) is this B)   hasn’t it                         C)  isn’t it          D)  have you
  2. E) aren’t you

(YDS 2000)

32-   I suppose we can take a walk in the garden for a while after the meal, …… .

  1. A) don’t we B)   won’t I                             C)   can’t we    D)  can we
  2. E) do I

(YDS 2001)

33-   He hasn’t written to me, and I don’t think he’s written to any of his other friends, ….. .

  1. A) either B)  too                                     C)   as well     D) neither
  2. E) also

(YDS 20O1)

 

 

 

1-   When I went to collect my jacket from the dry-cleaner’s, the assistant said that he ……… it but ………. able to remove the stain.

  1. was cleaning/won’t have been
  2. had cleaned/hadn’t been
  3. would have cleaned/hasn’t been
  4. is cleaning/wasn’t
  5. had been cleaning/isn’t

2-    The boy confessed that he had stolen the bread, but pleaded that his sister and he ……… at the time.

  1. will have starved
  2. are starving
  3. had been starving
  4. have starved
  5. will starve

3-   Are you sure she was in when you …….. her but …….. the phone?

  1. will be phoning/won’t answer
  2. had phoned/isn’t answering
  3. are phoning/hasn’t answered
  4. phoned/didn’t answer
  5. have phoned/doesn’t answer

4-   We asked at the lost property counter whether a pink and blue bag …….. but the assistant told us that no one …… in anything fitting our description.

  1. was found/has been handed
  2. is being found/would have handed
  3. will have found/is going to hand
  4. had been found/had handed
  5. might have found/will be handing

5-    Mr Haughin phoned his wife to say that she …….. to cook anything for dinner that day as they ……… to his colleague’s.

  1. doesn’t need/have been invited
  2. didn’t need/had been invited
  3. won’t need/are invited
  4. hasn’t needed/were being invited
  5. wouldn’t need/will be invited

6-    I was glad to hear that the factory ….. down after all as a new owner ….. .

  1. won’t have closed/had been finding
  2. shouldn’t have closed/has found
  3. doesn’t close/has been found
  4. wasn’t closing/is found
  5. wouldn’t be closing/had been found

7-   We feared that the roads ……… too busy on a national holiday, so we ……… not to go anywhere but stay at home,

  1. will have been/decide
  2. are/could have decided
  3. would be/decided
  4. were/will decide
  5. had been/have decided

8-    The sales manager ……… the director that some customers ……… models on special offer in the sale already.

  1. is informing/buy
  2. is informed/bought
  3. informed/had bought
  4. had informed/will be buying
  5. was informed/are buying

9-    Because our last telephone bill was extremely high, my husband is always reminding me that I ……… until after six before I …….. my friends.

  1. have waited/called
  2. must wait/call
  3. waited/could call
  4. might wait/was calling
  5. wait/should call

10- I asked Nigel whether they were going somewhere for Bayram, but he said, unfortunately, his wife ……… in the accident and emergency department that week.

  1. has worked
  2. is working
  3. would be working
  4. has been working
  5. will have worked

11- During our training last Friday, I realised that I ……… a lot if I ……… carefully because the lecturer really seemed to know his subject.

  1. must learn/was listening
  2. have learnt/will be listening
  3. could learn/listened
  4. had been learning/would listen
  5. learnt/were listening

12- My mother handed me a considerable amount of money and instructed me …….. Mrs Jackson buy anything for me while I was staying with her.

  1. A) don’t let B) not to let C) didn’t let      D) not letting                      E) wouldn’t let

13- The painter has assured us that he ……… the decorating by the weekend as he promised.

  1. will have completed
  2. had been completing
  3. has completed
  4. completed
  5. would have completed

14- Mr Partridge, the customer is asking whether he ……… the suit back if it ……… his son.

  1. would bring/won’t fit
  2. was bringing/hadn’t fitted
  3. is bringing/didn’t fit
  4. could have brought/hasn’t fitted
  5. can bring/doesn’t fit

15- The manager complained that the cleaners ……… at the time and wondered who ……… them permission to leave early.

  1. wouldn’t be working/will give
  2. wouldn’t work/will be given
  3. aren’t working/are giving
  4. hadn’t been working/had given
  5. weren’t working/have given

16-45. sorularda, cümlede bırakılan boşluğu uygun şekilde tamamlayan kelime ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.

16- It is widely believed ……… too much television isn’t healthy for children.

  1. A) which B) where C) when  D) who
  2. E) that

17- I could have been more enthusiastic at the training scheme, you know, and so ……… you.

  1. A) should B) do C) can    D) had                                   E) could

18- We weren’t given any homework for tonight, ……..?

  1. A) did it B) wasn’t it C) were we      D) did we
  2. E) hadn’t it

19- A: I haven’t felt very motivated at work since the new manager, who doesn’t seem to be doing a very good job, started.

B: ………. .

  1. Neither was he
  2. So am I
  3. I expect he is
  4. Neither have I
  5. But I haven’t

20-I think ‘Erin Brockovich’ is showing at the cinema in Moda, ……….?

  1. A) isn’t it B) don’t I C) do I D) wasn’t it
  2. E) is it

21- The shop manager told the sales assistant …….. idle and ……… something useful to do.

  1. don’t stay/have found
  2. wasn’t standing/has found
  3. didn’t stand/finds
  4. not to stand/to find
  5. not standing/to be finding

22- A: Are we İn Houston now?

B: ………… . I’m tired of sitting on this bus.

A: Me too, and we are. Look! The sign says Houston Central Bus Station.

  1. A) So is it B) Neither are we            C) I hope so      D) So we have
  2. E) Nor does it

23- A: I hope the Sims won’t be bringing their children to the wedding.

B: ………. because Julia’s mother usually baby-sits for them on such occasions.

  1. I don’t expect so
  2. Neither will I
  3. I’m afraid so
  4. l hope so
  5. So will they

24- It is such a pity that Vicki and Dave can’t meet us at the restaurant for lunch because Vicki has the flu. I was looking forward to it, and …….. were you, weren’t you?

  1. A) so B) nor C) either        D) yet
  2. E) too

25- In the evening my husband likes to watch films, ……… . I prefer documentaries, so we have bought a second television set.

  1. A) and so am B) but ] don’t
    C) and nor am I D) but I do
    E) and I don’t either

26- You haven’t heard from Bill since he left for India, ……..?

  1. A) did he B) has he C) have you   D) haven’t you
  2. E) didn’t you

27- Most of the members, who complained bitterly afterwards, didn’t appear to agree with the committee’s decision, ………?

  1. A) were there B) didn’t it C) have they      D) wasn’t it
  2. E) did they

28- The label explains how long we should cook it for, ..,,……?

  1. A) shouldn’t we B) do we
    C) does it           D) doesn’t it
  2. E) should we

29- We live right next to the park, so I can take my daughter there to play ………. the weather is fine.

  1. A) however B) whichever C) wherever         D) whenever
  2. E) whomever

30- Look at the rubbish under that tree! ………. dumped that has absolutely no sense of social responsibility at all.

  1. A) However B) Whoever C) Wherever         D) Whenever
  2. E) Whatever

31- Good Luck. I hope you like Canada. Promise me that you’ll write to me ………. happens.

  1. A) whenever B) however C) wherever        D) whoever
  2. E) whatever

32-I like them both, Mary. You will look beautiful in ……… wedding dress you choose.

  1. A) whoever B) whichever C) however           D) whatever
  2. E) whenever

33-We didn’t realise ………. some of the employees had been ill on Fridays and . Mondays until we checked the company records.

  1. A) however B) how long C) how often     D) where
  2. E) whether

34- It looks too cluttered ……… we arrange the furniture. It is smaller than our old living room and there just isn’t enough space for everything!

  1. A) whenever B) wherever C) whatever       D) however
  2. E) whichever

35- Once you have learnt ……… to centre  your work and the basic stitches, embroidery is not difficult.

  1. A) how B) whose C) that  D) whether
  2. E) whom

36- Of course it is nice to go to Holland in the summer, but ……… you are going is the best time to see the daffodils and tulips in bloom.

  1. A) when B) where C) who           D) how
  2. E) which

37- Nobody has any clear ideas ….. should captain the West Indies cricket team now that the present captain has announced his retirement.

  1. A) how B) who C) what      D) when
  2. E) which

38- …….. happened in Yemen will put tourists from Europe off visiting the area.

  1. A) When B) Which C) What    D) Why
  2. E) Where

39-I was a little annoyed, but they explained ………. they had had to cancel the appointment.

  1. A) why B) whose C) how  D) when
  2. E) whom

40- Do you know ……… agent Kate and Richard went to Turkey with because I’m thinking of booking a trip to Cappadocia myself?

  1. A) which B) who          C) where D) when
  2. E) why

41- …….. people had been killed in the operation was kept secret.

  1. A) How many B) What C) Whenever     D) Whomever
  2. E) Who

42- The immigration officer wants to know ……… you entered the country.

  1. A) which B) what C) who   D) whom
  2. E) when

43- The price of a bracelet is determined according to ….. pure gold it contains.

  1. A) how many B) how much C) however         D) what
  2. E) how

44- …….. he was tortured in his own country will be taken into account when his case for asylum is heard.

  1. A) Whom B) What C) The fact that D) Where
  2. E) Which

45-I don’t know for sure ……… bicycle this is, but it must be either Jane’s or Jack’s.

  1. A) what B) where C) how  D) whose
  2. E) whom

46- It is widely believed in Turkey ….. .

  1. although nothing has been proved about their superstitions
  2. whether a blue bead really protects me from the evil eye
  3. because bad luck can wreck a person’s life
  4. as oilier cultures have a variety of good luck symbols
  5. that an envious look cast upon you can bring bad luck

 

47- Our boss always wants us

  1. because our quotations had been taking a long time to prepare
  2. whether we could type some reports for him
  3. to clear our desks at the end of the day
  4. that we shouldn’t receive any customer complaints
  5. if we could work some overtime next week

48- Did the company acknowledge ……..?

  1. that we should be compensated for the delay
  2. if this is their normal level of service
  3. if only we could arrive before the meeting
  4. whether we can get a refund or not
  5. how much longer we are going to wait

49- All of us wondered

  1. whether I have been told about the scandal involving the family or not
  2. why the whole family had suddenly moved to Canada without saying anything
  3. that is because of the problems he is having at his current school
  4. to know if the family had overcome all the difficulties there
  5. the fact that his son actually managed to become a doctor

 

50- The council don’t seem to appreciate

  1. how did they sell the land to the supermarket chain
  2. why aren’t the opinions of the town’s people being considered
  3. will there be free parking at the new supermarket
  4. how much the people of the town value their traditional market
  5. whatever the outcome of the meeting of the farmers’ had been

51-I don’t like to waste my money eating at restaurants, and neither does my husband.

  1. I prefer eating out at restaurants whenever I can, but my husband thinks it is a waste of money.
  2. Both my husband and I eat out at restaurants often, although we would prefer not to.
  3. Both my husband and I prefer not to spend our money needlessly on food in restaurants.
  4. My husband prefers to eat in restaurants, while I prefer to save my money.
  5. We would eat at restaurants more often if my husband liked that sort of tiling.

52- My father says that you should treat people how you wish to be treated yourself,

  1. It’s my father’s belief that you ought to behave towards other people the way you want them to behave towards you.
  2. My father told me that you deserved to be treated how you had treated others previously.
  3. My father always instructs me to consider how people want to be treated and behave accordingly.
  4. I have always behaved towards people as I wish to be treated myself, because this is what my father taught me.
  5. If you had listened to my father, you would always treat others with the consideration you expect from them for yourself.

 

53- Contrary to all expectations, the man was found guilty of murder for killing a burglar.

  1. Everyone thought the man would be found innocent of murder after killing a thief, but he was found guilty.
  2. Everyone knew the man was guilty of murder because he killed a man who had broken into his house.
  3. He was convicted of murder, which was unfair, as the man he killed was robbing his house at the time.
  4. It was obvious that he would be found guilty of murder because he shot a burglar and killed him.
  5. People expected that he would only be found guilty of burglary, but he was also convicted of murder.

54- It surprised a lot of people that they went ahead with the match in such atrocious weather.

  1. Even though the weather was awful, nobody thought they would cancel the match.
  2. Many people couldn’t understand why they hadn’t cancelled the match due to the dreadful weather.
  3. Had the match been cancelled because of the terrible weather, a lot of people would have been disappointed.
  4. Only a few people were interested in the match and the weather was dreadful, so they cancelled it.
  5. Everyone was disappointed that the match was cancelled because of bad weather.

55- They’ll never be able to find out exactly why the ship sank.

  1. They are determined to discover the exact cause of the sinking of the ship.
  2. If only they knew the precise cause of the sinking, they would be content.
  3. The accuracy of the report of the ship’s sinking is open to question.
  4. What caused the ship to sink can never be determined with any accuracy.
  5. The findings of the report only explained what might have caused the ship to sink.

 

56- As I’m interested in learning German myself, I would be interested to find out which college she is studying at.

  1. I asked her where she studied German because I want to learn the language as well.
  2. l wonder which college she is learning German at because I’m considering studying the language too.
  3. I wish I had known where she was studying because, if I had, I would have gone to the same college.
  4. I wondered why she hadn’t asked me where I was studying if she was interested in learning German too.
  5. I’d like to know which college she works at so that I can go and find her when I go to Germany to learn the language.

57- She is so miserable these days that she dismisses whatever I suggest as boring,

  1. She is really unhappy, and I admit that everything I recommend these days is particularly boring,
  2. I am trying to cheer her up at the moment by suggesting interesting things to do, but she is still bored.
  3. Because she is very unhappy at the moment, she rejects anything I suggest on the grounds that it is tedious.
  4. She wouldn’t be so unhappy if she did some of the interesting tilings I have suggested.
  5. She rejects me as boring, but, at least, I’m not as miserable as she is.

58- “I am horrified to hear what some parents consider suitable television viewing for children,” said the teacher to the Parent-Teacher Association members.

  1. The Parent-Teacher Association members were surprised at the opinion of the teacher about what constituted suitable television for children.
  2. I was deeply shocked at the type of programmes deemed suitable for children by the presentation at the Parent-Teacher Association meeting.
  3. The teacher expressed his shock to the Parent-Teacher Association members at what are deemed by some parents to be appropriate television programmes for children.
  4. The teacher addressed the members of the Parent-Teacher Association on what should be considered suitable television programmes for children.
  5. The Parent-Teacher Association members shocked the teacher with their ideas of which programmes on television are suitable for children to watch.

59- The principal wrote a formal letter of recommendation for the teacher.

  1. The teacher that applied for the post had been formally recommended by the principal.
  2. The principal recommended the teacher without putting it in writing.
  3. The teacher wrote to the principal asking for a recommendation.
  4. The letter the teacher gave the principal recommended him for the
  5. An official letter recommending the teacher was issued by the principal.

60- The west coast of Scotland is a beautiful place to go on holiday, but you can’t depend on the weather, can you?

  1. The west coast of Scotland is beautiful, but the weather is always awful, isn’t it?
  2. The west coast of Scotland is a picturesque holiday location, but the weather is unpredictable, isn’t it?
  3. If you go on holiday to the Scottish coast, you should remember the weather there is changeable, shouldn’t you?
  4. The holiday resorts on the picturesque west coast of Scotland don’t get much sunshine, do they?
  5. The holiday resorts on the west coast of Scotland would be perfect if the weather was dependable, wouldn’t they?

61- We checked the distance to London on a map to see how far it was.

  1. Londra’ya ne kadar uzakta olduğumuzu anlayabilmek için bir harita üzerinde mesafeyi hesapladık.
  2. Londra’ya olan mesafeyi bir harita üzerinde kontrol ettikten sonra ne kadar uzakta olduğumuzu anladık.
  3. Londra’ya ne kadar uzak olduğumuzu ancak harita üzerinde mesafeye bakınca anladık.
  4. Ne kadar uzakta olduğumuzu ancak bir harita üzerinde Londra’ya olan mesafeyi görünce farkettik.
  5. Ne kadar uzaklıkta olduğunu anlamak için Londra’ya olan mesafeyi bir harita üzerinde kontrol ettik.

62- The fact that an outsider was appointed to the position upon the director’s resignation greatly disappointed some members of the staff.

  1. Personelin büyük hayal kırıklığına uğraması, müdürün istifasından sonra bu göreve dışarıdan birinin atanması yüzündendi.
  2. Bütün personel üyeleri çok büyük hayal kırıklığı yaşadı çünkü müdür istifa edince yerine dışarıdan biri atandı.
  3. Müdürün istifasından sonra dışarıdan birinin bu göreve atanması, personelin bazı üyelerini büyük hayal kırıklığına uğrattı.
  4. Müdür istifa edince, dışarıdan birinin bu göreve getirilmesi, personel üzerinde biraz hayal kırıklığı yaratmıştı.
  5. Müdürün istifasından sonra bu göreve dışarıdan biri atanmış olsaydı, personelin bazı üyeleri büyük hayal kırıklığına uğrardı.

63- By looking at their present economic situations, it’s possible to understand how badly both countries have been affected by the war.

  1. Her iki ülkenin de savaştan ne denli kötü etkilendiklerini anlamak için şu anki ekonomik durumlarına bakmanız yeterlidir.
  2. Şu anki ekonomik durumlarına bakarak, her iki ülkenin de savaştan ne kadar kötü etkilendiğini anlamak mümkün.
  3. Ekonomilerinin şu anki durumuna bakılırsa, her iki ülkenin de savaştan çok kötü etkilendikleri anlaşılıyor.
  4. Bugünkü ekonomik durumlarına bakılınca, savaşın her ilci ülkeyi de ne kadar kötü etkilediğini anlamak zor değil.
  5. Her iki ülkenin bugünkü ekonomik durumlarına bakıldığında, savaşın kötü etkisinin ne kadar çok olduğu anlaşılabilir.

64- It doesn’t matter whether the clothes you wear are fashionable or not, as long as they suit you.

  1. Giydiğiniz giysilerin modaya uygun olmasından çok size yakışması Önemlidir.
  2. Giydiğiniz giysilerin modaya uygunluğuna değil, size yakışıp yakışmadığına önern veriniz.
  3. Size yakıştıkları sürece, giydiğiniz giysilerin modaya uygun olup olmaması önemli değil.
  4. Size yakıştığına inanıyorsanız, giysilerinizin modaya uygun olup olmadığını önemsemeyiniz.
  5. Asıl önemsemeniz gereken, giysilerinizin modaya uygun olup olmaması değil, size yakışmasıdır,

65- After I’d put the baby to sleep, I asked the children in the back garden to play without making too much noise.

  1. Bebeği uyutabilseydim, daha sonra arka bahçedeki çocuklardan çok fazla gürültü yapmadan oynamalarını rica ederdim.
  2. Bebek uyuduğu için, çocuklardan çok fazla gürültü yapmadan arka bahçede oynamalarını istedim.
  3. Bebeği uyuttuktan sonra, arka bahçedeki çocuklardan çok fazla gürültü yapmadan oynamalarını rica ettim.
  4. Bebeği uyutup sonra çocuklara, arka bahçede çok fazla gürültü yapmadan oynamalarını söyledim.
  5. Bebeğin uyumasından sonra, çocuklara arka bahçede oynarken çok fazla gürültü yapmamalarını söyledim.

66- Since the park is not illuminated adequately, I don’t find it safe to go walking there after dark,

  1. Park iyice aydınlatılmadığı sürece orada yürüyüş yapmanın pek güvenli olmayacağını düşünüyorum.
  2. Hava karardıktan sonra parkta yürüyüş yapmak bence güvenli değil çünkü oranın aydınlatılmasını yeterli bulmuyorum.
  3. Parkta yürüyüş yapmayı artık güvenli bulmuyorum çünkü hava karardı ve orası yeterince aydınlatılmış değil.
  4. Park yeterince aydınlatılmış olmadığı için hava karardıktan sonra orada yürüyüş yapmayı pek güvenli bulmuyorum.
  5. Hava karardıktan sonra parkta yürüyüş yapmanın güvenli olması için orada çok İyi bir aydınlatma olması gerekir.

67- Due to the ability of their chromosomes to undergo changes similar to those of humans, yeasts are important to scientists.

  1. Bilim adamlarının mayaları bu kadar çok önemsemesinin nedeni, kromozomlarının insanlarınki gibi değişiklikler gösterebilmesidir.
  2. Kromozomları insanlarınki gibi değişim gösterdiği için bilim adamları mayalan büyük bir dikkatle incelemektedir.
  3. Mayaların kromozomlarının insanlarınkine benzer değişiklikler göstermesini bilim adamları çok önemsemiştir.
  4. Kromozomlarının insanlarınkine benzer değişimler gösterebilmesi nedeniyle mayalar bilim adamları için çok önemlidir.
  5. Bilim adamlarına göre, mayaların kromozomlarının insanlarınkine benzer değişimler gösterebilmesi, onları çok önemli kılmaktadır.

68- The members of the weasel family can survive in highly diverse ecological habitats ranging from tropical forests to the Arctic tundra.

  1. Sansar familyasının üyeleri, tropikal ormanlardan kutup tundrasına kadar yayılan son derece çeşitli ekolojik ortamlarda yaşayabilmektedir.
  2. Tropikal ormanlardan kutup tundrasına kadar yayılan sansar familyasının üyeleri, son derece çeşitli ekolojik ortamlarda bulunur.
  3. Sansar familyasının üyeleri, son derece farklı ekolojik alanlara yayılmış olup tropikal ormanlarda ve kutup tundrasında bile yaşamım sürdürebilir.
  4. Son derece çeşitli ekolojik ortamlarda yaşayabilen sansar familyası türleri, tropikal ormanlardan kutup tundrası­na kadar uzanan alana yayılmıştır.
  5. Sansar familyası üyeleri, son derece değişik ekolojik ortamlarda yaşayabil­diği için tropikal ormanlardan kutup tundrasına kadar yayılmıştır.

69- Like our Earth, other planets of the solar system are each enclosed in a thin layer of gas called an atmosphere.

  1. Dünyamız dahil, güneş sisteminin diğer bütün gezegenlerinin çevresinde atmosfer adı verilen ince bir gaz tabakası vardır.
  2. Dünyamız gibi, güneş sisteminin diğer gezegenlerinin çevresinde de, atmosfer denilen ince bir gaz tabakası bulunmaktadır.
  3. Dünyamız gibi, güneş sisteminin diğer gezegenlerinin de her biri, atmosfer adı verilen ince bir gaz tabakasıyla çevrilidir.
  4. Dünyamızı ve güneş sistemindeki diğer gezegenlerin her birini çevreleyen, atmosfer denilen ince bir gaz tabakasıdır.
  5. Atmosfer adı verilen ince bir gaz tabakası, sadece dünyamızı değil, güneş sistemindeki diğer gezegenleri de çevrelemektedir.

70- Though the climate is dry in Arizona, the river valleys and desert areas where irrigation is used are suitable for farming.

  1. İklimi kurak olsa da. Arizona’daki nehir vadilerinde ve sulanan çöl alanlarda tanın yapılmaktadır.
  2. Arizona’da iklimin kurak olmasına karşın, nehir vadileri ve sulama yapılan çöl alanlar tarıma elverişlidir.
  3. Arizona’nın iklimi kuraktır, ancak nehir vadileri ve sulanabilen çöl alanlar tarım amaçlı kullanılabilmektedir,
  4. Nehir vadileri ve sulama yapılan çöl alanlar. Arizona’da iklim kurak olduğunda da tarıma elverişlidir.
  5. Arizona’nın iklimi kurak olmasına rağmen sulama yapılan nehir vadileri ve çöl alanlar tarım amacıyla kullanılmaktadır.

71- Personel müdürüne şirketin yeni politikasının ne olduğunu sordum ama doyurucu bir yanıt alamadım.

  1. We have been told that there is a new personnel policy, taut nobody seems to be able to give us a satisfactory explanation of it when asked.
  2. Although I specifically asked the personnel manager about the company’s new policy, he didn’t give me a satisfactory answer.
  3. The personnel manager’s answer to my question regarding the new company policy was totally unsatisfactory.
  4. I was not given a very satisfying answer regarding the company’s new personnel policy when I asked our manager.
  5. I asked the personnel manager what the company’s new policy was, but I couldn’t get a satisfying answer.

72- Arka sıralarda oturan izleyiciler, konuşmacıyı tam olarak duyamamaktan yakındılar.

  1. The complaint of the viewers sitting at the back was that they couldn’t hear the speaker at all.
  2. Everyone except those in the back rows could hear the speaker perfectly well.
  3. They received some complaints from people sitting at the back about not being able to bear the speaker very well.
  4. Some people were sitting in the back row and had to complain because they couldn’t hear the speaker well.
  5. The viewers sitting in the back rows complained that they couldn’t hear the speaker properly.

73- Konferansa kaç kişinin katılacağını şimdiden tahmin etmek neredeyse imkansız.

  1. It’s impossible to calculate what the total number of guests at the conference is.
  2. At this early stage, it is extremely difficult to estimate the number of people who will attend the conference.
  3. We haven’t received the estimates yet of how many people are expected to attend the conference.
  4. It’s almost impossible to estimate as yet how many people will attend the conference.
  5. Giving an accurate estimate of the number of people to be interested in the conference is impossible.

74- Mahkumun kaçmasına kimlerin yardım ettiğini bulmak için polis geniş çaplı bir soruşturma başlattı.

  1. The wide-scale investigation, which was launched by the police, helped to find those who helped the prisoner escape.
  2. A wide-scale investigation has been launched in order to discover exactly who was responsible for the convict’s escaping.
  3. The police have started a wide-scale investigation in order to find out who helped the convict escape.
  4. The police carry out wide-scale investigations after a convict escapes to find out whether he has been assisted.
  5. The police carried out a wide-scale investigation in the hope of finding out who helped the convict escape.

75- Oğlunun üniversite giriş sınavında başarılı olup olamayacağı konusunda çok endişeli görünüyorsun.

  1. You appear to be very concerned about whether your son will be successful in the university entrance exam.
  2. You shouldn’t concern yourself so much about whether your son will be successful in the university entrance exam.
  3. You seem to be very certain that your son will be successful in the university entrance exam.
  4. You look very anxious, but I’m sure your son will succeed in passing the university entrance exam.
  5. There is no point in concerning yourself about whether or not your son will pass his university entrance exam.

76- Peru ve Bolivya’nın Ant dağları bölgesinde danslar, yerel gelenekleri, İspanyol sömürge dönemininkilerle birleştirmiştir.

  1. The dances performed tay inhabitants of the mountainous region joining Peru to Bolivia combine traditional movements with those of the Spanish colonial era.
  2. In the Andes mountain regions of Peru and Bolivia, dances blend indigenous traditions with those from the Spanish colonial era.
  3. Dances from indigenous traditions of the people living in the Peruvian and Bolivian Andes region had been influenced by the Spanish colonial era.
  4. The dancers from the Andes mountain regions of Peru and Bolivia blend the indigenous traditions with those introduced by the Spanish during their colonial rule.
  5. The dances in the Andes mountain regions of Peru and Bolivia are a curious blend of native culture and imported Spanish colonial movements.

77- Bilgisayar analizi, kan testi sonuçlarının doğruluğunu büyük ölçüde arttırmıştır.

  1. Because computers are now used to analyse blood tests, the results are more accurate.
  2. The accuracy of blood test results has improved since computers were introduced to analyse the specimens.
  3. The results of blood tests are much more accurate today because computers are used to analyse them.
  4. The rate of improvement in analysing blood tests has greatly accelerated since the introduction of computer programs into the process.
  5. Computer analysis has greatly improved the accuracy of the results of a blood test,

78- Çöllerdeki bitkiler, daimi kuraklıkla başa çıkabilmek için küçüktür ve bazıları yapraklarında,  hatta gövdelerinde su depolayabilmektedir.

  1. As a result of constant drought, small desert plants have developed the ability to store water in their leaves and even in their stems.
  2. The little plant life there is in deserts has adapted to constant drought by storing water in their leaves or even in their stems.
  3. Because of the constant drought in deserts, plants are normally small and some have the ability to store water in their leaves and stems.
  4. To cope with constant drought, plants in deserts are small and some can store water in their leaves and even in their stems.
  5. The small plants which grow in deserts have special features, such as the ability to hold water in their leaves or stems.

79- Bugün vizon ve samur kürklerinin hemen hepsi çiftliklerde yetiştirilen hayvanlardan elde edilmektedir.

  1. Minks and sables are the most popular animals to be farmed for their fur today.
  2. Almost all mink and sable furs today are obtained from farm-raised animals.
  3. Very few mink and sable furs are obtained from wild animals today.
  4. A large proportion of mink and sable furs today are obtained from farm-reared animals.
  5. With very few exceptions, mink and sable fur items are produced from the fur of farm-raised animals.

80- Amaçları ne kadar farklı olursa olsun, bütün uzay araçları, uzayda temel fizik kanunlarına uygun hareket eder ve hepsi de birbirine benzer temel parçalardan oluşur.

  1. However varied they may be in purpose, all spacecraft move through space in accordance with fundamen­tal physical laws, and all are made up of similar basic components.
  2. There are many different designs for spacecraft, but they all function in accordance with the same physical laws and have some common components.
  3. Spacecraft are designed for a variety of purposes, but they all comply to certain physical restraints in space and are constructed of similar materials.
  4. There are certain common components of spacecraft because the movement of them through space is governed by some basic physical laws whatever the purpose or direction of travel.
  5. Although all spacecraft are governed by some fundamental laws of physics, they can be constructed from a number of materials.

 

1-   An argument broke out between some of the onion pickers on the farm, but the owner didn’t want to comment on the ………. .

  1. A) incident B) disaster C) tragedy        D) bargain
  2. E) opportunity

2-   The village shop, which sold everything from eggs to tinned fish, closed down, so now we have to travel to Droitwich to buy our ……… .

  1. A) stationery B) confectionery C) groceries         D) cosmetics
  2. E) stamps

3-   Flooding in the town was ………. by the hard work of the army and many volunteers from the town, who built walls with sandbags.

  1. A) encourage B) accelerated C) threatened                 D) averted
  2. E) directed

4-   Under the ……… of our agreement, we paid a fifty percent deposit and paid the remainder when the decorating was completed to our satisfaction.

  1. A) dispute B) items C) categories        D) terms
  2. E) penalties

5-   We bought a new music centre last weekend. It really makes use of the latest technology and it came with a two-year …….. .

  1. A) service B) promise C) quality           D) volume
  2. E) warranty

6-   I gave the flat a thorough clean today. I even took all Simon’s trophies from the cabinet and …….. them, and they really sparkled afterwards.

  1. A) faded B) polished C) broke D) swept
  2. E) mopped

 

7-   If a viewer misses a/an ……… of the soap opera ‘Eastenders’ during the week, they can catch up with the story on Sunday, when it is repeated.

  1. A) episode B) volume C) issue D) chapter
  2. E) action

8-   On the way to Alanya, we stopped at a small resort and, luckily, found very comfortable ………. for the night.

  1. A) accommodation B) parking
    C) scenery D) restoration
  2. E) hospitality

9-   The children sat on the carpet in a semicircle happily watching their …….. adventure series, while their mother sat on the sofa knitting.

  1. A) detestable B) moderate C) agreeable       D) favourite
  2. E) grateful

10- Kevin ……. and trained hard until he was accepted by the coach for the basketball team. After that, he played for the school in every match until the end of term.

  1. A) derived B) persevered C) featured           D) dismissed
  2. E) envied

11- Last week, Sarah fell and …….. her ankle. She turned it quite a bit and it hurt a lot.

  1. A) stepped B) twisted C) frowned        D) bandaged
  2. E) blew

12- Since the earthquake, the ……… of our apartment has dropped because the government designated the area as unsafe.

  1. A) profit B) value C) location           D) interest
  2. E) wage

13- Whenever we go to that restaurant, the children are ……… by the fish they have in a huge tank there. They watch them for ages.

  1. A) disappointed B) disgusted
    C) fascinated           D) appealed
  2. E) encouraged

14-I broke my glasses yesterday and had to stick them together with adhesive tape in order to be able to continue my work. Today I am taking them to the optician’s to have them ………. properly.

  1. A) ruined B) measured C) adjusted          D) mended
  2. E) polished

15- Samuel ………. that he could beat anyone at arm wrestling, but nobody wanted to challenge him to a contest.

  1. A) boasted B) advised C) feared D) objected
  2. E) taught

16- The estate agent ………. that a ground floor flat would he more practical for my grandmother.

  1. A) pointed out B) predicted C) gave up                   D) resolved
  2. E) threatened

17-  I suffered a loss of concentration during my presentation when two salesmen ………. something to each other.

  1. A) prepared B) added      C) whispered         D) wondered
  2. E) pretended

18- The children really enjoyed their trip to the fire station and the crew performed a demonstration which allowed the students ……… the fire engines and equipment in action.

  1. A) to conceal B) to fear                       C) to feel             D) to observe
  2. E) to assure

19- “You stupid idiot,” the other driver ………. at me when I overtook him rather dangerously.

  1. A) informed B) looked C) threw           D) yelled
  2. E) suspected

20- My brother ……… me to check the pressure in the tyre before driving all the way to New Jersey.

  1. A) remembered B) explained C) reminded        D) revealed
  2. E) indicated

21- We bought our apartment for 50,000 dollars but sold it for 45,000, so, unfortunately, we made a/an ……… of 5,000 dollars.

  1. A) injury B) penalty
    C) disadvantage D) profit
  2. E) loss

22- One of the engines was on fire and the weather was awful, but, miraculously, the pilot managed ………. the plane safely and all the passengers were rescued.

  1. A) to drop B) to service C) to land          D) to take off
  2. E) to harbour

23- The authorities …….. anyone to take alcohol into the sports stadium.

  1. A) deny B) forbid C) fear     D) stipulate
  2. E) allege

24- The doctor ………. my brother to eat less salt, sugar and starch as he has high blood pressure.

  1. A) advised B) criticised C) found out       D) pointed out
  2. E) demonstrated

25- Unfortunately, our sports therapist isn’t ……… at 2 p.m. Could you come around 4 p.m. instead?

  1. A) interested B) comfortable C) adaptable            D) available
  2. E) occupied

26- Thank you. I’ll gladly ………. your offer of a lift to work as it is awful to wait for a bus in this weather.

  1. A) reject B) request C) accept   D) expect
  2. E) receive

27- The …….. of his speech was quite interesting and quite promising, but the actual content of the body of it was disappointing.

  1. A) foreword B) entrance            C) introduction      D) admission
  2. E) starter

28- The conclusion of this research paper contains several deductions which will …….. heart specialists around the world.

  1. A) terminate B) benefit C) reduce          D) determine
  2. E) heal

29- Liam finds the swimming pool a fascinating place, but his mother won’t let him swim in the deep end because he is small. He has to stay in the …….. end, where he can stand up.

  1. A) high B) immense C) hollow   D) actual
  2. E) shallow

30- We had over fifty applicants for the post of Works Engineer, but a large …….. of them were under-qualified.

  1. A) scope B) balance C) measure           D) size
  2. E) proportion

31- I followed the recipe for the kebabs from a recipe book, but as my husband doesn’t like spicy food, I …….. the amount of hot chili pepper I added.

  1. A) chopped B) trimmed C) squeezed        D) reduced
  2. E) concentrated

32- The travel agent advised us …….. a hotel room in Edinburgh as we were going on a national holiday weekend.

  1. A) to book B) to engage
    C) to occupy          D) to programme
  2. E) to schedule

33- The government has …….. that 5,000 extra police officers will be employed during the conference that will host world-famous businessmen.

  1. A) wondered B) remembered C) announced      D) imagined
  2. E) yelled

34- The shop is closing down, and at the moment, they have a/an …….. in which everything is half price.

  1. A) exhibition B) sale      C) recovery           D) demonstration
  2. E) publicity

35- I’ve put on weight in the last few weeks and my jeans have become so ……… that I can hardly fasten them.

  1. A) close B) tight C) firm      D) narrow
  2. E) stingy

 

36- When Glen told his friends about his new job, they were all very …….. . They asked him questions about it for over an hour.

  1. A) obedient B) alarmed C) curious            D) decent
  2. E) colourful

37- They hadn’t been considering moving abroad, but the job in Canada was just too good a/an ……… to miss.

  1. A) opportunity B) occasion
    C) luck          D) charm
  2. E) master

38- Creative activities are very important to a child’s mental ……. .

  1. A) growth B) enlargement        C) status   D) development
  2. E) adaptation

39- He complained that he ……… to someone telling him how he should organise his workload when he was the most senior of the salesmen.

  1. A) threatened B) objected C) warned D) annoyed
  2. E) declared

40- In his speech, the headmaster emphasized that, for better learning, parents should provide their children with a/an ……… home environment.

  1. A) hectic B) massive
    C) supportive D) messy
  2. E) ashamed

 

GOOD LUCK

 

 

Exercise 1    (pg.5)

3.how we can help him with his financial problems 4.where I should hang my coat 5.where the meeting will be held 6.whose suggestion this was 7.which universities offer courses in public relations 8.how long this has been happening 9.who shot the security guard 10.who the security guard was shot by 11.When they will move into their new house 12.how she manages on her old-age pension 13.how much he would charge for decorating the house 14.what he was hoping to achieve by behaving like that 15.when he started this course of medication 16.where they put the posters 17.how shortsighted our manager is  18.which supermarket you buy your groceries from 19.what the difference between the cheap one and the expensive one is 20.how long it took you to knit this cardigan

Exercise (pg.6)

2.How much is your car worth?/…how much your car is worth 3.Which software packages do you need to learn?/…which software packages you need to learn 4.Who was Diana’s dress designed by?/…who Diana’s dress was designed by 5.Why has Mr Casserley gone to Leicester?/…why Mr Casserley has gone to Leicester 6.What time does the match start?/…what time the match starts 7.How much extra does fitting the carpet cost?/…how much extra fitting the carpet costs 8.How much weight have I lost since I started jogging in the mornings?/…how much weight I have lost since I started jogging in the mornings 9.How did you find out my telephone number?/…how you found out my telephone number 10.Who was ‘Madame Bovery’ written by?/…who ‘Madame Bovery’ was written by 11.How much has been given to the Colombian government to help the fight against the drug dealers?/…how much has been given to the Colombian government to help the fight against the drug dealers 12.Which hospital are you having your operation at?/…which hospital you are having your operation at 13.What are the children going to do after the picnic?/…what the children are going to do after the picnic 14.Where are Joan and Eric going for their holiday?/…where Joan and Eric are going for their holiday 15.Why didn’t she tell Sam about the party?/…why she didn’t tell Sam about the party  16.How old are the ruins?/…how old the ruins are 17.Where can you buy telephone cards?/…where you can buy telephone cards 18.Which school are they going to send their son to?/…which school they are going to send their son to 19.Who did you meet at the head office?/…who you met at the head office 20.How was a disaster in Ethiopia averted?/…how a disaster in Ethiopia was averted

Exercise (pg.9)

1.whether he is enjoying his new job 2.whether I could pay you on Friday 3.whether she still works at the University of Technology 4.whether she has accepted the job yet 5.whether they agreed to our terms 6.whether we should inform the police 7.whether she works in the same department as Kate 8.whether the shop can deliver the sofa by Friday 9.whether the windows have been cleaned this week already 10.Whether they are going to repair the television under the guarantee

Exercise 4    (pg.9)

1.where we are meeting before the match 2.whether he was disappointed about losing the race 3.what they were doing in the warehouse 4.who Veronica married  5.which resort in Turkey the travel agent recommended 6.whether the butler has polished the silver yet 7.How much money Richard has made with his new business 8.whether he did it on purpose 9.why the shop is closed at such an early hour 10.whether the heroin’s deception will be discovered

Exercise 5    (pg.21)

1.whenever 2.However 3.Whoever 4.whichever 5.Whomever (Whoever)  6.Whatever 7.wherever 8.whichever 9.whatever 10.However

Exercise 6    (pg.34)

l…she was fascinated and she had never seen such a well-preserved Roman ruin 2…their defence won’t be strong enough for them to win tomorrow 3…he would mend my bicycle the moment he had some free time 4…he could run ten miles easily 5…the incident hasn’t been reported properly by the newspapers 6…she had left Turkey two years before 7…Mum might not have roasted the chicken long enough 8…she doesn’t think they’ll serve us a decent breakfast at this hotel tomorrow morning 9…he had been working there for ten years and knew the best way to do the end of month balance  10…we should drink some water during exercise 11…her grandfather didn’t seem to be aware of what was going on around him  12.she wanted to see the manager immediately  13…she had paid a fortune for that blouse and it had faded after just one wash  14…she expected to get a complete refund for that 15…they couldn’t give her a refund, but she could exchange it with another item in the shop

Exercise 7    (pg.35)

1.whether she had enjoyed the concert the night before 2.whether you are experiencing any pain 3.when the final would be played   4.whether he/she could keep it until the next day for me 5.when I had to hand the essay in by 6.who was responsible for organising the meeting 7.how many ‘Pokemon’ cards I had collected 8.why his wife had abandoned him 9.whether he had heard about the murder  10.when I had defrosted the freezer last  11.how much the entrance fee to the zoo was  12.how much longer they were going to produce cars at a loss  13.whether I could take her to the hospital the following Tuesday 14.whether the conditions on the slopes had been good that day  15.which terminal he was landing at 16.whether she had typed the proposal that he needed to take with him the following day 17.whether I was aware that many shops accepted dollars in Istanbul  18.what my husband had just said  19.which charities are helping with the relief effort 20.whether someone could tell him what was going on there

Exercise 8    (pg.37)

l.to eat the chocolates as they were for our guests 2.not to expect drivers to stop at pedestrian crossings in Rome  3.not to give the dog sweets 4.not to touch the furniture with her sticky fingers  5.not to look up lots of words, but to try to guess the meaning from the context 6.to let her do the washing up for her 7.to roll my sleeve up 8.to make sure we always had change in the cash register 9.to empty the contents into a cup, (to) add water and (to) stir well  10.not to jump into the pool  11.to call the doctor if she was worried about her  12.to keep my wrist loose all the time and not to get tense  13.to put all our litter in the bins  14.to tell him when the picture was straight 15.to swim in the river

Exercise 9   (pg.39)

1.asked/whether I could post that letter as he wanted her to receive it by the weekend 2.instructed/not to walk about after dark because it was dangerous around the city 3.asked/what he thought the problem with the car was and whether it needed a service 4.said he couldn’t understand how to insert a graph into his file and asked whether I could explain how to do it 5.said ‘Erin Brockovich’ sounded like a good film and asked me which cinemas it was showing at 6.informed/that this course would only cover the basic procedures of ‘Microsoft Word’, but more advanced training was available 7.warned/not to go out with my hair wet, or else I would catch pneumonia 8.urged/to buy that expensive perfume because she had been working very had lately and she deserved it 9.told/that he didn’t have enough cash with him and asked him whether he (they) accepted credit cards  10.instructed/to tidy his room because she couldn’t even see the floor

Exercise 10    (pg.42)

  1. so does 2.neither is 3.couldn’t either 4.is too 5.so does 6.won’t either 7.neither has 8.does too 9.so should 10.so might 11.neither must 12.so did 13.wouldn’t either 14.neither had 15.neither could 16.can too  17.hasn’t either  18.so did 19.so was  20.neither would

Exercise 11    (pg.45)

3.I expect so 4.I suppose so 5.I hope not 6.It appears so 7.I believe so 8.I’m afraid so 9.It seems so 10.It

doesn’t appear so 11.It appears so 12.I don’t expect so 13.I’m afraid not 14.I suppose so 15.It seems so

Exercise 12    (pg.47)

1.doesn’t it 2.haven’t you 3.did they 4.mustn’t it 5.can’t you 6.don’t you 7.does she 8.wouldn’t you 9.was it 10.didn’t there 11.do they 12.will you 13.should they 14.can they 15.don’t they 16.did we 17.isn’t it 18.have they 19.will they 20.shall we

TEST YOURSELF   1

1.E 2.C 3.B 4.D 5.D 6.A 7.E 8.C 9.A 10.D
11.B

 

12.B

 

13.D

 

14.E

 

15.E

 

16.C

 

17.A

 

18.B

 

19. A

 

20. D

 

21. C

 

22.C

 

23.E

 

24.D

 

25.C

 

26.B

 

27.A

 

28.C

 

29.E

 

30.A

 

31.E

 

32.A

 

33.A

 

34.B

 

35.C

 

36.E

 

37.D

 

38.B

 

39.C

 

40.D

 

41.D

 

42.E

 

43.C

 

44.B

 

45.B

 

46.A

 

47.D

 

48.D

 

49.C

 

50.B

 

51.A

 

52.B

 

53.C

 

54.E

 

55.A

 

56.D

 

57.E

 

58.A

 

59.B

 

60.C

 

61.D

 

62.C

 

63.A

 

64.B

 

65.E

 

66.B

 

67. C

 

68.E

 

69.A

 

70.E

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TEST YOURSELF 2

l.B

 

2.C

 

3.D

 

4.D

 

 5.B

 

6.E

 

7.C

 

8.C

 

9.B

 

10.C

 

11.C

 

12.B

 

13.A

 

14.E

 

15.D

 

16.E

 

17.E

 

18.C

 

19.D

 

20.A

 

21.D

 

22.C

 

23.A

 

24.A

 

25.B

 

26.C

 

27.E

 

28.D

 

29.D

 

30.B

 

31.E

 

32.B

 

33.C

 

34.D

 

35.A

 

36.A

 

37.B

 

38.C

 

39.A

 

40.A

 

41.A

 

42.E

 

43.B

 

44.C

 

45.D

 

46.E

 

47.C

 

48.A

 

49.B

 

5O.D

 

51. C

 

52.A

 

53 .A

 

54.B

 

55.D

 

56.B

 

57.C

 

58.C

 

59.E

 

60.B

 

61.E

 

62.C

 

63.B

 

64.C

 

65.C

 

66.D

 

67.D

 

68.A

 

69.C

 

70.B

 

71.E

 

72.E

 

73.D

 

74.C

 

75.A

 

76.B

 

77.E

 

78.D

 

79.B

 

80.A

 

 

TEST YOUR VOCABULARY

1.A

11.B 21.E 31.D

 

2.C

12.B 22.C 32.A

 

3-D

13.C 23.B 33.C

 

4.D

14.D 24.A 34.B

 

5.E

15.A 25.D 35.B

 

6.B

16.A 26.C 36.C

 

7.A

17.C 27.C 37.A

 

8.A

18.D 28.B 38.D

 

9.D

19.D 29.E 39.B

 

10.B 20.C 30.E 40.C

 

ANSWER KEY to EXAMPLES FROM ÖYS/YDS

l-C    2-E  3-D    4-D  5-B  6-A     7-A     8-E     9-A  10-A  11-C   12-A  13-A  14-B    15-D 16-C 17-E   18-E   19-E    20-C  21-A 22-B  23-D  24-A 25-E  26-C  27-B  28-D  29-C  30-E  31-C 32-C  33-A

 

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